British institutions

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British institutions Islain first year civ

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British institutions

  1. 1. • The Legislative Power: makes the law (ie. Debates, votes and passes new laws) • The Judicial Power: interprets the law (ie. Decides what punishment should be given for those that break the law) • The Executive Power: implements and enforces the law (ie. Makes sure that the decisions of the legislature are carried out)
  2. 2. • The Legislative Power : Parliament (House of Commons, House of Lords, the Monarch) •The Executive : the government (the party or coalition with a majority in the Commons) •The Judiciary : the judges and especially the Supreme Court
  3. 3. Monarch (predominantly representative Function) Supreme Court (since 2009) House of Lords House of Commons Government Prime Minister Nation (electorate) Partiament elects elects can dissolve appoints aristocrats can dissolve appoints appoints justices Legistative Executive Judiciary Separation of powers appoints Parliamentary monarchy in the United Kingdom
  4. 4. What the Queen Can Do • Her picture appears on postage stamps, but her personal mail is franked. • She can drive as fast as she likes in a car which needs no license number. • She can confer Britain’s highest civilian decoration, the Order of Merit—one honour in which the Sovereign retains freedom of choice.
  5. 5. What the Queen Can’t Do • Her Majesty cannot vote. • Nor can she express her political opinion in public. • The Queen cannot sit in the House of Commons (building royal property). • She cannot write her own speech. • The Queen cannot refuse to sign a bill, and she cannot appear as a witness in court.
  6. 6. The Queen’s role • Constitutional Arbitration – In times of Crisis • Stability –1,000 years of Sovereignty • Continuity –helps to bridge the discontinuities of party politics • Experience –reading state papers, meeting heads of state and ambassadors, and weekly audiences with Prime Ministers • Uniting the Nation with the State –combination of the role as Head of State and Head of the Nation.
  7. 7. The Queen’s role (2) • Unity: Party politics = disagreement and confrontation. (rich vs poor, north vs south, management vs unions, Catholic vs Protestant…) • Moral Leadership & Model Behaviour • Custodianship of the Past – Through its ceremony, pageantry and ritual, the monarchy preserves the link with Britain’s history
  8. 8. • BACK TO YOUR DETAILED OUTLINES! The Constitutional Powers of the Monarch
  9. 9. The British Constitution • A constitution is a set of laws on how a country is governed. • The British Constitution is unwritten • It is referred to as an uncodified constitution. • Amendments to constitution are made by a majority support in both Houses of Parliament to be followed by the Royal Assent.
  10. 10. Sources of the Constitution: • Statutes such as the Magna Carta of 1215 and the Act of Settlement of 1701. • Laws and Customs of Parliament; • Political conventions • Decisions in a court of law • Constitutional experts who have written on the subject such as Walter Bagehot and A.V Dicey.
  11. 11. Principles of the Constitution • Two basic principles govern the Constitution: • The Rule of Law • The Supremacy of Parliament
  12. 12. For or Against • Pros: Flexibility and change • Cons: no public access– Only constitutional experts know where to look and how to interpret it.
  13. 13. PASSAGE OF A BILL House of Commons House of Lords House of Lords House of Lords 3RC21 1 2 C R 31 2 C R 3 3RC21 Royal Assent Bill starting in the House of Lords Bill starting in the House of Commons Royal Assent Firstreading Secondreading CommittreestageThirdreading Reportstage FirstreadingSecondreading CommittreestageThirdreading Reportstage A A Considerationof amendments Britain

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