Overview of classroom management chapters


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Overview of classroom management chapters

  1. 1. CHAPTER 1 learners
  2. 2. OUTLINEReasons for LearningDifferent contexts for learningLearner differencesThe importance of student motivationResponsibility for learning
  3. 3. Reasons for Learning• Living in a target language community• ESP• Improve English generally different contexts for learning• EFL/ESL: English for speakers of other languages• School and language schools• Large classes and one-to-one teaching• In school and in company• Real and virtual learning environment
  4. 4. Learner differences• Age: Children/Adults• Learning styles: the way you like to learn (M.intel) Diversify activities• Levels: beginners, intermediate and advanced• Ed and cultural background: learning by rote or learning by doing: T need to be sensitive of different backgrounds. Offer different material, topics and teaching techniques to suit different individual expectations and tastes.
  5. 5. The importance of student motivation• Extrinsic motivation: the motivation that Ss bring into the classroom from outside the classroom.• Intrinsic motivation: motivation from what happened inside the class such as T’s method, activities, Ss perception of their success or failure.• T’s main aim is to sustain Ss motivation: activities we ask Ss to take part in, excite Ss curiosity and provoke their participation, help them to be interested in the subject, select appropriate level of challenge, be professional, Ss may have some decision making power.Real motivation comes from within each individual, from the Ss themselves.
  6. 6. Responsibility for learning• Encourage Ss to take more responsibility of their own learning• Instead of imposing learner’s autonomy, we need to gradually extend the Ss role in learning( make their own dialogues, investigate a grammar issue, puzzles, use dictionary), self access center, CD,DVD resources to continue studying outside the class …
  7. 7. CHAPTER 2 Teachers
  8. 8. OUTLINEIntroductionI. Who teachers are in classII. RapportIII. Teacher tasksIV. Teacher skillsV. Teacher knowledgeVI. Art or science?
  9. 9. IntroductionGood teachers: are born and not made! (they have a nuturalaffinity for the job) those who do not have this natural gift learntheir craft by mixingpersonality, intelegence, knowledge and
  10. 10. Who teachers are in class1. PersonalityEffective teacher personality is a blend betweenwho we really are (natural personality) , and who we are as teachers. Teachers have to show a professional face.2. Adaptability What makes one teacher out from another is how they react todifferent events in the classrom as the lesson proceeds. Unexpected events happen in lessons and part of a teacher’sskill is to decide what the response should be when they do. (noteverything goes as planned) T should react quickly and decisively before the escalation ofmisbehavior.
  11. 11. 3.Teacher rolesControlor prompter Assissor_ being the focus and doingevrything. _ encouraging Ss by pushing _Mottivating SS by grades or them to achieve success. whatever. The teacher-centeredapproach.  Ts have to be a resource for SS to consult whenever they need advice
  12. 12. Rapport it’s the relationship between teacher and SS. It is established when SS see T as a professional .1. Recognising SS• good T knows his SS’ names2. Listening to SS• Ts should make themselves as available as they can to respond to their SS’ needs. To maintain rapport, Ts should listen to comments from SS about the activities that make them interested or bored.
  13. 13. 1. Respecting SS•Ts should respect their SS by minimising criticalcomments (correcting SS) and praise as well.• Ts should not overreact (anger) when their SSmisbehave.2. Being even-handed• Ts should do their best to reach all SS of the group not just those raise their hands up. Ts should deal with their SS equally.
  14. 14. Teacher tasksAs professionals, teachers have to perform certaintasks:preparation Keeping record Being reliable • Knowledge of • A useful way for • Time keeping the subject looking back to and homework. (what & how). what has been • practise what • Planning. done. they preach. • Know what works and what • Are a model does not. for their SS. • To adjust testing practise.
  15. 15. Teacher skills Managing Matching tasks Variety destinationclasses and groups•Successful • SS levels and • vary activities • learningactivities. tasks. and lessons. outcomes and tangible results. • change SS•Prevent • enjoyable and roles andmisbehavior interesting groupings. activities.
