Liberia PA 359


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Liberia PA 359

  2. 2. LIBERIA L • • P • President Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf
  3. 3. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND • Located in West Africa bounded by Guinea on the north, Sierra Leone on the west, Cote D’voire on the east and south by the Atlantic ocean. • Liberia occupies a total area of 111,370 with a coastline of 579 km • Gained independence on July 26,1847 • Oldest independent African Republic
  4. 4. Established as a Colony made up of freed African American Slaves Managed by the American Colonization Society Population is 3.6 million Liberia has fifteen counties (sub-political divisions). 16 Major Tribes and Dialects English is official language • Conservative Christian Nation dominated by protestants
  5. 5. • 16 Major Tribes and Dialects • English is official language • Conservative Christian Nation • Natural Resources : Diamonds, Gold, Bauxite, Silver, Rubber, Timber,
  6. 6. Political System • Unitary State • Three Branches of Government - Judiciary, Legislative and Executive - Liberia has a Bicameral Legislature - Consist of 30 Senators elected by popular vote to serve nine-year terms - House of Representatives-64 seats members elected by popular vote to serve six -year terms HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
  7. 7. • Executive Branch • The President is elected by popular vote for a six-year (2 terms) • The Cabinet is appointed by the Chief Executive
  8. 8. • Politics of Liberia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic modeled on the government of the US. • The President is the head of State and head of government-Like the Philippines and unlike the US as opposed to a federation and has a pluriform multi-party system rather than the two- party system.
  9. 9. • Executive power is exercised by the government • Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the legislature. • Liberia is still in transition from dictatorship and civil war to democracy
  10. 10. • Liberia’s government is based on the American model of a republic with three equal branches of government though in reality the president has dominant force. • Currently no party has majority control of the legislature.
  11. 11. President (15) Superintendent (32) Statutory District Superintendent District Commissioner (119) District Superintendent (237) Township Commissioner (126) City Mayors
  12. 12. • The President appoints the Superintendent to govern the county. • Mayors are elected in principal cities in Liberia • Superintendents govern the counties Local Government Administration
  13. 13. • The basic units of local government: • Town Chief, Clan Chief, Paramount Chief and District Commissioner.
  14. 14. • To administer the affairs of the central government on the ground, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) is mandated to carry out the coordination and supervisory aspects. • Its administrative function and role are managed nationally through the local units. Administrative Structure
  15. 15. • Sub-divided under two systems: • The sub-national levels-whose units of administration may consist of the county and district level. • The rest of its elements being subject to customary law, through the system of traditional authority. Layers of Governance
  16. 16. • With respect to the provision of service to lower levels of governance, the Ministry of Planning & Economic Affairs (MPEA) is charged with the prescription of national policies that guide the formulation of communities’ development aspirations. Local Management in Service Delivery
  17. 17. • In the implementation of these strategic policies, the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MIA) has the responsibility for the administration of public goods and services through the local governance system. • The Ministry of Internal Affairs has the mandate and responsibilities to supervise the hinterlands.
  18. 18. • The Ministry of Internal Affairs is responsible for coordinating the affairs of counties and districts, in conjunction with its system of tribal governance. • Where line ministries and agencies are concerned, the nature of projects defines the terms of relationships between the county and district ministerial aspects, as defined by each ministry’s sectoral outlook.
  19. 19. • Specific to each county and district, and managed by its officers, under the auspices of the County Superintendents, with their District Commissioners.
  20. 20. • Management Aspect-Ministry of Planning & Economic Affairs (MPEA) –responsible for a wide range of development planning and the coordination of related questions. - Formulation of economic planning policies and sector issues in collaboration with line ministries.
  21. 21. • MPEA through the sub-national level, it executes its development agenda through the county and district officials, in conjunction with the MIA, with it being in charge with the overall administration of local development. The two over the years have tended to perform their functions with logistical ease given the subject at hand.
  22. 22. For administrative purposes Liberia is made up of 15 political divisions called Counties which include: Bomi, Bong, Gbarpolu, Grand Bassa, Grand Cape Mount, Grand Gedeh, Grand Kru, Lofa, Margibi, Maryland, Montserrado, Nimba, River Cess, River Gee, Sinoe. The County
  23. 23. • To administer the function of counties is the County Superintendent, appointed by the President, as charged with the responsibility of supervising the government’s mandate, a would be expected. • Among key functions is the coordinating role, where an important purpose is to coordinate development management in all districts under his/her legitimate jurisdiction.
