METHODS OF TRAINING:The most widely used methods of training used by organizations are classified intotwo categories: On-the-Job Training & Off-the-Job Training.ON-THE-JOB TRAINING is given at the work place by superior in relatively shortperiod of time. This type of training is cheaper & less time-consuming. This trainingcan be imparted by basically four methods: -Coaching is learning by doing. In this, the superior guides his sub-ordinates &gives him/her job instructions. The superior points out the mistakes & givessuggestions for improvement.Job Rotation: - In this method, the trainees move from one job to another, so thathe/she should be able to perform all types of jobs. E.g. In banking industry,employees are trained for both back-end & front-end jobs. In case of emergency,(absenteeism or resignation), any employee would be able to perform any type ofjob.OFF THE JOB TRAINING: - is given outside the actual work place.Lectures/Conferences:- This approach is well adapted to convey specificinformation, rules, procedures or methods. This method is useful, where theinformation is to be shared among a large number of trainees. The cost per traineeis low in this method.Films: - can provide information & explicitly demonstrate skills that are not easilypresented by other techniques. Motion pictures are often used in conjunction withConference, discussions to clarify & amplify those points that the film emphasized.Simulation Exercise: - Any training activity that explicitly places the trainee in anartificial environment that closely mirrors actual working conditions can beconsidered a Simulation. Simulation activities include case experiences, experientialexercises, vestibule training, management games & role-play.Cases: - present an in depth description of a particular problem an employee mightencounter on the job. The employee attempts to find and analyze the problem,evaluate alternative courses of action & decide what course of action would be mostsatisfactory.Experiential Exercises: - are usually short, structured learning experiences whereindividuals learn by doing. For instance, rather than talking about inter-personal
conflicts & how to deal with them, an experiential exercise could be used to createa conflict situation where employees have to experience a conflict personally & workout its solutions.Vestibule Training: - Employees learn their jobs on the equipment they will beusing, but the training is conducted away from the actual work floor. Whileexpensive, Vestibule training allows employees to get a full feel for doing taskwithout real world pressures. Additionally, it minimizes the problem of transferringlearning to the job.Role Play: - Its just like acting out a given role as in a stage play. In this methodof training, the trainees are required to enact defined roles on the basis of oral orwritten description of a particular situation.Management Games: - The game is devised on a model of a business situation.The trainees are divided into groups who represent the management of competingcompanies. They make decisions just like these are made in real-life situations.Decisions made by the groups are evaluated & the likely implications of thedecisions are fed back to the groups. The game goes on in several rounds to takethe time dimension into account.In-Basket Exercise: - Also known as In-tray method of training. The trainee ispresented with a pack of papers & files in a tray containing administrative problems& is asked to take decisions on these problems & are asked to take decisions onthese within a stipulated time. The decisions taken by the trainees are comparedwith one another. The trainees are provided feedback on their performance.
Importance of trainingImportance Of Training and Development• Development of skills of employees – Training and Development helps in increasing the jobknowledge and skills of employees at each level. It helps to expand the horizons ofhuman intellect and an overall personality of the employees.• Productivity – Training and Development helps in increasing the productivity of the employees thathelps the organization further to achieve its long-term goal.• Team spirit – Training and Development helps in inculcating the sense of team work, team spirit, andinter-team collaborations. It helps in inculcating the zeal to learn within the employees.• Organization Culture – Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizationalhealth culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.• Organization Climate – Training and Development helps building the positive perception and feelingabout the organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates, and peers..• Quality – Training and Development helps in improving upon the quality of work and work-life.• Healthy work-environment – Training and Development helps in creating the healthy workingenvironment. It helps to build good employee, relationship so that individual goals aligns withorganizational goal.• Health and Safety – Training and Development helps in improving the health and safety of theorganization thus preventing obsolescence.• Morale – Training and Development helps in improving the morale of the work force.• Image – Training and Development helps in creating a better corporate image.• Profitability – Training and Development leads to improved profitability and more positive attitudestowards profit orientation.• Training and Development aids in organizational development i.e. Organization gets moreeffective decision making and problem solving. It helps in understanding and carrying outorganisational policies• Training and Development helps in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, betterattitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display