Anoop .K. Iype
Anoop K. A
Eldho .J .Valiyaveeden
Banking in India in the modern sense originated in
the last decades of the 18th century. The first banks were Bank of
Hindustan (1770-1829) and The General Bank of India, established
1786 and since defunct.
The largest bank, and the oldest still in existence,
is the State Bank of India, which originated in the Bank of Calcutta in
June 1806, which almost immediately became the Bank of Bengal.
This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being
the Bank of Bombay and the Bank of Madras, all three of which were
established under charters from the British East India Company. The
three banks merged in 1921 to form the Imperial Bank of India,
which, upon India's independence, became the State Bank of India in
1955. For many years the presidency banks acted as quasi-central
banks, as did their successors, until the Reserve Bank of India was
established in 1935.
In 1969 the Indian government nationalized all
the major banks that it did not already own and these have
remained under government ownership. They are run under a
structure know as 'profit-making public sector undertaking'
(PSU) and are allowed to compete and operate as commercial
banks. The Indian banking sector is made up of four types of
banks, as well as the PSUs and the state banks, they have been
joined since the 1990s by new private commercial banks and a
number of foreign banks.
Banking in India was generally fairly mature in
terms of supply, product range and reach-even though reach in
rural India and to the poor still remains a challenge. The
government has developed initiatives to address this through
the State Bank of India expanding its branch network and
through the National Bank for Agriculture and Rural
Development with things like microfinance.
Established in 1935
Apex body of Indian banking system
Headquarters is in Mumbai
India’s monetary authority
Supervisor of financial system
Issuer of currency
Banker to bank
Banker to government
Maintains financial stability
Scheduled banks are those banks
whose name appears in the 2nd schedule of
Reserve Bank Of India Act, 1934.
Non-scheduled banks are those
banks whose name doesn’t appear in the 2nd
schedule of Reserve Bank Of India Act, 1934.
BANKS UNDER SCHEDULED BANKS
They are the banks mainly deal with
commercial banking operations like
acceptance of deposits and granting loans to
the public. They are mainly classified into
1. PUBLIC SECTOR BANKS
Public sector banks are those banks which are
owned and controlled by the government . All the nationalized
banks and regional rural banks are public sector banks.
State Bank of India and it’s 7 Subsidiaries.
Bank Of Baroda
Canara Bank etc.
2. PRIVATE SECTOR BANKS
These banks are owned and controlled by private
institutions or individuals and not by the government.
South Indian Bank
Axis bank etc.
3. FOREIGN BANKS
These banks are formed and registered in foreign
countries and have their head office in foreign country.as far as
India is concerned, any bank registered outside India and have a
branch in India is a foreign bank.
Deutsche Bank etc.
4. REGIONAL RURAL BANKS
Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) were established
by Regional Rural Banks Act, 1976 with a view to satisfy
the banking facilities and credit needs of the rural
Andhra Pradesh Grameena Vikas Bank,
Chaitanya Godavari Grameena Bank,
Kerala Grameen Bank etc.
B) CO-OPERATIVE BANKS
These are banks where co-operative societies that
are formed at a state or district level have a share of more than
51%. these are primarily set-up for the purpose of services the
farming community or to aid in land or infrastructure
development at the state or district level. They are of two:-
1. URBAN CO-OPERATIVE BANKS
The term Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs), though not
formally defined, refers to primary cooperative banks located in
urban and semi-urban areas. These banks, till 1996, were allowed
to lend money only for non-agricultural purposes. This distinction
does not hold today. These banks were traditionally centred around
communities, localities work place groups. They essentially lent to
small borrowers and businesses
Maharashtra state apex co-operative bank
Karnataka state apex co-operative bank
2. STATE CO-OPERATIVE BANKS
State co-operative banks are the apex co-operative
institution in a state . They are federations of district co-
operative banks, and they monitor the activities of all co-
operative banks in the state.
Kerala state co-operative bank
Orissa state co-operative bank x
West Bengal state co-operative bank
3. National bank for agriculture and rural
National bank for agriculture and rural
development (NABARD) was established as an
apex bank that provides finance for agriculture
and rural development.