  16. 16. Teacher knowledgeLanguage Materials & Classroom Keep up-to-system resources equipements date•Knowledge of • know about •computer,data • try new waysgrammar and books & -show, to do things.pronounciation. websites where screen…ets courses are •Never let• praise available. technologyquestions. drive you and •Attend • know how dominate you. conferences, coure books • know what seminars, work. your SS need to tvs….etc do and what materials they need to use.
  17. 17. Art or science ? • Teaching works when the relationship between SS & T isArt at its best. • Decision-making is often the result of teacher‟s feeling and judgement. • Understanding the language system.science • Find best way to explain. • keep abreast of changes in the field.
  18. 18. CHAPTER 3 Nurturing positive student behavior
  19. 19. What isdiscipline?
  20. 20. Is there any distinction?Control vs. Discipline
  21. 21. What are some possiblecharacteristics of the disciplined classroom?
  22. 22. Does knowing and using Ss‟ names a practical hints for teachers on classroom discipline?
  23. 23. The teacher should invest time and energy in building positiverelationship with students
  24. 24. Students are more attentive, motivated, and helpful when theyperceive the content to somehow relate to their life In this chapter, we are going to see how a teacher can motivateand help his students
  25. 25. Establishing rulesSome teachers prefer to set rules the first day of school Most effective teachers establish a few, positively stated rules its better for a teacher to establish his own set of rules based onhis needs and experienceDon‟t try to cover every possible unacceptable behavior
  26. 26. show students that you are very serious in establishing rules be flexible while dealing with latecomers, don‟t be late isdifferent from be on time it‟s good to be firm at the beginning and then you can relax
  27. 27. Tips for managing classroom behaviorTreat each student with degnity and respect in order to create apositive relationship with them react immediatelly and calmy to the infractions[ students testyou to determine the boundaries of acceptable behavior] refocus everyone‟s attention and get all students back on task
  28. 28. deliver interesting,fast paced, and orgnized learning experiences ,much students act out due to boredum be sure your rules and expectations are clear be cautious of touching Ss when they are angryselective hearing remain firm yet compassionate when you discuss a Ss‟misbehavior
  29. 29. Tips on using Positive reinforcement of good behaviorReinforcement based on the principles that the frequency of aresponse increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimilus A teacher‟s goal in using PR in the classroom is moving Ss upthe reward hierarchy from external motivation to internal control Reinforce Ss‟ behaviors, reward appropriate behavior; don‟tignore it « catch the Ss being good » use praise effectively, should be specific rather than general
  30. 30. Motivating the UnmotivatedIn every classroom, there are Ss who seem unmotivated tolearn, the challenge is to improve the dose of engaging them. individualize instructions allow Ss structured freedom. Offer options inassignments, tasks… link your content to your Ss‟ personal lives and intersets
  31. 31. What good listening is NotListening is not advice giving because the T is not an academicadviser. Even if the student asks for advice, giving it is notnecessarily the best thing to do. The chinese proverb « give me a fish and I eat for a day; teachme to fish and I eat forever »; Its more important to equip our Ss with skills needed to faceand solve life‟s challenges
  32. 32. CHAPTER 4Time management
  33. 33. Time management is not only important in improving students‟achievement; it is also an important element in preventingdiscipline problems.
