The Myth of Spectrum Scarcity:<br />Hybrid Networks and Opportunistic Access to the Airwaves<br />eComm<br />Emerging Comm...
Wireless Future Program<br />Mission: Pervasive Connectivity<br />Universal<br />Ubiquitous<br />Affordable<br />Means: Op...
Conventional Wisdom: Spectrum is Scarce<br />
Exploding Demand for Mobile Data- iPhone: Canary in the Spectrum Coal Mine   - Total US mobile data demand: 16 to 366 tera...
Reality: Spectrum Licenses are Scarce <br />
Reality: Spectrum Capacity is Abundant (90% not in use)<br />
“The spectrum is completely, unbelievably underutilized.  It’s terribly inefficient and grossly unfair to rural America”– ...
More Conventional Wisdom:Meet Mobile Data Demand with Spectrum Auctions<br />US Wireless Industry (CTIA): Petitions FCC fo...
ITU Spectrum Requirements for Competitive Markets is Higher StillSource: ITU, Estimated total spectrum requirements for fu...
More Spectrum is Just One Part of the Solution to Exploding Mobile Data Demand<br />Increase spectrum access<br />Shrink c...
Exclusively-Licensed, Hub-Spoke, Tower-Based Model is Not Sustainable . . .<br />Clearing incumbents off 800+ MHz not feas...
. . . Nor Desirable . . .<br />Most mobile data should flow short distances over shared spectrum to consumer-owned or shar...
Carriers are Increasingly Offloading Data Traffic to WiFi<br />Signs of the Times:<br />AT&T: 25.6 million WiFi connection...
Far More Spectrum Can be Freed Via Opportunistic Access by Cognitive Radios<br />Tragedy of the Anti-Commons: <br />Spectr...
Underlay: Sharing Underutilized Frequency Band<br />Example: WiFi Backhaul Shares Upper 5 GHz with Military Radar – Listen...
Overlay: Filling Unoccupied FrequenciesExample: TV Guard Bands (“White Space”)<br />
TV WS: Opportunistic Access to ‘Swiss Cheese’ Spectrum<br />Majority of interleaved (TV WS) channels become useable on opp...
FCC’s TV White Space Order<br />Adopted Nov. 4, 2008: 5-0 Vote<br />Unlicensed access to all unassigned channels<br />- Mo...
UK and EU ‘Digital Dividend’<br />OfCom(July ‘09): Adopts license-exempt access to ‘interleaved’ channels by CRs relying o...
Future: Opportunistic Access<br />Let ‘Smart Radios’ Operate Around the Dinosaurs<br />Clarify License Rights: Protect onl...
Rules of the Road: Like Public Highways and Ocean Shipping Lanes, Exclusive Licenses are Inefficient for Low-Power Use of ...
Next Steps to Open Spectrum<br />Inventory the Airwaves<br />In U.S., legislation pending to survey assigned and actual us...
Market-Based Sticks & Carrots:<br />Levy annual lease fees on all government and private license holders that do not open ...
Michael Calabrese's Presentation at Emerging Communication Conference & Awards 2009 Europe
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  • Embracing spectrum abundance will accelerate this trend …
  • Michael Calabrese's Presentation at Emerging Communication Conference & Awards 2009 Europe

    1. 1.
    2. 2. The Myth of Spectrum Scarcity:<br />Hybrid Networks and Opportunistic Access to the Airwaves<br />eComm<br />Emerging Communications Conference<br />October 30, 2009<br />Michael Calabrese<br />Director, Wireless Future Program<br />New America Foundation<br />calabrese@newamerica.net<br />
    3. 3. Wireless Future Program<br />Mission: Pervasive Connectivity<br />Universal<br />Ubiquitous<br />Affordable<br />Means: Openness<br />Open Spectrum<br />Open Networks<br />Open Technologies<br />
    4. 4. Conventional Wisdom: Spectrum is Scarce<br />
    5. 5. Exploding Demand for Mobile Data- iPhone: Canary in the Spectrum Coal Mine - Total US mobile data demand: 16 to 366 terabytes by 2013 (Cisco)<br />
    6. 6. Reality: Spectrum Licenses are Scarce <br />
    7. 7. Reality: Spectrum Capacity is Abundant (90% not in use)<br />
    8. 8. “The spectrum is completely, unbelievably underutilized. It’s terribly inefficient and grossly unfair to rural America”– Tri-County Telephone Co-Op, Wyoming<br />
    9. 9. More Conventional Wisdom:Meet Mobile Data Demand with Spectrum Auctions<br />US Wireless Industry (CTIA): Petitions FCC for 800 Additional MHz of exclusively-licensed spectrum<br />This is based on ITU Projections that advanced market economies require total allocations of roughly 1,300 MHz by 2015 and 1,720 by 2020 (vs. 500 MHz today in U.S.)<br />
    10. 10. ITU Spectrum Requirements for Competitive Markets is Higher StillSource: ITU, Estimated total spectrum requirements for future development of IMT-2000 and IMT-Advanced (2006).<br />
    11. 11. More Spectrum is Just One Part of the Solution to Exploding Mobile Data Demand<br />Increase spectrum access<br />Shrink cell sizes (spectrum re-use)<br />More effective use of wired backhaul (offload data traffic)<br />More efficient/cooperative wireless architectures and technologies<br />
