Regional, forest preserves and open space special district parks


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How do we develop better partnerships between water and or sewer special districts and similar city or county departments with SPD's. This includes new approaches to financing both land acquisition and the cost of managing the protected land.

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Regional, forest preserves and open space special district parks

  1. 1. 1 How do water and waste water districts and departments collaborate with larger Regional Parks, Forest Preserves and Open Space Special Districts to further urban water management goals? Urban Water Sustainability Conference October 3-5, 2011 Milwaukee, WisconsinWater supply, source water protection, outdoor recreation, youth physical fitness,trails, and environmental best practices are all evidenced in this photo. Taken onthe Occoquan Reservoir owned by the Fairfax Water Authority at the Sandy RunRegional Park in Fairfax County, VA owned and operated by the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority.
  2. 2. 2Land conservation and employment of best management practices has long beenrecognized by urban planners as a cost effective way of protecting drinking watersupplies and other green assets required as urban areas grow. About 16 Statesauthorize creation – under various terms and conditions - special districts with amission of acquiring and conserving local or regional natural, cultural and historicassets and provide outdoor recreation. These lands provide a wide range of publicbenefits including natural area public recreation, scenic parkways andinterconnecting non-motorized trails, regionally important historic and culturalassets, protection of stream valleys and adjacent to flood plains, wetlands, wildlifeand highly erodible slopes, and wildlife habitat . Some are county in scope whileothers are multi-jurisdictional making them ideal institutional platforms toconserve land on an eco-system scale and to provide interconnected trail systems.Most are found in or near urban areas. Called park, forest preserves or open spacespecial districts or independent multi jurisdictional park authorities collectivelythey are termed special district parks. Like water and/or sewer special districts,SPD’s are special purpose governments that exist as separate entities withsubstantial administrative and fiscal independence from general purposegovernments. Based on a national survey conducted in 2010 of the larger SPDs, itwas found that many of these systems own and manage large expanses of naturalareas with the purpose of protecting drinking water supplies. Others maintaintrails adjacent to or on land that serves as utility corridors (regional sewersystems, electric power lines, etc. Due to their unique revenue generation andgovernance arrangements, most (thus far) have avoided the financial challengesfaced by State and municipal governments. Some have recently received voterapproval for bond issues to acquire more natural area parkland.As special district governments these agencies have the potential to assist waterand sewer agencies in the management of their lands, provide experientialenvironmental education to the public (particularly youth), and demonstrate bestenvironmental practices in their facilities, operations, and on their lands.The materials that follow were obtained from a variety of sources, the primary one being the USBureau of the Census. The Census data was last collected in 2002 and published in 2005 as wasthe collection of information on what type of parks are authorized by the various States. This wasaugmented by a benchmark survey of a number of special district parks conducted in October2010 by a consortium of special district parks.