  34. 34. Time you try to manage falls into two broad categories:•The daily time you spend before and after classes gettingready to teach and manage your Ss engaging inprofessional activities( planning lessons- grading homeworkand classroom papers- conferencing with SS, parents,teaching colleagues and administrators, professionaldevelopment.•Instructional time: the daily time you spend during classteaching, engaged in professional activities ( instructing thewhole class directly- instructing small group of SS directly,audio-visual instructional presentations- helping inattentiveor distracted students remain on task etc)•Instructional time is of three types :
  35. 35. Allocated time Engaged time Academic learning time-The amount of time that is -The amount of time SS spend -The amount of time the SS areallocated to teach the class. focused on the instructional engage in learning the objectives( how much time allocated to objectives. with success.teach a given concept or skill). ( time that is spent on activities ( ex: a SS might spend 20min inIt should take into other than focusing on the activities focused on the objectivesconsideration the prior objectives ex: distribution of but does not do so with successknowledge, interest, motivation materials, ss moving into Zero academic learningand the learning approach.( groups, discipline problems..) time .according to syllabus -level: -Increasing academic learningknow/don’t know) time requires that teachers remain-T have a professional active in monitoring SS’s progressobligation to teach the content (efficiency in managing T)they are assigned to teach . through:are ss given the appropriate -Maximizing the engaged timetime to learn certain skill -Minimizing the portion of timebefore moving to the content of that is lost on activities andthe syllabus. constantly monitoring SS. - The allocation of time based on the abilities and prior knowledge of SS;
  36. 36. Ways to increasing engaged time Establishing C.R Providing assistance Managing routine: to SS: transitions:-things that you do a lot -Monitoring SS work - the moment when youwith your SS. to make sure they are shift from one thing to doing it successfully another. by using the -give clear instructions to principle: SS, provide signals to Praise: encourage SS inform them of what they (don‟t exaggerate) should be doing , and keep Prompt: give clue things moving at a brisk Leave: very quickly pace( very quickly).
  37. 37. •The greatest sign of success for a T is to be able to say “thechildren are now working as if I did not exist” ( clearinstruction/SS are fully engaging/SS are autonomous in a positiveway / no spoon-feeding )
  38. 38. CHAPTER 5 Managing the classroom environment
  39. 39. In one of her daily routines, Mrs. Trimasse enters her classroomgreeting her SS and starts brainstorming about today‟s sessionwhich is about “managing the classroom environment”. Shedirects one of her questions to Ait Madani.T: what is classroom climate?Ait: after a few seconds of thinking, he says with confidence: it isthe collective perception by learners of what it feels like to be alearner in a particular educator‟s classroom such as TEFL & ICTmaster program.
  40. 40. Then Mrs. Trimasse turns to other SS asking if they agree or not. Infact, Mrs. Trimasse, as an effective educator, uses her knowledge,skills, and behavior to create learning environment that maximizesopportunities to learn, where TEFLers and ICTers are well managedand motivated to learn.
  41. 41. After Ait Madani‟s answer Akklouch comes with a comment in whichhe talks about the factors that influence the classroom climate. Hesays that “EMSIC” is an acronym that summarizes four factors: “E”for Ecology, “M” for Milieu, ”S” for social system, and “C” forculture. However, Zakaria does not agree with him and instead hedescribes the classroom by using a classification of classroomproperties (content), classroom processes (conduct), and classroomstructures (context). As soon as Zakaria finishes his talk, Akhrazzeintervenes by saying “what puzzles me is that I don‟t know theaspects that influence how learners feel in a class. Thensurprisingly, Mezgar comes with a beautiful answer. He says there are8 aspects; 1st Clarity about the outcomes of a lesson, 2nd Order withinthe class ( Ait MAdani next to Aklouch, and Elomari next to Jam3ati),3rd Standards of behavior ( Trimasse says make sure your mobiles areoff and never yawn in my class) 4th Fairness, 5th participation, 6thsupport, 7th safety, and the last is interesting, comfortable andattractive environment.
  42. 42. Commenting on what Mezgar said about features of a learningcommunity, a loud voice from the lift corner speaks about 3building stages for a positive classroom climate: 1st theestablishment phase during which the focus is preventive. Mrs.Trimasse, in this stage, aims at minimizing unnecessarydisruptions by having a balance of rights, responsibility, rules androutines. 2nd the consolidation phase in which Mrs. Trimassecontinues to teach, encourage and maintain what was establishedeven if some SS test these rules by being late. The third stage isthe cohesive phase. During this phase, cooperativelearning, classroom meetings are the norms.
