• It means establishment of
individuality of a person.
• In medico-legal cases identification is
very important in living as well as in
• May be
1) Complete identity
2) Incomplete or partial identity
•Absolute fixation of individuality of a person.
•When the person is known by his name
with complete address it is known as
• In certain circumstances only other
details like age, sex etc can be
established that is called partial
In living , in civil courts, identification is
required in cases:
• Disputed sex
• any crime , such as murder, rape,
In dead, identification is required:
1. In cases of fire, explosion and accidents.
2. When an unknown dead body is found.
3. In cases of decomposed bodies,
fragmented bodies, mutilated body or
• Means body of offence or body of
• In case of homicide, it includes:
1) Positive identification of dead body
2) Proof of its death by the criminal act of
• National Identity card ( N.I.C.)
• Facial photograph
• Identity mark like mole and scar.
• Thumb impression
• When identity card not available
• Difficulty arises in cases of :
Victim of traffic accident
Lost memory patient
Mixed up babies in maternity ward
Cases of impersonation.
Methods of determination of
• Three methods
1)Third party method
Third party method
• Most commonly used.
• Two principal parties : An examiner &
• Relative or friend --- third party
• Name ,N I.C no. of examinee.
• Relationship with examinee.
• When third party is not available---
morphological data of examinee collected.
Morphological data collected from:
1. Physical characters of body,
( like facial features)
2. Belongings of examinee
At the time of Medicolegal examination
clues or characters recorded in fullest detail.
• Personal identity data can be classified as :
1) Anatomical data.
2) Physiological data
3) Pathological data/parameters
4) Genetic data
• Primary data : which present at the time
• Secondary data; which develop and
appear subsequently at various stages of
life. Like secondary sex characters and
• Physiological parameters are gait,
voice, tone and manner of speech.
• Pathological parameters are about
diseases like eczema, scars or calcified
• Genetics parameters like blood groups,
• Utilization of morphological data and
• Useful in cases of decomposed and
• Remains are sorted to separate Biological
and Non-biological materials
• Non biological materials
• Biological stains or traces
• Biological group includes body fluids and
tissue. Like hair, nails, blood, saliva,
semen, CSF, urine, vomit, excreta.
• Non biological group includes;
• Clothes, wristwatch, purse
• Leaves, grass,
• Bottles, tablets, bullets, pellets etc.
Parameters of Identification
4. Anthropometry (Bertillon’s System)
5. Identity marks
6. Dental Data
7. Hair and eyes
9. Blood components
• Medicolegal dictum
At least two important marks of
identification must be noted
Where no distinct mark is available , left
thumb impression may be taken
E. Locard introduced the concept of
use of the trace evidence as means
of personal identity.
• Locard`s exchange principal states that:
• Every contact leaves a trace
• Exchange of trace is a two way process.
is material left on the scene or body
of a victim or assailant, which
subsequently helps in identification
of the source from where it has
• Like biological and non biological group.