  3. 3. 3 Presenters and discussion facilitatorsJohn O’Meara has served as Executive Director of Metro Parks since 1998. As Director,John oversees the operation of sixteen Metro Parks encompassing over 26,000 acres.Columbus and Franklin County Metro Parks is the largest locally managed park systemin Ohio. Annually over 6,500,000 visitors enjoy a trip to the Metro Parks.Prior to being appointed as Director of Metro Parks, John served as Director of GeaugaPark District, Scenic River Coordinator for the Ohio Department of Natural Resources,Naturalist for Cleveland Metroparks and taught Natural Resource Conservation at avocational high school. He received both a B.S. and M.S degrees from the School ofNatural Resources at the Ohio State University.John lives in Columbus with his wife Helen. His son Peter is a student at The Ohio StateUniversity. John is an active participant in outdoor activities including hiking, canoeing,camping and mountain climbing.John may be reached atBill Dickinson is Principal of the Environmental Policy Network located in Alexandria VA, ahome based consulting firm specializing in US and State legislative matters impacting landconservation and public parks. Retired from US government career service, he held analyticaland managerial positions in the Office of Management and Budget, Energy Department, and theEnvironmental Protection Agency. He served on special assignments with the US Congress andDepartment of Agriculture’s Cooperative Extension Service assisting the latter in their waterquality initiative with a special emphasis on environmental risk communication to primarily rural and agricultural audiences. For over 20 years he served as a citizen member of theconservation committee of the National Council of the Boy Scouts of America and assisted in thedevelopment of many BSA environmental initiatives. After leaving US government service, hewas a founding board member of the Center for Watershed Protection and assisted indevelopment and execution of their first strategic plan. The Center is now nationally recognizedas an authoritative source of research based information and techniques regarding urbanwatershed management.As a Director on the Board of the Northern Virginia Regional Park Authority for twelve years,he was Chairman during a three year period of agency change, growth and restructuring. He alsohas been a trustee of the Virginia Land Conservation Foundation for the past six years
  4. 4. 4Bill is a graduate of Drew University (BA), the Maxwell School of Public Administration atSyracuse University (MPA), a park ranger for the Morris (NJ) Park Commission, FordFoundation Fellow, contributor to a special study on special districts and public authorities, and aformer LT USNR who served on naval ships in both the arctic and in SE Asia (Viet Nam era).He began his post graduate school career as a regional planner with the Delaware River BasinCommission.Bill may be reached at 703-370-3089 or bill.c.dickinson@gmail.comWhat are Park, Open Space, Forest Preserve Special Districts and similar independent parkauthorities and Commissions?The US Bureau of Census collects data on all governments in the United States.Included are special district governments- defined as “…governmental units (other than schooldistricts) that exist as separate entities with substantial administrative and fiscal independencefrom general purpose government.” (Italics and bold added). See on the 2005 Census report, there are about 1,300 special park, recreation and open spacedistricts in the US. In terms of numbers, they predominate in Illinois (366), North Dakota (245),California (156), Ohio (101), and Colorado (65). They are authorized in about 10 other statesalthough in most instances they are singular systems. In size they range from a single recreationpark in a rural community to the 108,000 acre East Bay Regional Park District in which overlaystwo California counties. While there is variation in the legal powers of the districts and theirmissions depending on the respective State enabling legislation, together they constitute a uniqueclass of special purpose governments. They have considerable potential for: • The new urbanism - linking landscapes and communities – (See Mark Benedict and Edward McMahon – Green Infrastructure – The Conservation Fund – Island Press – 2006) • Public land conservation on an eco-region basis - • More efficient and flexible governmental structures – (See Nancy Burns – The Formation of American Local Government - Private Values in Public Institutions - Oxford University Press – 1994) • Advancing the goals set forth in President Obama’s American Great Outdoor • Creation of seasonable employment particularly for youth close to urban areas
  5. 5. 5Special Park Districts are often overlooked as a separate class within the nation’s galaxy ofpublic park institutions (Federal, Interstate, State, county and municipal) and their missions,governance, and financing confused with those of other land agencies. They are governed byelected or appointed boards and typically subject to all the procedural, ethical, procurement andFOIA rules applied to general purpose governments.They are substantially independent of both direct State and general-purpose local governments intheir governance and method of financing. In some cases their jurisdiction and operationsoverlap more than one county, city, or local government. They may include, for example, a Cityand an adjoining unincorporated area. According to the US Bureau of Census definition of a parkand recreation agency, their operations may include golf courses, public beaches and swimmingpools, tennis courts, playing fields, open space parks, biking and hiking trails, camping areas,recreational piers and marinas, galleries, museums, zoos, botanical gardens, auditoriums,stadiums, recreation centers, convention centers, and exhibition halls: community music, dramaand celebrations including public support of cultural activities. Governance is stipulated by Statelaw and may provide for elected or appointed boards. Financing may include property tax levies,revenue from licenses and rentals, user fees and to a lesser degree State or local governmentcontributions. All have the ability to issue bonds and can accept gifts and apply for grants andaccept donations as a public agency. Revenue self sufficiency for operations can range as high as80% and land holdings up to 108,000 acres.Note – all agencies in this listing as having annual budgets of $5Million or more (in 2002)according to US Census reports.ALABAMA: State statues authorize the creation of: Park and Recreation AuthoritiesThese authorities are created with the filing of the articles of incorporation with the judge ofprobate by three applicants followed by resolution of the county of incorporation andparticipating municipalities. The composition and selection of the board of directors is specifiedin the articles of incorporation. The authorities may fix and collect fees and may issue bonds.Public Park AuthoritiesThese authorities are created by the resolutions of the governing bodies of two or more countiesor municipalities after application by three or more natural persons. The composition andSelection of the board is specified in the agreement. The authorities may fix and collectfees and may issue bonds.Tuscaloosa County Park and Recreation CommissionLOUISUANA: The East Baton Rouge Recreation and Park Commission was created byspecial act. The nine-member board of commissioners includes the mayor-president, a memberof the school board, a member of the planning commission, and six members appointed by theMetropolitan council. The commission may levy property taxes and issue bonds with voterapproval.
