The Magic of Mobile Broadband: Wireless Fundamentals

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Mobile Broadband, powered by Mobile 3G/4G wireless technologies, has revolutionized the way we live, interact, and consume information. This connectivity is as important to mobile user experience as processing power or battery life. It overcomes complex technical challenges to deliver reliable, high-speed connectivity, everywhere we go. At Qualcomm, we foresee and solve the seemingly impossible wireless challenges, pioneering the technology that is powering Mobile Broadband. Being a wireless leader, it is essential for Qualcomm to educate the industry (and beyond) on this amazing technical achievement. This presentation explains the magic of Mobile Broadband, and all the complexities of wireless and mobile communications, to enable everyone at Qualcomm to tell our wireless leadership story, starting with the fundamentals of Wireless and Mobile.

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The Magic of Mobile Broadband: Wireless Fundamentals

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. December 2013 Mobile Broadband: Wireless Fundamentals 2
  3. 3. Wireless is the foundation to mobile broadband 1 2 Mobile is the largest technology platform in the world, enabling broadband internet access anywhere Mobile broadband is an amazing technical achievement, critical to the mobile user experience 3 Wireless fundamentals are the foundation to mobile broadband powered by Mobile 3G/4G technologies 4 Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G. We foresee and solve the impossible wireless challenges. 3
  4. 4. Mobile is the largest technology platform in the world ~6.7 Billion connections, almost as many as people on Earth1 7 Billion smartphones to be shipped 2013-20172 New form factors; tablet/laptop variants, wearables, etc. 1 GSMA More prevalent than electricity or running water in some regions Evolving into Internet of Everything: cars, meters, health-devices, etc. Intelligence, July 2013 - note ~3.3B unique subscribers. 2 Gartner, April 2013 4
  5. 5. The evolution of broadband from fixed to mobile >75% Global broadband connections that are mobile in 20131 Mobile Broadband Mobile 3G/4G Fixed Broadband Ethernet 1 Source: Wireless Intelligence, April 2013; WBIS+, April 2013 Portable Broadband Wi-Fi 5
  6. 6. Mobile broadband is reliable, high-speed internet access…anywhere, anytime Reliable Performance Fast Speeds Anywhere Coverage Talk and browse without interruption with more bars in more places Stream, surf, upload, and download with fast, predictable data rates Connect to Internet with seamless mobility anywhere you get a signal Delivering rich user experiences through seamless mobile connectivity 6
  7. 7. Seamless mobile connectivity is the fundamental reason for buying a smartphone Usage Model Global Response For your next smartphone purchase, which of the following capabilities would drive your decision to select one phone over others? Select all that apply Access internet anytime, anywhere 60% Fast/smooth web browsing Mobile Broadband 60% 52% Faster download speeds 45% SMS/text messaging 45% Send/receive photos/videos (MMS) 36% Quickly switch between apps 36% 35% Secure mobile banking/transactions 30% Watch theater-quality movies/videos 27% View/edit office docs 26% Streaming video/movies 27% 37% Better power management High-definition movies/videos 40% Runs multiple apps efficiently at same time 40% 41% Take HD photos/images High-definition photos/images Instant access to email 25% Source: Qualcomm quantitative survey conducted December through February 2013 on 2,000+ Gen Pop sample from 8 countries worldwide (USA, UK, China, Brazil, India, Mexico, Russia, South Korea) 7
