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Published in: Sports, Entertainment & Humor
  • It's pretty cool to see that just by creating a game in your backyard in the 1700's would create an entire industry 300 years later.
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  1. 1. HOW BASEBALL BEGAN HOW BASEBALL BEGAN   No one is exactly sure how baseball began, but it seems to have its roots in the English game called "rounders" or "four-old-cat." This picture was published in a children's magazine with the title "Base-ball" in 1760 and shows players standing at bases; one holding a ball. Rounders had many of the same features as baseball has today. The one major difference was that in rounders the fielder put the batter out by hitting him with the ball. 
  2. 2.  When a group in New York City got together in 1845 to regulate the rules of baseball, they decided that to get a base runner out, an opposing player need only tag him with the ball instead of hitting him with it. From then on, baseball was played using a hard ball, and soon the game began to be played on a much larger scale. Baseball became an organized sport in the 1840s and 1850s. People even played it during the Civil War. In this print you can see Union soldiers playing a baseball game in a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in North Carolina.
  3. 3.  Many early baseball teams were formed in New York CityMany early baseball teams were formed in New York City and Brooklyn. By 1860, baseball had replaced the Britishand Brooklyn. By 1860, baseball had replaced the British game of cricket as America's most popular game. At thisgame of cricket as America's most popular game. At this time, baseball was an amateur sport, which meant thattime, baseball was an amateur sport, which meant that players were not paid to play. The Brooklyn Atlantics wereplayers were not paid to play. The Brooklyn Atlantics were the leading team in early baseball, winning championships inthe leading team in early baseball, winning championships in 1861, 1864, and 1865. They sent this card to teams they were1861, 1864, and 1865. They sent this card to teams they were about to play to let their opponents know they were going upabout to play to let their opponents know they were going up against the champions.against the champions.
  4. 4.  The first all-professional baseball team was the Cincinnati Red Stockings. It was considered a bold move to decide to openly pay players to play baseball, and it can be credited to Club President Aaron B. Champion, who came up with the idea. In 1869, the Reds' player-manager Harry Wright, known as the "Father of Professional Baseball," and his team toured the country and won 60 games without a single loss. Although the National Association didn't want to support the professional baseball movement, they were overruled. Major League baseball in America had begun. 
  5. 5. GEOGRAPHY  Baseball ‘diamond’: three bases and home plateBaseball ‘diamond’: three bases and home plate  Infield and outfield; fair and foul territoryInfield and outfield; fair and foul territory  Nine players (location): Pitcher (mound), catcher (behind home plate), firstNine players (location): Pitcher (mound), catcher (behind home plate), first baseman (infield right side), second baseman (infield right-center), shortstopbaseman (infield right side), second baseman (infield right-center), shortstop (infield left-center), third baseman (infield left side), left fielder (outfield left side),(infield left-center), third baseman (infield left side), left fielder (outfield left side), center fielder (outfield center), right fielder (outfield right side)center fielder (outfield center), right fielder (outfield right side)  Four umpires (referees): Home plate, first base, second base, third baseFour umpires (referees): Home plate, first base, second base, third base
  6. 6. Baseball Knowledge •Baseball is a game between two teams of nine players each, played on an enclosed field. •A RUN (or SCORE) is the score made by an offensive player who advances from batter to runner and touches first, second, third and home bases in that order. The order of the bases is in a counter-clockwise direction around the square from home to first, etc. •A BATTER is an offensive player who takes his position in the batter's box and attempts to hit a ball thrown to him by the pitcher.
  7. 7.  PITCHER is the fielder designated to deliver the pitch to the batter. The pitcher pitches the ball to the batter and the batter attempts to hit the pitch and become a runner. The defense attempts to catch the ball after it is hit and put the batter and/or runners out.  A PITCH is a ball delivered to the batter by the pitcher.  Youth leagues use a 60-foot square field.  The objective of each team is to win by scoring more runs than the opponent.