  6. 6. 6ILLINOIS: The State authorizes creation of a wide variety of special districts considered asgovernments. A total of 3,249 such agencies classified by the US Census as special purposegovernments have been created. Functions range from airports (including interstate), museums,hospitals, fire and ambulance, regional arts and cultural activities, to public transportation andforest preserves.General Park Districts may be created with populations less than 500,000.Township park districts and pleasure driveway and park districts, established under earlier law,may continue or reorganize as general park districts. A general park district is established by thecircuit court judge upon voter petition and after referendum. Each general park district andtownship park district is governed by an elected board of trustees or commissioners. Eachpleasure driveway and park district is governed by either an elected or appointed board oftrustees. Park districts may set fees; issue bonds, and levy property taxes. Tax levies may requirevoter approval.The Chicago Park District was created by a special act and is governed by a board of sevencommissioners appointed by the major with the approval of Chicago City Council. The districthas the same revenue powers as other Illinois park districts.The Metro –East Park and Recreation District was created by referendum in Madison and St.Clair counties. Other counties in the area are permitted to join. The district is governed by aboard appointed by the governing bodies of the two counties and may issue bonds and imposesales taxes and fees.The Prairie Trail Authority was created by special act to maintain a system of linked pathwaysand bicycle trails. Do Page, Kane, lake and McHenry and Will counties are eligible toparticipate. This authority is governed by a board of directors appointed by the president of thelocal conservation district or local forest preserve district. Each county’s representation is basedon population. The authority determines the contributions of the member counties.River Conservation Districts are established by the circuit court judge upon voter petition andreferendum to prevent stream pollution, conserve and protect water supplies, and promote publichealth. A board of trustees governs each district; the trustees are appointed by county, municipalor township officials depending on the area and population served. The districts may, with voterapproval, issue bonds.Special Recreation Associations may be established by two or more park districts ormunicipalities and are governed by boards described in the creating agreements. TheAssociations may set fees and the participating governments may set and levy property taxes onbehalf of the associations.Forest Preserve Districts (county, municipal, and other) may be created to preserve forests forrecreational use and for control of flood waters within a single county. The districts are
  7. 7. 7established by the circuit judge upon voter petition, after hearings and referendum, if such adistrict is coterminous with a county, municipality or sanitary district, then that governmentserves ex-officio as the board of the forest preserve district. When not immediately adjacent, afive member board is appointed by the presiding officer of the county governing body with theadvice and consent of that body. In Cook County, the board of county commissioners governsthe Cook County Forest Preserve District. The district may receive the proceeds of taxes leviedby the parent county or municipal government, may set rates for use of facilities, and, with voterapproval, may issue bonds.It should be noted that in Illinois, park districts tend to have as their primary missioncommunity recreation (e.g. active sports), outdoor event facilities, golf courses, and historicpreservation and interpretation. Many Illinois park districts indicated in the 2010 survey thatthey protected open space and maintained it in a natural state although this typically was in the10-20 % of all the land owned by the park district. Total land holdings of a typical Illinois parkdistrict were in the hundreds of acres with the exception of the Chicago Park District which isconsiderably larger.Forest Preserves and Conservation Districts have as their primary mission maintaining openspace, protection of stream valleys and flood plains. The range in total acreages owned by anIllinois Forest Preserve - based on those responding to the survey- ranged from 2,400 to 28,000acres.Addison Park District Channahon Park DistrictArlington Heights Park District Collinsville Area Recreation DistrictBartlett Park District Crystal Lake Park DistrictBarrington Park District