  8. 8. Mobile broadband is an amazing technical achievement More processing power than Apollo 11 when it landed on moon Battery holds ~5 watt-hours of energy, enough to lift an average adult 6 stories high ~100,000,000,000,000 X Magnitude of signal loss versus original signal due to harsh wireless environment Equivalent to distance to mars versus thickness of needle <0.01% packet loss Performance required for high priority applications with mobility E.g., voice and video streaming One device that fits in your pocket replaces functionality of at least 6 other devices >19,000,000,000* Gigabytes of worldwide mobile data traffic forecasted in 2013 Equivalent to >4 billion full-length HD Movies * Source: Cisco & GSMA, 2013 8
  9. 9. Wireless fundamentals are the foundation of this amazing technical achievement Wireless Connectivity Fundamentals Radio Signal Signal-to-Noise Ratio Range Radio Channel Spectrum Data Rate Capacity Radio signals are like a ripple in the water Radio channels are like highways Radio channel has a finite capacity like a pipe 9
  10. 10. Wireless Connectivity Fundamentals Radio Signal Signal-to-Noise Ratio Range Radio Channel Spectrum Data Rate Capacity Radio signals are like a ripple in the water Radio channels are like highways Radio channel has a finite capacity like a pipe 10
  11. 11. Radio signals are like ripples in the water Radio Signal: A form of energy that radiates into space as radio waves. πœ† Water Surface 𝐴 Amplitude (𝐴): Size of the ripple (energy) Wavelength (πœ†): Distance between the ripples (meters) Frequency (𝑓): How often the ripple goes by (hertz) 11
  12. 12. Radio signals (ripples) are modulated with information Modulation turns radio signals into information β€œcarriers” creating a radio channel Ripple Receiver Data 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 Amplitude Modulation (AM) 1 0 0 Amplitude Modulation (AM): Alternating how big you make the ripples 12
  13. 13. Radio signals (ripples) transmit in noisy environments Interference Power Ripple Receiver Noise 𝑆𝑁𝑅 = π‘†π‘–π‘”π‘›π‘Žπ‘™ π‘ƒπ‘œπ‘€π‘’π‘Ÿ π‘π‘œπ‘–π‘ π‘’ + πΌπ‘›π‘‘π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘“π‘’π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘›π‘π‘’ π‘ƒπ‘œπ‘€π‘’π‘Ÿ Signal Power Noise + Interference Power Distance (from ripple source) Range is the distance the signal can travel with acceptable SNR to be decoded by receiver 13
  14. 14. Mobile technologies provide signal quality despite harsh wireless environments Ripple Source (Transmitter) ~100,000,000,000 X Amount of signal loss possible across cell compared to original signal Ripple Receiver Environment Noise Operator Base Station Ripple Source PSTN User Equipment Ripple Receiver Internet Other Users Interference Cell Ripple Range Enabled by Mobile 3G/4G technologies: Advanced receivers and coding to detect low-power signals from noise Multiple antenna techniques to create multiple paths to amplify signal 14
  15. 15. Mobile technologies provide coverage beyond the cell Ripple Source Transmitter #1 Ripple Source Transmitter #2 Power (dB) Ripple Receiver Requires seamless handoff between transmitters like swinging from a trapeze 15
  16. 16. Mobile cells are networked to provide mobility Network Switch/Router PSTN Internet <0.01% Packet loss required for high priority apps (e.g., video) Cells are designed with overlapping coverage to provide seamless handoffs across cells 16
  17. 17. Wireless Connectivity Fundamentals Radio Signal Signal-to-Noise Ratio Range Radio Channel Spectrum Data Rate Capacity Radio signals are like a ripple in the water Radio channels are like highways Radio channel has a finite capacity like a pipe 17
  18. 18. Spectrum is like land – a finite resource; Radio channels are like highways built on this land Radio Frequency Spectrum (land): Frequency range for different types of wireless communication 100 MHz 850 MHz 1,500 MHz 1,900 MHz 2,350 MHz FM Radio Mobile band GPS Mobile band Satellite Radio Radio Channel (highway): Spectrum for specific communication link Data (vehicles): 105.3 FM Radio Channel Bits of information carried on Radio channel 18