  43. 43. After talking about these 3 stages for building a positive learningenvironment, Mrs. Trimasse asks us how about managing thephysical environment?
  44. 44. Then, again Aklouch raises his hand and says that whileorganizing the physical layout of the classroom, educator mustkeep in mind “VAFCA”. Then SS turn to each other asking aboutthis new word. Aklouch explains the word saying that „V‟ standsfor Visibility, „A‟ for Accessibility, „F‟ for Flexibility, „C‟ forComfort, and „A‟ for Aesthetics. Then, the class applauds andMrs. Trimasse says; yeah! Indeed, classroom space can play animportant role in creating an optimal learning environment.
  45. 45. At this point comes Omarakly with his usual criticism. He says: theproblem is (da) that of class size. Apart from disciplinaryaspects, large classes present a number of difficulties: Learnersare not sure of the purpose of instruction. They do not knowwhether they are progressing or not. They do not know how toimprove. They do not have the opportunity to read widely. Theteacher is unable to cope with the variety of Ls and their particularneeds. All this is about managing recourses for effective teaching.Mrs. Trimasse responds saying that a key aspect of managinglearning in large classes is often the production of appropriateresources. Therefore, your materials and media should beaccurate, readable, sufficient, interesting, varied, linked to theoutcomes and content of the lesson, and used constructively. Allthis, she says, should be tied to the age and the ability of theclass, time available, and the teaching strategy used.
  46. 46. While Mrs. Trimasse still talking, Zakaria Jamaati says: can Iintervene?Mrs. Trimasse: is it a question or a comment?Z: just a commentT: ok, go aheadZ: I just wanna tell you of a strategy that I learned in USA. It‟scalled “independence strategies” by which learners are motivatedto become independent learners.
  47. 47. N.Sellam interrupts him by saying: but how Si Zakaria? There someproblems resulting from large classes. For example, lack of purpose.Then Z.J. stops her and says Independence strategies suggest thatyou use learning outcomes.N.S: what about knowledge of progress?Z: you can use self-assessment.N.S: then, what about lack of opportunities for discussion?Z: you can rely on independent, learner-led discussion groups.N.S: but Ls are not always motivated!Z: you can resort to problem-based learningN.S: try to establish support mechanism, e.g. peer support groups
  48. 48. Ok, ok, ok says Mrs. Trimasse. That‟s ok for Managingresources for effective teaching. Let‟s now focus on establishingthe Socioemotional Environment. As far as weknow, educators are responsible for evaluating learners‟ workand for controlling the quality of life in the classroom. But, howcan we establish that environment?
  49. 49. Then, the answer comes from British accent. She says: by focusing on three mainpoints: 1st communication whether verbal, non-verbal or written. In fact, effectivecommunication skills form the foundation of effective classroom management.Therefore, we, as future educators, should listen carefully and effectively to ourSS, give clear messages including our feelings, give of ourselves, consider ourfeelings about the message that we have received, and finally consider ourresponses to the messages. The 2nd point in establishing socioemotionalenvironment is education-learner relationships. If you still remember! Mrs.Trimasse told us that, in order to facilitate engagement with learners, we shouldaccept our personal responsibility for learner‟s success and stop blaming others. Weshould take on an extended teacher role, even outside the classroom. We should bepersistent with our SS (just remember the poster session). We should express asense of optimism that all learners can learn (remember Mrs. Trimasse saying YaNadia, come on! You can do it). However, this relationship cannot be good if it hasno openness, caring, Interdependence, separateness, Mutual meeting of needs, allthis can be summarized in one word that is “OCISM”. So, creating goodeducator-learner relationships in room 57 would be by creating open, professionallyappropriate dialogue with TEFLers, systematically building better relationshipswith ICTers, communicating high expectations. And finally, by creatingopportunities for personal discussion: by letting Aklouch to tell his story with Lallamolati BismALLAH 3liha.
