OutlineForming passive sentences; Using passive sentencesConstraints on forming passive sentencesPassive look-AlikesGet passives; Get passive look-AlikesOther type of passive sentencesProblems that ESL/EFL students have with passivesentencesExerciseActivity
FORMING PASSIVE SENTENCESThe performance shocked the audience.The audience was shocked by the performance. Passive sentences are formed from active sentences by:1) Moving the subject to the end of the sentence andplacing by before it.2)Moving the object into subject position.3)Changing the main verb to a past participle andinserting an appropriate form of be before it.
Sentences with verbs in any tense can be made passive.•If the verb in the active sentence is in the simplepresent or simple past, so is the form of be thatprecedes the past participle of the main verb .a. The dean fired our professor.b. Our professor was fired by the dean
•If the verb in the active sentence is in the progressiveaspect, then being is inserted between theprogressive form of be and the past participle of themain verb . The dean is firing our professor. Our professor is being fired by the dean. The dean was firing our professor. Our professor was being fired by the dean
•If the verb in the active sentence is in the perfectaspect, then been is inserted between the form ofhave and the past participle of the main verb The dean has fired our professor. Our professor has been fired by thedean, The dean had fired our professor. Our professor had been fired by thedean,
Perfect progressives, although rare in passivesentences, include being before the pastparticiple(e.g., active has/had been firing becomes passivehas/had been being fired).
•If the active sentence contains a modal followed by abare infinitive verb, then in the passive sentence themodal is followed by the bare infinitive form of be, The dean should fire our professor. Our professor should be fired by thedean, The dean will fire our professor. Our professor will be fired by thedean.
Passive SubjectsSubjects of passive sentences in the correspondingactive sentences may be:direct objects:The professor was dismissed by the dean.
indirect objectsMohamed was given many presents by his friends.objects of prepositionsThis bed has been slept in by presidents.object complementsThat rachid could not possibly win was recognized byeveryone.
Two Types of Passive SentencesPassives Without Agent By PhrasesReasons why a native speaker may decide to use shortpassives in speech and writing include the following:the agent is unknown. His wallet was stolen in Inzegan.the speaker does not want to reveal the agent. I was given some top-secret information.
the agent is understood. The mail was delivered to my doorstep.the writer is interested more in the action beingreported than in the agent. The subjects were each given a pencil and asheet of paper.
Passives with Agent By PhrasesLong passives have an agent by phrase. This book was written by Ron Cowan. This package was dropped off by a strange-lookingwoman.
The agent phrase is included when the agent isimportant new information, such as when the agent isa famous person or has caused harm or annoyance tothe subject. That search engine was developed by a young collegestudent. This old soccer ball is signed by the great Brazilian playerPele. I was kept up all night by my screaming neighbors.
USING PASSIVE SENTENCESPassive sentences may be used to comply with:The Given-New Contractthe given-new contract, according to which oldinformation comes before new information. For dessert I had a piece of a wonderfully delicious cake.It was made by the new pastry chef.
The Principle of End Weight:the end weight principle, according to which long,complex NPs are moved to the end of the sentence. I was approached by a man wearing dark glasses, awide-brimmed hat, and a black scarf
CONSTRAINTS ON FORMING PASSIVESENTENCES( you read Mr Akhrraz)Passive sentences cannot be formed if the activesentence verb is not followed by an NP, PP, orcomplement clause.In addition, passive sentences are not usually possiblewith:
Stative Verbsstative verbs that are not seen as affecting the object(e.g., contain, cost, equal, resemble. weigh).John resembles his father.*His father is resembled by John PASSIVE
Multiword Verbsseparable transitive phrasal verbs( it’s your turn Miss Nadia)Active sentences that contain separable transitivephrasal verbs can usually be converted into passivesentences.At the meeting, someone brought up the matter of themissing $20.At the meeting, the matter of the missing $20 was broughtup.
inseparable transitive phrasal verbs( Could you read me please Mr. AKKLOUCH)Most members of the small class of inseparabletransitive phrasal verbs can appear only in activesentences.Possible exceptions are look after ("carefor"), look into ("investigate"), and pick on("mistreat"). In the course of the investigation, he came across anincriminating letter. *In the course of the investigation, an incriminatingletter was come across (by him).
permanently separated transitive phrasal verbs(It’s your slide Miss Soumia)Some permanently separated transitive phrasal verbs- for example, ask (some-one) out, let (someone) off -can appear in passive sentences. However, others - forexample, get (someone) down, see (something)through - do not passivize well. The criticism and complaints are getting him down. *He is being gotten down by the criticism and complaints.
prepositional verbs(here it is Mr. Mezgar)Most prepositional verbs can appear in passivesentences; however, a few cannot or do not soundvery good. These verbs include abide by, adjust to,agree with, bank on, and run for. Last fall, John ran for the office of mayor. *Last fall, the office of mayor was run for by John. even family members couldn’t adjust to his weird habits. ? His weird habits couldn’t be adjusted to even by familymembers
phrasal prepositional verbs321(Go on Miss Naima)A few phrasal prepositional verbs such as lookforward to can appear in passive sentences, butothers, such as break up with, cut down on, end upwith, get along with, get down to, and put up with….etc, cannot. Everyone got along with him. *He was gotten along with by everyone.