  24. 24. • In conjunction with the ministries concerned, the County Development Superintendent is responsible for the technical aspects of development. • The Superintendent coordinates the larger County Executive Council and is in charge of annual County Development Meeting, a platform for reviewing ongoing development efforts.
  25. 25. The Executive Council within the County is made up of County Commissioners, Revenue Agents, Mining Agents, all NGOs, Commanding Military Officers, Business Community Leaders, Student Representatives and Leaders, Paramount and Clan and General Town Chiefs. By virtue of its recognition in the rule of Governing the hinterlands, the County level is tantamount to being the de facto local government pending legal amendments.
  26. 26. • Below the County level are 32 Statutory Districts. • In their functions the Statutory Districts have been providing a range of services to a set of districts under their jurisdiction. Some functions include technical assistance, augmenting the capacity in planning and the implementation of projects, defined on an ad hoc basis. Statutory Districts
  27. 27. • The Statutory District Superintendent is appointed by the President and is accountable to the County Superintendent and functions as a technical arm of the Superintendent’s public works office. • The Superintendent at this level is charged with the responsibility of assisting the districts to implement their development, on behalf of the County Development Superintendent.
  28. 28. • Some visible functions currently undertaken by the Superintendent, through his/her own volition, is the coordination of the establishment and functioning of the Ministry’s effort to implement District Development Committees (DDCs) within the jurisdiction of the Statutory Districts. The Statutory District has taken on responsibility for linking the DDC scope of work to the county.
  29. 29. • At the lower end of the local government system is the District, headed by District Commissioner, appointed by the President, and assisted by a Council of Chiefs. • The DC is a very important member on the DDC which has been established by the MIA as agents for the management aspect of development planning and implementation of community based initiatives at the District level. Districts
  30. 30. • Within the Districts, there is the council of chiefs, made up of paramount and clan chiefs, accountable to the District Commissioner, an officer appointed to manage the district. • There are a total of 119 districts all over the country. • The Statutory District has taken on the responsibility for linking the DDC scope of work to the County. Its structure is an attempt to encourage coherence and convergence among the two tiers of government.
  31. 31. • Liberia’s urban settlements consist of the main municipality (Monrovia) as well as other secondary towns and smaller cities spread over the hinterland. The administrative functions of the areas are directly under the MIA’ Department of Urban Affairs. • There are at least 126 cities and 237 towns. City governance is under the direct responsibilities of an appointed 9 member council. The head of the city council is the Mayor who is elected by popular vote. Cities and Towns
  32. 32. • On the other hand a town is managed by a Township Commissioner, appointed by the President. On management issue the city acts as the headquarters of the town.
  33. 33. • Counties • Chief Administrator: County Superintendent, appointed. • Technical manager: Asst. Superintendent (Development). • County Inspector Local Government Management
  34. 34. Ministry of Planning and Economic Affairs • Responsible for overall coordination and formulation of strategic economic and development policies • Supervises its responsibilities at the County level via its Line Officers at the County/regional levels, in charge of economic planning Ministry of Internal Affairs • Charged with the responsibility of conducting and improving local government, via supervision and direction of activities of the political units • In charge of the management and adjudication of tribal law Responsible Agents Role and Functions LOCAL GOVT MANAGEMENT:ITS RESPONSIBILITIES
  35. 35. Counties • Chief Administrator: County Superintendent, Appointed • Technical Manager – Asst. Superintendent (Development) • County Inspector – enforces local management regulations • County Cabinet – Heads of Line Ministries • Main Coordination Platforms: The County • Executive Council, and its ad hoc for a, with an Annual County Development Meeting. • Administration and Coordinating of public management in the districts under its jurisdiction. • Monitors compliance with established regulations, supervising all levels of local management • Manages the development budget allocations and approves all district budgets • In conjunction with the line ministries concerned, the County Development Superintend is responsible for the technical aspects of development.