  50. 50. Before Ahlam coud reach the third point of establishing positivesocioemotional environment, Mrs. Trimasse stops her raising aquestion about the guidelines for avoiding the negative effects ofeducator expectations.Then Goali says: it is just a (ay) matter of:- using sensitive information on very carefully.-Being flexible in your use of group work strategies (not alwaysBAs in one group and experienced teacher in the other group)-Making sure all the learners are encouraged.- Monitoring your non-verbal behavior.
  51. 51. Suddenly, Omarakly says: as a conclusion to all that you said: Ithink that (da) the basis of a positive educator-learner relationshipand positive classroom climate is self-esteem and self concept.Self esteem is the value or esteem we place on our perceivedabilities, our bodies, our feelings and our social interactions. Theproblem is that (da) many people, and learners specifically,process a person‟s critical comments about himself or herself incritical ways. These critical messages are internalized(understood) as “I am a failure” rather than “I sometimes fail”.Therefore, Profs: Trimasse, Hassim, Tamer, Jennifer, and othersshould be aware of what they are communicating to learners(TEFLers), both verbally and non-verbally.
  52. 52. Resuming her talk, Ahlam says: the third and the last point inestablishing positive socioemotional environment is creatingpositive peer relationships. She says: peers play an important rolein determining the quality of the learning environment.Furthermore, Ahlam emphasizes the importance of positive peergroups for eliminating or preventing misbehavior in the classroom.Again Mrs. Trimasse stops her asking another question: how can wecreate the social conditions for effective learning in theclassroom?Then, here comes the answer from Souba3i. He says:Let your SS get to know you. Treat your SS with respect. Memorizetheir names and how to pronounce them (A9louch instead ofAklouch and Ait 7amou instead of Ait Hamou).Build a sense of community in the classroom (not BAs in one side,experienced in the other side, and the others in between. This is nolonger a community; it‟s an open gate to civil war, instead)
  53. 53. Here stands Elomari saying: but my classmates, the pressingquestion is how can we create classroom climate?Yes brother brahim! Says Takeddine. It is simply by creating alearning milieu in which the focus is on learning which means thatit is learning-oriented classroom rather that work-orientedclassroom where the focus is on production. The foundation oflearning-oriented classroom is a system of critical attitudes. Thefirst critical attitude is RESPECT for the learners. The second isCREDIBILTY; educators who are credible practice what theypreach.”LA TANHA 3AN KHOLO9IN WA TATI MITLAHO,3ARON 3ALAYKA IDA FA3ALTA 3ADIMO”. The third criticalattitude is educators who hold themselves and their learnersaccountable for learning that is taking place.
  54. 54. Omar continues saying it is also by motivating Ls because havingmotivated learners such as TEFLers in class will make the educator‟stask of managing the classroom easier ( except the case for ICT1where everyone indulges in surfing the net or chatting while the poorAfdel is still talking about Doodle. In fact, (LA HAYATA LIMANTUNADI).Adding to what Omar said, Aboulahassan argues that the lack ofdiscipline in public schools is seen as the most serious problemfacing schools today. Although disciplinary problems impact onschool as a whole, it is the classroom teacher who is the first line ofdefense (which means ALLAH IKON FL3WAN).Then Amal HAfidi stands to intervene. She says: I agree with youMustapha, but how can we address disciplinary problems?Before Mustapha could even respond, Mrs. Trimasse reproachesAmal and says Voice Projection, How many times shall I repeatthis?!
  55. 55. Mustapha then continues saying: It is merely by establishing Rulesand procedures. For example, Routines for accomplishing lessons,interaction between teacher and Ls (respect), and communicationbetween Ls (groups). Also, by developing a positive classroomdiscipline policy; this system usually consists of three parts: Rulesthat learners must follow + consequences of breaking rules +Rewards when they follow rules.This policy aims to establish a fair and consistent way ofpromoting good behavior and dealing with misbehavior. Moreover,says Mustapha, the participation of Ls in the establishment ofclassroom discipline policy is so crucial (even Mrs. Trimasse doesnot agree), there should be an agreement with Ls, and theformulation of the policy should be through the use of the firstperson i.e. “we” and “our”.