  8. 8. Baseball knowledge cont. •Regulation game consists of nine INNINGS, unless extended because of a tie score, or shortened (1) because the home team needs none of its half of the ninth inning or only a fraction of it. (Little league - 6 innings) •An INNING is that portion of a game within which the teams alternate on offense and defense and in which there are three OUTS for each team. Each team's time at bat is a half-inning.
  9. 9.  A GROUND BALL is a batted ball that rolls or bounces close to the ground.  A FIELDER is any defensive player.  An INFIELDER is a fielder who occupies a position in the infield.  An OUTFIELDER is a fielder who occupies a position in the outfield, which is the area of the playing field most distant from home base
  10. 10. HOW THE GAME WORKSHOW THE GAME WORKS  One team bats, one team in the field  Each side gets to bat until three outs are reached, then the roles are reversed  Each pair of batting opportunities is an inning, and there are 9 innings* in a game.  The team with the most points (runs) at the end of 9 innings wins the game. * Unless the score is tied at the end of 9 innings, in which case the teams play until an inning ends with one team ahead.
  11. 11. HOW DOES A PLAYER GET ‘OUT’? • Batting – Strike out: Three strikes before contact or four balls – Fly out: Batted ball is caught before it hits the ground • Running – Tag out: Fielder has ball in glove, touches runner – Force out: Fielder touches base before runner reaches it (most common type of out)
  12. 12. HOW THE GAME WORKSHOW THE GAME WORKS (PART 2)(PART 2) • To score a run, a batter/baserunner must touch all three bases and home plate without getting out. • When a batter/baserunner is touching the base, he cannot be tagged out. • Batters appear in order; once all nine have
  13. 13. PITCHING • Pitcher starts with the ball, throws to catcher. • Batter can either swing or let the ball go by. • Swinging strike: Batter swings and misses -> strike • Called strike: Batter does not swing, but the home plate umpire determines that the pitch was in the strike zone (i.e. that it would have been easy to hit) -> strike • Ball: Batter does not swing, and the ball is outside the strike zone -> ball • Foul ball: Batted ball outside of fair territory; if the batter has less than two strikes, it counts as one strike; if he has two strikes, nothing happens.
  14. 14. OUTCOME • Strikeout: Batter gets to three strikes • Walk: Batter receives four balls before three strikes – automatic pass to first base. • Fly ball: Hit high in the air, fielders try to catch the ball to get the batter out • Ground ball: Ball bounces off the ground, infielders try to force the runner out at first base.
  15. 15. If the batter hits the ball into fair territory… • Infielders try to force the batter out by throwing the ball to the first baseman. • Outfielders try to limit the number of bases that a batter can cover by returning the ball to the infield as quickly as possible. • Baserunners attempt to advance as far as possible without risking getting out. Runners are safe (cannot be called out) when they are touching any of the bases.
  16. 16. …just when you thought it was complex enough! • Home run: If the batter hits the ball out of the field in fair territory, he (and all runners then on base) get to circle the bases and score runs. • Double play: If there is a baserunner on first, fielders can force the runner out before relaying the ball to first to force out the batter. • Stolen base: A baserunner on first can attempt to run to second base while the pitcher is throwing; if he is not tagged out before he reaches second, he has ‘stolen’ the base. • If a fly ball is caught, all base runners must return to their original base (‘tagging up’) – after that, they may try to run to additional bases while avoiding being tagged out.
  17. 17. Order of the Game 1. National Anthem 2. First Pitch 3. Innings 1-6 4. 1st half of 7th inning 5. Seventh Inning Stretch (‘Take me Out to the Ballgame’) 6. 2nd half of 7th inning 7. Innings 8-9
  18. 18. Strategy • Teams attempt to advance one baserunner per inning through ‘sacrifice’ hits (where the batter intentionally puts himself out in order to distract the fielders’ attention. – Sacrifice fly: A batter will hit a fly ball to a deep part of the ballpark, giving the runner time to ‘tag up’ (touch his original base) and advance before the fielders can relay the ball and tag him out. – Sacrifice bunt: A batter will deliberately force the ball onto the infield towards first base, forcing fielders to choose between an easy out at first or a more difficult out elsewhere. • Starting batters will be substituted with a ‘pinch hitter’ when another player has a better probability of getting a hit.