  19. 19. Spectrum can be either licensed or unlicensed Licensed Spectrum Unlicensed Spectrum Cleared spectrum for exclusive use (Mobile 3G/4G technologies) Spectrum shared by multiple technologies (Wi-Fi, BT & others) Operator Predictable Performance Foundation of Mobile Broadband Unpredictable Performance Local Area Access, Opportunistic Offload 19
  20. 20. Mobile technologies are a two-way (duplex) highway Frequency Division Duplex (FDD) Two-lane highway (paired spectrum) Spectrum 1 Uplink (UL) Spectrum 2 Downlink (DL) Time Time Division Duplex (TDD) One-lane, shared highway (unpaired spectrum) Spectrum 1 UL DL UL DL Time 20
  21. 21. Finite Spectrum Mobile technologies have finite available spectrum Radio Frequency Spectrum Defense 27% Commercial 27% Aeronautical 17% Requires large antennas Travels short distance Mobile 15%* Broadcasting 8% Other 6% 60 MHz 600 MHz 6 GHz 60 GHz Evolving Mobile 3G/4G technologies maximize spectrum efficiency with: Advanced receivers and radio link improvements to get more bits per Hz Multiple antenna techniques to create multiple paths to carry more data * Based on average Europe allocations up to 6 GHz 21
  22. 22. A radio channel has a peak data rate Peak Data Rate (𝑅) Theoretical max data rate in ideal conditions measured in bits per second (bps) β‰ˆ π‘Š βˆ™ 𝑛 βˆ™ 𝑀 βˆ’ π‘œπ‘£π‘’π‘Ÿβ„Žπ‘’π‘Žπ‘‘ βˆ— Spectrum Bandwidth Number of Antennas Higher Order Modulation The width of the radio channel (highway) built on spectrum (land) The number of spatially separated paths (highway overpasses) The number of bits (passengers) transmitted per signal (vehicle) 11 10 01 00 Frequency Note: Overhead is extra bits for each packet beyond the payload containing information necessary to properly transport the packet end-to-end across the network 22
  23. 23. Evolving Mobile technologies increase peak data rate Peak Data Rate Equation π‘…β‰ˆ π‘Šβˆ™ π‘›βˆ™ π‘€βˆ’ π‘œπ‘£π‘’π‘Ÿβ„Žπ‘’π‘Žπ‘‘ 2G Voice plus Messaging 3G 3G+/4G Mobile Broadband Advanced Mobile Broadband CDMA, GSM, GPRS/EDGE WCDMA/HSPA, EV-DO HSPA+, LTE, LTE Advanced 200 kHz 5 MHz 20+ MHz 1 x 1 (n = 1) 1 x 1 (n = 1) 2 x 2 (n = 2) Modulation (𝑴) 8-PSK (M = 3) 16-QAM (M = 4) 64-QAM (M = 6) Peak Data Rate1 474 Kbps 14.4 Mbps 150+ Mbps Example: LTE Peak Data Rate2 Spectrum Bandwidth (π‘Š) = 20 MHz Number of Antennas (𝑛) = 2 Bits per Symbol (𝑀) = 6 Overhead = 37.5% Peak Data Rate (𝑅) = 150 Mbps Channel Bandwidth (𝑾) # of Antennas (𝒏) 1 Download peak data rate, 2 Download peak data rate with 2 x 2 MIMO, 64-QAM Modulation, and 20 MHz carrier 23
  24. 24. Wireless Connectivity Fundamentals Radio Signal Signal-to-Noise Ratio Range Radio Channel Spectrum Data Rate Capacity Radio signals are like a ripple in the water Radio channels are like highways Radio channel has a finite capacity like a pipe 24
  25. 25. Radio channel capacity is like a pipe’s capacity for water Capacity (𝐢) Radio channel capacity is shared amongst multiple users Theoretical max amount of data traffic that can be reliably transmitted over a noisy radio channel at a given time Single User 100% 12% 13% 29% 21% 10% 15% User 1 User 2 User 3 User 4 User 5 User 6 25
  26. 26. A radio channel has a finite capacity Capacity (𝐢) β‰ˆ π‘Š βˆ™ 𝑛 βˆ™ log 2 (1 + 𝑆𝑁𝑅) Theoretical max amount of data that can be reliably transmitted over a noisy radio channel Spectrum Bandwidth Number of Antennas Signal-to-Noise Ratio This size of your pipe (bandwidth) The number of spatially separated pipes (paths) The quality of your water flow (signal quality) Shannon’s Law 26