  56. 56. Ok Mustapha! Says AmalBut these Rules should be few in number and linked to the schoolrules, stated positively, be teachable and enforceable, frequently readthrough and referred to.That‟s true nodded Mustapha!After that, youness intervenes by saying: for managing learnerbehavior, I have a solution, we can just make a connection betweenthe management functions which are 3c‟s: Content, Conduct, andContext and the level of control, where the level of control variesfrom preventive and supportive to corrective. If the learner‟sbehavior, says youness, is desirable, the educator will focus onprevention. If minor disruptions occur, the educator may selectredirection. When behaviors become severely disruptive, team-support steps may be utilized.
  57. 57. Here again comes the hero!As a conclusion to all that you said, the teacher‟s personal style,the learner‟s personality, the success of past disciplinaryapproaches with that learner and the specific circumstancessurrounding the misbehavior should all be considered indetermining the most appropriate step to be taken.
  58. 58. Ahah ! says Rahma.I have got a poem entitled “ the 20-step discipline model”Provide effective instructionHelp learners experience more success than failureRecognize and reward desirable behaviorSend a preventive ‘I-message’ communicating desirable behaviorGive early attention to potentially disruptive learnersChange circumstances that may produce misbehaviorUse physical closeness to prevent misbehaviorIgnore minor disruptions and recognize behaviorsSend non-verbal message requesting a change in behaviorAsk for status or rule to redirect behaviorRequest a change of behaviorIsolate the learner to keep a minor disruption from escalatingSend an ‘I-message’ communicating the effects of undesirablebehavior
  59. 59. Conduct a reference: no-lose conflict-resolution approachConduct a conference to develop a behavior-improvement contractImplement a class ‘assertive discipline’ planSend the learner of ‘time-out’ to another classroomInvolve the parents in changing learner behaviorInvolve the principal in changing learner behaviorRequest that the learner be removed from the classroom.
  60. 60. ConclusionIn a nutshell, it became clear that the educator who is successfulin building learners‟ confidence, self-esteem, knowledge andskills is the educator who exhibits the following aspects:•Clarity in setting tasks and skills•Enthusiasm for the learning area•Care for the individual learner•Consistency in encouragement and teaching style•Encouragement to work cooperatively, as well as to learnindividual skills•Utilization even of failures as learning experiences•Expectations that learners will succced.
  61. 61. CHAPTER 6 Managing learnerparticipation in the classroom
  62. 62. Coming soon
  63. 63. CHAPTER 7 Lesson planning
  64. 64. Why is lesson planning importantClarity • Being clear on what you want to teach. • Being clear about which strategies and methods that will be employed to reach the learning goals.Unpredictable • Being ready to cope with whatever happens.Eventsframework • Give your teaching a framework, an overall shape.Reminder • A reminder for the teacher when they get distracted.Commitment • It suggests a level of professionalism and real commitment.
  65. 65. How is lesson planning important for the teacher and the learners? For teachers For studtents  They don‟t have to think on • They realize that the teacher their feet. cares for their learning  They don‟t lose face in front • They attend a structured of their learners. lesson that is easier to  They are clear on the assimilate procedure to follow. • they appreciate their  They build on previous teacher‟s work as a model of teaching and prepare for well organized work to coming lessons imitate
  66. 66. What do you take into account when you design a lesson plan? Five guiding principles: Variety : Coherence Balance : Flexibility Challenge :- Vary - there should -The lesson -the use of - the newContents,activiti be connection is a mixture different lesson shouldes, materials, btw the different of techniques. be challengingAids… different techniques, -ability to for SsWhy?-To meet activities. activities, change the plan - present newdifferent - Smooth contents …. if it shows items beyondlearning styles. transition. inappropriacy students’ prior-To consider -Build on a to the knowledge.different previous classroom realintelligence lesson and situation.types. prepares for-To keep Ss the next one.interested andavoid monotony.