  19. 19. Things to Remember • 3 strikes=1 out; 3 outs=1 /2 inning; 9 innings=1 game • Defensive team has the ball • No time limit – only three outs/inning • Batters hit, become base runners, run counterclockwise until they are out or touch home plate. • ‘Take me out to the ball-game/Take me out to the crowd/Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack/I don’t care if I never get back/For it’s root, root, root for the home team/If they don’t win it’s a shame/For it’s one…two…three strikes you’re out at the old ball-game!’
  20. 20. Encarta’s “10 Reasons Baseball is a Weird Sport” 1. If a batter fails two-thirds of the time, they're still considered an excellent batter. It's too bad this standard isn't applied to everything else in life. 2. It is legal to "steal" in this game. This is, perhaps, a questionable example for children. 3. If you aren't such a good hitter, you can have a pinch hitter bat for you. If you aren't such a fast runner, you can have someone—a pinch runner—come in and run for you. At what point, you might wonder, is a team entirely comprised of "pinch" players?
  21. 21. 4. There's a rule preventing pitchers from spitting on the ball. They can spit anywhere else they like, apparently. 5. If a batter walks with the bases loaded, he is credited with an RBI (Run Batted In). That's right: even though he didn't hit the ball. 6. The game is played on dirt and grass, but if the ball gets dirty, it is replaced with a new clean ball. 7. If a batter accidentally hits the catcher when swinging, it's the catcher's fault, even if the catcher gets injured. The batter is awarded a base. The catcher gets an apology, if he's lucky.
  22. 22. 8. The coaches and managers wear the same uniforms as the players. 9. When a pitcher walks a batter, the batter jogs to first base. Incongruous, but it is a nice show of effort. 10. The 7th-inning stretch makes baseball the only sport where spectators must take part in calisthenics.
  23. 23. Baseball Statistics • Pitching – ERA (Earned Run Average): Mean number of runs per 9 innings pitched (how many runs the pitcher would allow if he pitched a complete game. – K (Strikeouts): The number of batters that the pitcher has struck out (usually in a game) • Batting – AVG (Batting Average): Number of hits /Number of plate appearances – RBI (Runs Batted In): Number of runners who have scored due to a batter’s action – BB (Walks or Base-on-Balls): The number of walks issued by a pitcher (usually in a game)
  24. 24. Baseball idioms in American English • “to cover your bases”: to make sure that you have taken care of all of the details • “curveball”: an unexpected question, comment or request • “play hardball”: act tough in negotiations • “off base”: misguided, mistaken • “in a pickle”: in trouble • “to give a rain check”: to promise to make up for a cancelled event at a later date • “right off the bat”: initially • “to step up to the plate”: to rise to an occasion or take the initiative • “to touch base”: ensure that everyone has the same information
  25. 25. BASEBALL FUNDAMENTALS NECESSARY TO BE SUCCESSFUL. Throwing Fielding Hitting Base Running  See some of these fundamentals in the highlights on the following slide.
  27. 27. FAMOUS BASEBALL PLAYERS IN HISTORY  Babe Ruth  Jackie Robinson  Hank Aaron  Willie Mays  Joe DiMaggio Famous Negro League Players  Cool Papa Bell  Satchel Paige  Josh Gibson
  28. 28. FAMOUS BASEBALL PARKS • Est. 1914 home of the Chicago Cubs Est. September 1911 home of the Boston Red Sox Est. April 18, 1923, "The House That Ruth Built" home of the New York Yankees Est. May 12, 1966
  29. 29.  Est. 1914 home of the Chicago Cubs
  30. 30. Est. September 1911 home of the Boston Red Sox
  31. 31. Est. April 18, 1923, "The House That Ruth Built" home of the New York Yankees
  32. 32. Est. May 12, 1966