Darien Park DistrictBatavia Park District Decatur Park DistrictBelvidere Park District Deerfield Park DistrictBensenville Park District DeKalb Park DistrictBolingbrook Park District Des Plains Park DistrictBurr Ridge Park District Downers Grove Park DistrictCarol Stream Park District Dundee Township Park DistrictCarry Park District Elk Grove Park DistrictChampaign Park DistrictElmhurst Park District Fondulac Park DistrictFoss Park District Geneva Park DistrictFox Valley Park District Glencoe Park DistrictFrankfort Square Park District Glen Ellyn Park DistrictFrankfort Park District Glenview Park DistrictFreeport Park DistrictGrayslake Park District Hoffman Estates Park DistrictGurnee Park District Huntley Park DistrictHanover Park District Itasca Park DistrictHighland Park Park District Joliet Park District
  8. 8. 8Lake County Parks and Recreation (Also known as Peoria Park District)Lemont Park District Pleasant Dale Park DistrictLindehurst Park District Quincy Park DistrictLisle Park District River Trails Park DistrictLockport Park District Rockford Park DistrictLombard Park District Rolling Meadows Park DistrictManhattan Park District Roselle Park DistrictMcHenry County Conservation District Round Lake Area Park DistrictMetro East Park and Recreation District Saint Charles Park District (Note: does not own any land or operate programs Schaumburg Park District but rather obtain grants and funding for others) South Barrington Park DistrictMount Prospect Park District Skokie Park DistrictMundelein Park District Springfield Park DistrictNaperville Park District Streamwood Park DistrictNew Lenox Community Park District Sycamore Park DistrictNiles Park District Tinley Park Park DistrictNorthbrook Park District Urbana Park DistrictOak Brook Park District Vernon Hills Park DistrictOak Lawn Park District Veterans Park District (1)Oak Park Park District Waukegan Park DistrictOswegoland Park District West Chicago Park DistrictPalatine Park District Westmont Park DistrictPark District of Forest Park Wheaton Park DistrictPark District of Franklin Park Wheeling Park DistrictPark Ridge Recreation and Park District Wilmette Park DistrictPekin Park District Winnetka Park DistrictPlainfield Park District Woodridge Park DistrictPleasure Driveway and Park District of Zion Park DistrictPeoria CountyOTHER PARKS – ILLINOISChicago Park DistrictFOREST PRESERVES - ILLINOISChampaign County Forest Preserve Forest Preserve District of Will CountyDistrict Forest Preserve of Cook CountyForest Preserve District of Du Page County Kendall County Forest PreserveForest Preserve District of Kane County Lake County Forest Preserves Winnebago County Forest Preserve
  9. 9. 9INDIANA: State law provides for two types of special park districts: • Area park districts may be established under general law by the ordinances of two or more counties. The governing board consists of members appointed by each participating county with representation in proportion to population. The area park districts may set and levy ad valorem taxes • Joint park districts may be created by two or more neighboring cities or towns by ordinance. The park boards of the cities and towns uniting constitute a joint park board. The joint park board determines the amount of money that each participating government must appropriate for the support of the district.Lake County ParksMICHIGAN: The State currently has 456 special district governments ranging in functionfrom swimming pools, mass transit, to hospitals. Metropolitan Councils provide a range of publicimprovements and services including water supply, sewerage, solid waste collection anddisposal, parks and recreation, transit, higher education, economic development and planning.Between two or more local governments subject to a backdoor referendum.Recreational authorities may be created by two or more counties, cities, villages, townships, orvoting districts within a county or municipality. Voter approval of an ad valorem tax and thearticles of incorporation are filed with the State.Huron Clinton Metropolitan AuthoritySt. Clair County Parks and Recreation CommissionMINNESOTA: The State currently has 456 special district governments ranging in functionfrom airports to libraries. Park districts are authorized only for counties with 35K or moreinhabitants; adjoining counties may also be included in the district. Establishment is by the boardof county commissioners following a petition of the voters or a resolution adopted by a majorityof the governing bodies of the cities within each counties in the proposed district; localreferendum is required if petitioned for or if the county commissioners so require.Single