  36. 36. Statutory Districts – Head – District Superintendent – Administration - District Commissioner – Township Commissioner – A Municipal authority – Paramount Chiefs – Heads of Set of clans in a tribe – Clan Chiefs – Head of Clans – General Town Chiefs (in charge of 250 huts within a clan) • Each Statutory District has several districts under its technical supervision, its area of legitimate jurisdiction. The number of administrative districts supervised by the SD’s range from two to more than four. • Functions as an extension of the County Development Superintendent, with a technical role specific to support a range of ad hoc public works management and related support • Key functions appears to be in the provision of management for infrastructure programmes and projects, in some cases • Provides support to ongoing capacity building of the establishment of the District Development Council (DDC) concept, where relevant legitimate functions not well defined.
  37. 37. Districts – Head Administrator: District Commissioner – Township Commissioner – Paramount Chiefs – Clan Chiefs – General Township • Supervises and monitors all administrative matters in the district • Responsible for all development management issues, initiation of projects, as need be, coordination with partners • Adjudicates appeal cases from the paramount Chiefs • DC is the Head of the DDC • Paramount Chiefs, through the Clan and Township Chiefs are responsible for law and order under customary law, with ad hoc responsibilities pertaining to welfare within his tribe, including initiation of development projects
  38. 38. Cities • Head – An elected Mayor • City Council – Elected Councilors from existing zones in the city • Tribal Governor – In charge of Tribal management questions within the Municipality, accountable to the City Mayor, on behalf of the Superintendent • Recent revision of Local Government management rules, pending adoption of the decentralization policy, some aspects pertain to: • Cities are to be made into municipal corporations, to have the legal basis for levying taxes, to sue and be sued, as need be • Accountable to he Superintendent
  39. 39. • Chiefdom- The chiefdom is the apex of Liberia’s Tribal Authority. At present there are 215 Chiefdoms, with 476 Clans. According to customary law (Article 21) pertaining to Liberia’s tribal government each tribe is governed by Paramount Chief, elected by the council of Chiefs and Elders, subject to the approval or disapproval of the President. Customary and Traditional System of Service
  40. 40. • In its administrative organization the tribe consists of clans according to tribal traditions, and is ruled by a number of clan chiefs. Supervised by the Paramount Chief. The Clan Chief is elected by members of the clan, said to have reached maturity and are owners of huts and not delinquent on taxes.
  41. 41. • As the coordinating entity for all clans within any tribe the Paramount Chief is the supreme tribal leader. Among the variety of role he/ she must perform on behalf of the DC would be to enforce tax collection and other forms of government revenues, supervision of road construction, improvement of agriculture and trade, among other functions.
  42. 42. • To facilitate the duties of the Paramount Chief, the tribal treasury managed by the tribal treasurer, who was responsible for preparing the annual budget of the tribal administration, for submission to the DC . In effect, the Paramount Chief’s area of jurisdiction extends to the customary aspects in the) towns, through the Township Chief , an appointed official. There are 237 Township Chiefs in all.
  43. 43. County Socio-Economic Profile • County Economic Potential, Population* • Counties Population No. IDPs Total Districts City Economic Prospects • Grand Bassa 244,905 11,942 14 3 Mining, Timber, Rubber • Grand Cape Mount 101,675 15,168 4 1 Rubber, Rice, Cassava • Grand Gede 150,000 10,724 11 3 Agriculture, Trade (Ivory Coast) • Grand Kru 70,994 2,224 22 34 Rice, Cassava, Fishing • Lofa 241 37,760 6 3 Farming, Trade is thriving • Margibi 224,418 - 6 2 Rubber Belt • Maryland 107,084 44,036 8 3 Farming, fishing, trading • Montserrado 1,646,421 - 2 6 Industrial, Services, Mining • River Gee 74,783 1,589 12 6 Farming, rice production • Rivercess 63,710 422 7 1 Farming, rubber • Sinoe 111,000 4,468 22 34 Minerals, timber, palm oil • Nimba (Tappita District)85,000 2,572 20 7 Farming • Total 2,880,231 130,905 134 103 -included are the statutory districts. • * Source: Derived from UNMIL base, UN/S/2005/745
  44. 44. Thanks for your time