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Personal identity


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Forensic Medicine

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Personal identity

  1. 1. Personal Identity Dr M. HAMMAD
  2. 2. Personal Identity • It means establishment of individuality of a person. • In medico-legal cases identification is very important in living as well as in dead. • May be 1) Complete identity 2) Incomplete or partial identity
  3. 3. Complete Identity •Absolute fixation of individuality of a person. •When the person is known by his name with complete address it is known as complete identity.
  4. 4. Incomplete identity • In certain circumstances only other details like age, sex etc can be established that is called partial identification.
  5. 5. Medicolegal aspects In living , in civil courts, identification is required in cases: • Marriage • Disputed sex • Inheritance • Insurance • pension • any crime , such as murder, rape, assault
  6. 6. Medicolegal aspects In dead, identification is required: 1. In cases of fire, explosion and accidents. 2. When an unknown dead body is found. 3. In cases of decomposed bodies, fragmented bodies, mutilated body or skeletal remains.
  7. 7. Corpus Delicti • Means body of offence or body of crime. • In case of homicide, it includes: 1) Positive identification of dead body 2) Proof of its death by the criminal act of the accused.
  8. 8. • National Identity card ( N.I.C.) • Facial photograph • Identity mark like mole and scar. • Signature • Thumb impression • Address.
  9. 9. • When identity card not available • Difficulty arises in cases of : Victim of traffic accident Lost memory patient Wanted criminals Absconding soldiers Mixed up babies in maternity ward Cases of impersonation.
  10. 10. Methods of determination of personal identity • Three methods 1)Third party method 2)Subjective method 3)Objective method
  11. 11. Third party method • Most commonly used. • Two principal parties : An examiner & examinee • Relative or friend --- third party • Name ,N I.C no. of examinee. • Relationship with examinee.
  12. 12. Subjective method • When third party is not available--- morphological data of examinee collected.
  13. 13. Subjective method Morphological data collected from: 1. Physical characters of body, ( like facial features) 2. Belongings of examinee
  14. 14. Subjective method At the time of Medicolegal examination clues or characters recorded in fullest detail. • Personal identity data can be classified as : 1) Anatomical data. 2) Physiological data 3) Pathological data/parameters 4) Genetic data
  15. 15. Anatomical parameters. • Primary data : which present at the time of birth. • Secondary data; which develop and appear subsequently at various stages of life. Like secondary sex characters and degenerative changes.
  16. 16. • Physiological parameters are gait, voice, tone and manner of speech. • Pathological parameters are about diseases like eczema, scars or calcified fibroid. • Genetics parameters like blood groups, barr bodies.
  17. 17. Objective Method • Utilization of morphological data and belongings data • Useful in cases of decomposed and mutilated remains • Remains are sorted to separate Biological and Non-biological materials • Non biological materials • Biological stains or traces
  18. 18. • Biological group includes body fluids and tissue. Like hair, nails, blood, saliva, semen, CSF, urine, vomit, excreta. • Non biological group includes; • Clothes, wristwatch, purse • Leaves, grass, • Bottles, tablets, bullets, pellets etc.
  19. 19. Parameters of Identification 1. Age 2. Sex 3. Race 4. Anthropometry (Bertillon’s System) 5. Identity marks a. Congenital b. Acquired 6. Dental Data 7. Hair and eyes 8. Dactylography 9. Blood components
  20. 20. 10. Diseases 11. Possessions 12. Photographs
  21. 21. • Medicolegal dictum At least two important marks of identification must be noted  Where no distinct mark is available , left thumb impression may be taken
  22. 22. E. Locard introduced the concept of use of the trace evidence as means of personal identity. • Locard`s exchange principal states that: • Every contact leaves a trace • Exchange of trace is a two way process.
  23. 23. Trace evidence is material left on the scene or body of a victim or assailant, which subsequently helps in identification of the source from where it has originated. • Like biological and non biological group.