county park districts are coterminous with the county but exclude first-class cities (i.e.more than 100K inhabitants). Multicounty park districts may include all or part of two or morecounties, exclusive of first class cities. An elected board of park district commissioners governseach district. The district may fix charges, issue revenue bonds, and, with voter approval, issuegeneral obligation bonds. The district may also determine the amount to be contributed by eachparticipating government; these funds are raised by the governments through property taxes. TheThree Rivers Park District was established under this law to provide park facilities in HennepinCounty.Three Rivers Park District
  10. 10. 10OREGON: The State authorizes creation of a wide variety of special districts that are consideredgovernments. Three types of special district are relevant this listingMetroThese districts are authorized to provide sewerage or solid waste disposal services; publictransportation and transit facilities; cultural, convention, and sports facilities; parks andrecreation facilities; metropolitan zoo facilities; regional planning; and other public services. Itwas formed under a general law with special application to the Portland metropolitan area(Clackamas, Multnomah, and Washington counties) by petition or resolution of the largestcity in the district to the county governing body of the largest county in the district, after localreferendum. An elected council governs the district. The district may set vehicle registrationfees; levy excise taxes; fix and collect service or user charges; levy special assessments;and issue revenue bonds. With voter approval, the district may levy ad valoremtaxes and income taxes and issue general obligation bonds.Park and Recreation DistrictsThese districts are established by the county governing body on petition of voters orlandowners, after a public hearing. If a district is located in a single county, the county boardmay initiate the formation. A referendum is required only if petitioned. An elected boardgoverns each district. The districts may levy ad valorem taxes and, upon voter approval,issue revenue and general obligation bonds.Park Commissions in Cities of 3,000 or MoreOregon law authorizes park commissions in cities with a population of 3,000 or more. Thecity governing body submits the question of formation for referendum. The board of parkcommissioners consists of the mayor, the city engineer or city auditor, and five citizensappointed by the circuit court. The commissions may set ad valorem taxes. Theyalso may set special taxes with voter approval.Bend Metro Parks and Recreation DistrictChehalem Parks and Recreation DistrictMetro Regional Parks and Green Spaces (Metro – Portland)Portland Parks and RecreationTualatin Hills Parks and Recreation DistrictWillamalane Parks and Recreation DistrictTualatin Hills Parks and Recreation DistrictSOUTH CAROLINA:South Carolina statutes authorize creation of a wide variety of special districts considered asgovernments. A total of 299 such agencies now exist ranging in function from airports, arenas, togas and electric and water and sewer providers. A number of recreation districts to provide,operate and maintain recreational facilities have been established by special acts of the SouthCarolina legislature; similar provision apply to each. A board appointed by the Governor on
  11. 11. 11recommendation of the legislative delegation, or by the county council, or both, governs eachdistrict. The district may impose user charges and accept grants. Some individual districts mayalso levy ad valorem taxes and issue bonds.South Carolina’s Residential Improvement District Act, amended in 2008, (§6-35-10 thru 20)authorizes special assessments against real property within a district to provide for publicinfrastructure “improvements” such as “parkway, park, and playground “as well as for manyother enumerated purposes.Those recreational districts that lack substantial fiscal autonomy (i.e. the power to set their ownbudgets or to receive revenue other than grants or appropriations) are not counted by Census asseparate governments.Charleston Parks and Recreation CommissionGreenville County Recreation DistrictRichland County Recreation CommissionIrma-Chapin Recreation CommissionVIRGINIA: Park Authorities may be created in Virginia by resolution of a combination ofcounties, cities or towns to provide park facilities and in some cases, may be created byreferendum. The authority board is appointed by the member governments. Members of thegoverning body of the member governments may be appointed to the authority board but maynot compose a