  67. 67. COMPONENTS OF A LESSON PLAN : Information Goals: OBJECTIVES Procedures : Materials about the : and learners: equipment:- general - an overall -what - Detailed, step- - it is aboutinformation general students by-step the aids thatsuch as the purpose to should be description of will benumber of Ss, accomplish able to do what the teacher employed attheir age, by the end of by the end will do to achieve each stagetheir level… the lesson of the the course in the period. course. objectives (Introd, presentation main activity, of the closure) including lesson. time, logical, sequencing…
  68. 68. Evaluation of the lesson plan: - The teacher should make sure that the objectiveshave been accomplished. -Make sure that Ss have practiced what you areasking them to do for evaluation. - During actual classroom interaction, the instructorneeds to make adaptations and Ss.The lesson plan is it curriculum centered or learner centered?Learner cenetered:Take 3 things into account: feelings, interests, needs in terms ofbasing the choice of materials according to their needs,autonomous.
  69. 69. CHAPTER 8 Initiating interaction
  70. 70. The collaborative exchange of thoughts, feelings, or ideas betweentwo or more people, result in a reciprocal effect on each other.Through interaction, Ss can increase their language store as theylisten to or read authentic linguistic materials…
  71. 71. Interactive principles -Automacity: ss are freed from keeping -Intrinsic language in motivation control.-the language- - Strategic - Communicativculture investement e compeyence:connection -risk-taking involved.-Interlanguage:feedback iscrucial.
  72. 72. Roles of the teacher Controller - director Manager- Facilitator Resource
  73. 73. Questioning StrategiesKey to create an interactive language classroom is the initiation ofinteraction by the teacher. T questions give ss the impetus and opportunity to produce langcomfortably.T questions can serve to initiate a chain reaction of ss interactionamong themselves.T questions give the instructor immediate feedback about sscomprehension.T question provide ss with opportunities to find out what theythink by hearing what they say.
  74. 74. Kinds of questions are effective in the class: Start with display questions that aims to elicit informationalready known. Refrential question that request information not known by the
  75. 75. Some kind of questions discourage interuction: too much class spent on display questions A question that insults a student‟s intelligence by being soobvious that s will think it‟s too silly to bother answering. Vague questions that are worded in abstract or ambiguouslanguage.Questions that are stated in a complex language. Random questions that don‟t fall into a logical and well-planned sequence.
  76. 76. Group work• Generates interactive lang: provides opportunities for studentsto practice in negotiation of meaning.• Offers an embracing affective climate: no shiness or fear ofpublic speaking.• Promptes learner responsibility and autonomoy: difficult tohide in small groups• A step toward individualizing instruction: help students withvarying abilities to accomplish separate goals.
  77. 77. Avoiding group workThe control of the class is absentThe large groupsThe use of native languageThe errors will be reinforcedIndividual work preference
  78. 78. Considerations for group worko Taking cultural expectations and belief systems into accounto Arranging the class space for active student participationo Emphasizing the importance of group worko Teaching ss how to work cooperativelyo Assigning group roles
  79. 79. Course bookFour stepts for course book:•Omit•Addapt•Add•replace
  80. 80. Authintic materialsAdvantages:Ss exposed to real language in real life situationsDisadvantages:Time consuming
  81. 81. CHAPTER 9 assessment & Homework
  82. 82. Assessment of students ‘work prepared by: Mohamed ait madani youssef
  83. 83. Using this technique with adolescentsMinor modification are necessary.Adolescents need to learn to be more independentand self-reliant.
  84. 84. Homework settingSetting should be :QuietDevoid of distractions loud noises siblings and soforth. Parents still need to ensure that the student isworking rather than getting in other activities.
  85. 85. Introduction to assessmentEffective assessment becomes vital part ofteacher’s job.In the years teachers wrote only “welldone”, “poor” or “see me”.There should be a how and why.