    12. 12. Exclusively-Licensed, Hub-Spoke, Tower-Based Model is Not Sustainable . . .<br />Clearing incumbents off 800+ MHz not feasible<br />Physical limits on cell capacity<br /> - ITU estimate assumes 4G at 75% of theoretical limit (Shannon’s Law)<br />Limits on how close carrier-owned transmitters and backhaul can be brought to individual users<br /> - Total U.S. cell sites increased only 14% over past two years<br />
    13. 13. . . . Nor Desirable . . .<br />Most mobile data should flow short distances over shared spectrum to consumer-owned or shared backhaul<br />Consumers should not pay for data transport over expensive carrier spectrum/infrastructure<br />Carriers evolve into ‘quality of service’ component of hybrid networks<br /> - Consumers pay only for needed mobility, remote access and latency-sensitive aps<br />
    14. 14. Carriers are Increasingly Offloading Data Traffic to WiFi<br />Signs of the Times:<br />AT&T: 25.6 million WiFi connections through June &gt; double all of 2008.<br />T-Mobile offering office and home service that default to WiFi, potentially replacing wired lines (but charging for ‘free’!)<br />Devicescape survey: 81% of smartphone users prefer using WiFi for mobile browsing/email <br />
    15. 15. Far More Spectrum Can be Freed Via Opportunistic Access by Cognitive Radios<br />Tragedy of the Anti-Commons: <br />Spectrum is infinitely renewable – bandwidth not used at any place/time is wasted.<br />A band can be ‘white’ (underutilized) and shared on a number of dimensions:<br />Geographically (not in use everywhere)<br />Time (not continually in use)<br />Spatially (in the air, not on the ground)<br />Angle of Reception (directional or ‘smart antennas’)<br />
    16. 16. Underlay: Sharing Underutilized Frequency Band<br />Example: WiFi Backhaul Shares Upper 5 GHz with Military Radar – Listen Before Talk Sensing<br />
    17. 17. Overlay: Filling Unoccupied FrequenciesExample: TV Guard Bands (“White Space”)<br />
    18. 18. TV WS: Opportunistic Access to ‘Swiss Cheese’ Spectrum<br />Majority of interleaved (TV WS) channels become useable on opportunistic, license-exempt basis if:<br /> -- Cognitive Radio: Occupied channel detection and frequency hopping via . . .<br /> - Geolocate database: Lists permitted channels, or<br /> - Listen-Before-Talk Sensing<br /> -- Low Power: <br /> - FCC (40 mW for mobile on channels adjacent to DTV)<br /> - OfCom (variable power when rely on geo-database)<br />Some Benefits:<br /> - Spectrum efficiency: frequency re-use at low power<br /> - National availability (even in large Metro markets)<br /> - No permanent assignment channels: bands and access conditions changeable with CR<br />
    19. 19. FCC’s TV White Space Order<br />Adopted Nov. 4, 2008: 5-0 Vote<br />Unlicensed access to all unassigned channels<br />- Mobile: 40mW (or 50mW non-adjacent)<br /> - Fixed Access: 4 W (non-adjacent only)<br />Devices must have GPS & Check Location Against Online Database of Licensed transmitters<br /> - Reliance on sensing/DFS unresolved<br />
    20. 20. UK and EU ‘Digital Dividend’<br />OfCom(July ‘09): Adopts license-exempt access to ‘interleaved’ channels by CRs relying on geo-permission database<br />ECC/CEPT Working Group (Oct. ‘09): Draft Report on technical and operational requirements for CR systems in the ‘white spaces’ (WG-SE43)<br />“[T]he digital dividend presents an opportunity to introduce a more flexible spectrum approach, giving Europe a competitive edge over other regions.” --EC Consultation Document, July ‘09<br />
    21. 21. Future: Opportunistic Access<br />Let ‘Smart Radios’ Operate Around the Dinosaurs<br />Clarify License Rights: Protect only incumbent services, not unused spectrum capacity<br />Open unused spectrum for non-interfering use, millisecond to millisecond<br />
    22. 22. Rules of the Road: Like Public Highways and Ocean Shipping Lanes, Exclusive Licenses are Inefficient for Low-Power Use of the Airwaves<br />
    23. 23. Next Steps to Open Spectrum<br />Inventory the Airwaves<br />In U.S., legislation pending to survey assigned and actual uses, frequency-by-frequency, to identify ‘white spaces’ and where sharing is possible<br />Actual use measurement & monitoring is key – and increasingly affordable<br />Add Available Frequencies to TV White Space Database<br />Devices with GPS and/or sensing can identify open frequencies locality by locality.<br />Software defined radio allows devices to dynamically hop across a very wide range of frequencies: opportunistic access.<br />
    24. 24. Market-Based Sticks & Carrots:<br />Levy annual lease fees on all government and private license holders that do not open unused capacity for opportunistic sharing.<br />At a minimum, require license holders to take micro-payments for unused bandwidth.<br />

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