majority. The authorities may fix fees for use of the park facilities and issuerevenue bonds. Authorities that encompass only a single county or municipality are not countedby Census as separate governments.Although authorized by the Virginia Park Authorities Act of 1950, the only remaining parkauthority recognized by Census as a special park district is the Northern Virginia Regional ParkAuthority that was formally created in 1959. Beginning with three member jurisdictions it is nowcomposed of three counties and three independent cities, The Act does not provide for tax leviesor other mechanisms by which to generate income.Northern Virginia Regional Park AuthorityWASHINGTON: State statutes authorize creation of a wide variety of special districtsconsidered as governments. A total of 1,229 such agencies ranging in function from air pollutioncontrol, cultural arts , stadium and convention facilities, housing, to providing water and sewerservices.Three categories of special district governments in Washington are relevant to this listing:Metropolitan Municipal Corporations: Washington State general law provides that any areacontaining two or more cities, one of which is a city of 10K or more, may organize as ametropolitan municipal corporation for one or more of the following metropolitan functions:
  12. 12. 12sewage disposal, water supply, public transportation, garbage disposal, parks and parkways, andplanning. Establishment is by approval of the voters at an election that has called either by 1)resolution of the council of a central city, resolution of the councils of two or more componentscities other than a central city or 2) resolution of the board of commissioners of a central city, orpetition of the voters of the metropolitan area.The metropolitan corporation is governed by a council consisting of elected officials of thecomponent counties and cities. It may fix fees and charges, issue revenue bonds, and, with voterapproval, issue general obligation bonds. They may also levy retail sales and use tax and a motorvehicle excise tax for public transportation purposes for public transportation purposes uponvoter approval. A 1-year property tax may only be submitted for voter approval at theestablishing election. If income is insufficient, participating towns and cities may makesupplemental payments to the corporation.Metropolitan Park Districts: A city of 5K or more in population plus contagious area mayestablish a metropolitan park district by an election that has been called either by petition of thevoters or by the city council on its own initiative. An elected board of park commissionersgoverns each district. Voter approval is necessary for bond issues that exceed a specifiedpercentage of the assessed value of the property in the district.Park and Recreation Districts: General law authorizes formation of park and recreationdistricts upon petition of voters after hearings and voter approval. An elected board ofcommissioners governs each district. The district may fix rates and charges and issue bonds.Upon voter approval, the district may issue ad valorem taxes.Bainbridge Island Metropolitan Park and Recreation DistrictSi View Metropolitan Park DistrictTacoma Metropolitan Park DistrictVancouver-Clark Parks and Recreation?CALIFORNIA: State statutes provides for a number of types of recreation and park districtsincluding recreation and park districts, regional park, open space, and park and open space parkdistricts. Recreational and park districts may be created by petition of the voters or by theinitiative of city or county governing bodies subject to the approval by a local governmentformation commission and public referendum. The district board of directors may be elected orappointed by the mayors and/or county supervisors. The district may levy taxes and issue bondswith voter approval.Regional Park and open space districts are established by the board of supervisors of one or morecounties on petition or may be initiated by resolution of the board of supervisors after hearingand subject to approval by the local agency formation commission and public referendum. Thedistrict may levy taxes and issue bonds with voter approval.A number of agencies have been established in California under the Joint Exercise of PowersAgreement where county, municipal or special district governments exercise powers common toall of them. Federal and State governments may also participate. Agencies established under