  86. 86. Difference between Formative assessment and summative assessment • It is informative • It explains what is needed to improve the Formative piece of work prior to final substitution (ESP) assessment • It can come in many forms, but it is basically any activity undertaken by teachers and students themselves. • It is referred to as assessment for learning. • It is a final mark that you give for a Summative piece of work. • Give a grade and a comment. • This feedback given may be used to assessment inform future work and not the piece of work which has been submitted.
  87. 87. Assessment for learningTeaching becomes more interactive.Encourage students do vocalize their opinionsAsk them about what they thinkTeaching style should match students’ learning style.The teacher should take much responsibility workingwith each member of the class.
  88. 88. Assessing for motivationWritten assessment has a crucial part in this aspect.Positive comment Positive impactnegative comment harmful and destructive commentWritten assessment need to be continual process, not just anoccasional activity.Send students a message that you care, through givingattention and the benefit your benefit of your expertise to theirwork.
  89. 89. Assessing for motivation (continue)Think about the investment for the future that ismore important than the single piece of work you areabout to mark when you give marks.Never, ever start with negative comment in youcomments because you may cause students to avoidinvesting effort in learning and then be disappointed.Don’t overload students with suggestions.
  90. 90. Assessing for motivation (continue)This has short and long term benefitsstudents are more likely students will to The quality engage You will have implement of the work with you if more your you are contented or will improvesuggestions positive constructed as a matter toward them students. of course
  91. 91. How much should I write?One word is next to useless.Don’t write too much because you may resentfuland write more than what the student write.Put a positive comment and then a few commentsfor the improvement.
  92. 92. The power of verbal motivationA good teacher is assessing progress of his students all the time.Whatever started you are doing, it is the first opportunity to have assess youstudents and should not be wasted.Your response you give to students’ answers must be positive and not a putdown.If you are asking students, direct the appropriate question to the rightstudent.If a student is nervous or unwilling to answer a question make sure you askhim one he knows and don’t forget to give a lot of praise.It is important to avoid the temptation of asking answers from the samestudents who put up their hand up again and again.
  93. 93. Self-and peer assessment Self assessment Peer assessment It gives students chance to step back and look at You can display, for example, a student’s work to the their own work and targets. whole class. Provide them with a frame work where they can assess their work. This may be in the form of achecklist to identify if a student has performed a taskand then give space for their own recommendations.
  94. 94. Homework setting Free from destructions Homework setting Not isolated constructive
  95. 95. Homework timeHomework time depends on students personality.It can be determined by routine within the home, parents’ preferences extracurricular activities.They should have the same homework time eachday.
  96. 96. Best time for Worse time homework for homework -Right before bed Half an hour after time. school - When students are left on their own An hour before Late in the day or in dinner or the morning before immediately after student go to dinner. school.
  97. 97. Begin a homework checklist or journalSystems to assess students in keeping track ofhomework:Homework journalPlannersSheet of paper that has spaces for homework ineach subject.You may have a notebook in which you or yourstudents fill out a blank sheet he finished homework.
  98. 98. Homework rulesHomework journal should be assigned.Books, notebook, handouts, and every itemneeded for homework should be present.
  99. 99. Doing the homeworkParent should help their children organize theirassignments by locating and categorizing all work thathas to be completed on the homework surface whereit has to be done.When the assignment is done, students shouldshow it to their parents to check whether it is corrector it should be redone.
  100. 100. Earning an after-homework privilegeParents should restrict certain privileges until afterhomework time to teach students that homeworkcompletion is rewarded.Teach them that privileges are earned by taking careof one’ s responsibilities.It is an added motivator for students who tend toprocrastinate and a very long time to do theirhomework.
  101. 101. Providing assistanceGive the assistance but don’t do the assignment forstudents.Let them complete the task under your monitoring.If they ask for help for a regular basis, you shouldinform the teacher to consider the nature of theproblem.