  27. 27. Evolving Mobile 3G/4G technologies increase capacity Shared Resources Enhancing user experience through faster data rates and lower latencies πΆβ‰ˆ π‘Š βˆ™ 𝑛 βˆ™ log 2 (1 + 𝑆𝑁𝑅) More Spectrum More Antennas Spectrum Aggregation Clear additional licensed spectrum plus opportunistic use of unlicensed spectrum Carrier #1 Carrier #2 Carrier #3 Aggregated Data Pipe Interference Mitigation Higher Efficiency Mitigate interference with advanced receivers and antenna techniques Create spatially separated paths resulting in higher spectrum efficiency (bps/Hz) Carrier #4 Aggregate contiguous and noncontiguous radio channels for higher data rates Detect low-power signals with advanced receivers and coding techniques Wireless fundamentals are the foundation to this evolution 27
  28. 28. Mobile data traffic growthβ€” industry preparing for 1000x preparing for Mobile technology evolutions to increase capacity equation will not be enough Richer content 1000x data traffic growth* More devices more video everything connected Average bestseller: 5.93 GB Movie (High Definition) Movie (Standard Definition) 0.0014 GB Homepage 1.8 GB Game for Android 0.14 GB Soundtrack 25 Billion ~ 2.49 GB 7 Billion ~ Interconnected device forecast in 20202 Cumulative smartphone forecast between 2013-20171 0.00091 GB Book 28 1 Gartner, April 2013; 2 Machina Research on behalf of GSMA, Dec. ’12, Note: 1000x would be reached if mobile data traffic doubled ten times, but Qualcomm does not make predictions when 1000x will happen, we work on the solutions to enable 1000x
  29. 29. The biggest gain – reuse Shannon’s Law everywhere! 𝐢 Scaling Capacity with Small Cells Reusing Capacity (𝐢) equation everywhere 𝐢 β‰ˆ 𝑛 βˆ™ π‘Š βˆ™ log 2 (1 + 𝑆𝑁𝑅) 𝐢 𝐢 SMALL CELL 𝐢 SMALL CELL 𝐢 Small Cell SMALL CELL More Small Cells 29
  30. 30. Qualcomm is the leader in seamless mobile connectivity delivering superior performance and technology leadership We foresee and solve the impossible wireless challenges 30
  31. 31. Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G technologies First World Mode LTE Advanced Modem with 40 MHz CA and CAT61 Each modem generation enhances user experience and provides more capacity First LTE Advanced Increasing User Experience First Integrated LTE Multimode DL: 100 Mbps Higher efficiency (LTE) 2 x 2 MIMO Support for 3G and 4G technologies First Integrated LTE Smartphone First LTE World Mode DL: 300 Mbps 40 MHz Carrier Aggregation DL: 150 Mbps 20 MHz Carrier Aggregation First DC-HSPA+ First HSPA+ First HSUPA DL: 42 Mbps UL: 11 Mbps Carrier Aggregation DL: 28 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps Higher Order Modulation 2 x 2 MIMO DL: 7.2 Mbps UL: 5.76 Mbps Enhanced Uplink Channel First HSDPA DL: 1.8 Mbps UL: 384 kbps Higher Order Modulation Time Qualcomm Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. 1 November 20, 2013: Qualcomm Technologies Announces Fourth-Generation 3G/LTE Multimode Modem - First Commercial Solution to Offer Global 4G LTE Advanced 40 MHz Carrier Aggregation for CAT6 FDD and TDD 31
  32. 32. Wireless is the foundation to mobile broadband 1 2 Mobile is the largest technology platform in the world, enabling broadband internet access anywhere Mobile broadband is an amazing technical achievement, critical to the mobile user experience 3 Wireless fundamentals are the foundation to mobile broadband powered by Mobile 3G/4G technologies 4 Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G. We foresee and solve the impossible wireless challenges. 32
  33. 33. Thank you Follow us on: For more information on Qualcomm, visit us at: www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog Β© 2013 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners. References in this presentation to β€œQualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsi diaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Te chnologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s enginee ring, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QM C. 33

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