  13. 13. 13such agreements may receive contributions from participating governments – and if specified bythe agreement – may fix charges and issue bonds. Census classifies such agencies as dependent.Chico Area recreation and Park DistrictEast Bay Regional Park District Mountains Recreation and ConservationHayward Area Recreation and Park Authority *District North of the River Recreation and ParkEl Dorado Hills Community Service DistrictDistrict Pleasant Hill Recreation and Park DistrictGreater Vallejo Recreation District Ranch Simi Recreation and Park DistrictHesperia Recreation and Park District Santa Clara County Open Space AuthorityLivermore Area Recreation and Park Sonoma County Agricultural PreservationDistrict and Open Space DistrictMarin County Parks and Open Space Southgate Recreation and Park DistrictCounty Park Department Truckee Donner Recreation and ParkMendocino Coast Recreation and Park DistrictDistrict Valley Wide Recreation and Park DistrictMonterey Peninsula Regional Park District Western Riverside County RegionalMid-Peninsula Regional Open Space Conservation AuthorityDistrictCOLORADO: Under Colorado’s Special District Act, metropolitan districts may provide andtwo or more of the following services: domestic water, sanitation, solid waste collection anddisposal, fire protection, parks and recreation, public transportation, safety protection, mosquitocontrol, street improvements, and television relay and translator facilities. These districts arecreated by the district court after approval of service plans by local governing bodies which isthen followed by petition of taxpaying voters, public hearings and voter approval. Districts mayinclude all or part of one or more municipalities or counties and may include noncontiguousareas. An elected board governs each district. The districts may levy ad valorem taxes andspecial assessments, fix fees and charges for service, and issue both revenue and, subject to voterapproval, general obligation bonds.County parks and recreation districts established by resolution of county governments are notconsidered by Census as separate governments.Apex Park and Recreation District South Suburban Metro Recreation andArapahoe Park and Recreation District Park DistrictEvergreen Park and Recreation DistrictFoothills Park and Recreation District Hyland Hills Metro Park and RecreationHyland Hills Metro Park and Recreation DistrictDistrict Denver Metropolitan Scientific andPleasant Valley Recreation and Park Cultural Affairs DistrictDistrict Foothill Park and Recreation District
  14. 14. 14NORTH DAKOTA: State law authorizes two or more contiguous counties to form a jointcounty park district. Each district is governed by a joint board of commissioners which iscomposed of two members from each county; each county board of commissioners appoints oneof its own members and one additional member. The board may levy ad valorem taxes aftervoter approval.Fargo Park DistrictBismark Parks and Recreation DistrictOHIO: State law authorizes creation of: • Park districts by county probate judges on petition of the voters governed by a board of park commissioners appointed by the probate judge. The district may issue bonds and may levy ad valorem taxes and benefit assessments. • Township park districts are created by the court of common pleas on voter petition to the township trustees. They are governed by boards of park commissioners appointed by the court of common pleas or, if in the unincorporated area of the township, by the board of township trustees. The district may impose charges, levy ad valorem taxes, and – upon voter approval - issue bonds. • Joint recreation districts are created by townships, municipalities, counties, boards of township park commissions, boards of education, and other political subdivisions. The district is governed by a board of trustees appointed by the member governments. The district may issue bonds which are paid for by sales and use tax levies.Anderson Township Park District Medina County Park DistrictCenterville Washington Park District Metro Parks of the Toledo AreaClermont County Park District Hancock Park DistrictCleveland Metropolitan Park District Jonny Appleseed Metro Park DistrictColumbus and Franklin County Metro Parks serving Summit CountyMetropolitan Park District Miami County Park DistrictFive Rivers Park District Mill Creek Metro ParksGeauga County Park District O.O. McIntyre Park DistrictHamilton County Park District Portage Park DistrictLake Metro Parks Preservation Parks of Delaware CountyLorrain County Metro Parks Stark County Park DistrictThe Olander Park System______________________________________________________________-Questions, additions and/ or errors should be directed to Bill Dickinson,
  15. 15. 15 Occoquan Reservoir, Fairfax County, VA – Photo Courtesy of th Northern Virginia Regional Parks Authority