For Dative Verbs( it’s yours Mr. Driwch)active sentences in the dative movement pattern can bepassivized, with the indirect object becoming thepassive subject. Active sentences in the prepositionalpattern can, of course, also be passivized, with thedircct object becoming the passive subject. The old woman gave (a piece of candy] to [the littlegirl] prepositional pattern The old woman gave (the little girl] [a piece ofcandy] dative movement pattern
A piece of candy was given to the little girl by the oldwoman The little girl was given a piece of candy by the oldwoman.( please go ahead and read Miss Meriem)However, when the verb is a for dative verb (e.g.,bake, catch, find), speakers of American Englishjudge as grammatical only passives converted fromactive sentences in the prepositional pattern.
Thus, in American English an attempt to convertthe dative movement pattern sentence to a passiveresults in an ungrammatical sentence . They found her a nice apartment. *She was found a nice apartment by them.This constraint on sentences with for dative verbs causesdifficulties for English learners. Students are often unable torecognize sentences like this as ungrammatical.
PASSIVE LOOK-ALIKES( Just relax it’s me this time)The sequence be + past participle does not alwayssignal the passive voice. Some past participles areadjectives.Guelmim is located in the south of MoroccoThe shop is closed at five o’clock.
exercisecan be passivized. IfIndicate whether each sentenceit can, write the passive version. If it cannot, expailnwhy.Example: He found her a nice apartment.Answer: no (Active sentences in the dativemovement pattern with a for dative verb cannot bepassivized.)1. Susan baked Fred a big chocolate.2. The compay offered a huge salary bonus to the workeres.3. The producer sent her a telegram4. That new suit cost a lot of money5. She made me a sandwish6. He came down with a bad cold
Answer Key1. No(it has the for dative verb bake in the dative movement pattern.)2. Yes(A huge salary bonus was offered to the workers by the company.)3. Yes(She was sent a telegram by the producer.)4. No(It contains stative verb cost.)5. No(It has the for dative verb make in the dative movement pattern.)6. No(It contains a phrasal prepositional verb, come down with.)
GET PASSIVES; GET PASSIVE LOOK-ALIKESGet Passives( YOU Mr. Ait Madani)Get passives are formed with the appropriate form ofget followed by a past participle. They are moreinformal than be passive sentences and are frequently,although not necessarily, used to talk about eventsthat affect the subject in an adverse way.
Khadija got attacked by a vicious dog. The professor got fired by the dean last week.Get passives usually do not occur with stative verbs ofcognition. *The solution to the problem got known by everyone. *The question got understood by no one.
Get Passive Look-Alikes(You read Miss. Ahlam)In get passive look-alikes, past participles that areadjectives follow get. Get in these sentences has themeaning "become." The sentences are not getpassives. He gets confused easily. ( = He becomes confusedeasily.) Redone got stuck in the elevator. ( = Redone becamestuck in the elevator.) Its getting chilly. (= Its becoming chilIy.)
Idiomatic Expressions with Get( yes ! Abolahassan)Idiomatic expressions with get such as theintransitive phrasals get up, get down, and get goingare not get passives. He got up at six oclock. She got hungry, so she made herself a sandwich.
OTHER TYPES OF PASSIVE SENTENCESPassives in Complements Following Get and Have( Mr. zakaria this slide is yours)The verbs get and have can be followed by a complement. Insuch sentences, get and have have a causative meaning; thatis, the sentence subject is understood as causing the action inthe complement. Rkiya got her nails done. Mbark had the house painted.
Happenstance passives( Mr. Takky eddin)Happenstance passives describe unfortunate eventsthat the subject of the sentence did not intentionallycause.FORM: got/had+NP+ past participle I had my wallet stolen in Inzegan. (= My wallet was stolen in Inzegan.) Mohamed got his car towed away last night. (= Mohameds car wastowed away last night.)
Concealed passives( Miss. Sophia)Concealed passives occur with need, require andwant, especially in British English. They are nottrue passives but have the same meaning aspassives. This essay needs careful checking by the editor. (= This essay needs to be carefully checked by theeditor.)
Pseudo-passive constructions (Chinese)the so-called pseudo-passive do not have the verb be or thepast participle form of the main verb.Example: 这些 放啊 可以 分 两 种 Zhexie fanga keyi fen liang zhong * these ways can classify into two types
Ungrammatical passives with ergative verbs(Korean)Korean speakers frequentely produce passivesentences containing ergative verbs, although theseare ungrammatical in EnglishExample: 그것은 대부분의 여성이 극심한 빈곤으로고통하는 바보 같은 짓이에요 *It is ridiculous that most women in developingcountries are suffered from extreme poverty
The following sentence can have two patterns inthe passive version:People say that mobile phones are harmful to children’s health
Mobile phones are said to be harmful to children’s healthIt is said that mobile phones are harmful to children’s health
passive sentences frequently occur in news reports andin academic writing.Rewrite the following paragraph so that it containspassive sentences ( second pattern). For some time scientists have known that exercise is good for the body.Until recently, researchers believed that the main benefit of exercise toolder people was maintaining body strength and endurance. However,recently, a number of studies have shown that exercise even benefits themental health of the aging. In one study,researchers found that regularexercise can make the brain younger. In a recent study at the universityof Illinois, investigators discovered that regular exercise by older peopleproduced brain patterns typically found in 20-year-olds. Now thequestion seems to be « what kinds of exercise produce the greatestcognitive for old people? »
The answerFor some time it has been known that exercise is good for the body.Until recently, it was believed that the main benefit of exercise toolder people was maintaining body strength and endurance. Butrecently it has been shown that exercise even benefits the mentalhealth of the aging. In one study, it was found that regular exercisecan make the brain younger. In a recent study at the university ofIllinois, it was discovered that regular exercise by older peopleproduced brain patterns typically found in 20-year-olds. Now thequestion seems to be « what kinds of exercise produce the greatestcognitive for old people? »