HOW BASEBALL BEGAN HOW BASEBALL BEGAN
No one is exactly sure how baseball began, but it
seems to have its roots in the English game called
"rounders" or "four-old-cat." This picture was
published in a children's magazine with the title
"Base-ball" in 1760 and shows players standing at
bases; one holding a ball. Rounders had many of the
same features as baseball has today. The one major
difference was that in rounders the fielder put the
batter out by hitting him with the ball.
When a group in New York City got together in 1845 to
regulate the rules of baseball, they decided that to get a base
runner out, an opposing player need only tag him with the
ball instead of hitting him with it. From then on, baseball was
played using a hard ball, and soon the game began to be
played on a much larger scale. Baseball became an organized
sport in the 1840s and 1850s. People even played it during the
Civil War. In this print you can see Union soldiers playing a
baseball game in a Confederate prisoner-of-war camp in North
Many early baseball teams were formed in New York CityMany early baseball teams were formed in New York City
and Brooklyn. By 1860, baseball had replaced the Britishand Brooklyn. By 1860, baseball had replaced the British
game of cricket as America's most popular game. At thisgame of cricket as America's most popular game. At this
time, baseball was an amateur sport, which meant thattime, baseball was an amateur sport, which meant that
players were not paid to play. The Brooklyn Atlantics wereplayers were not paid to play. The Brooklyn Atlantics were
the leading team in early baseball, winning championships inthe leading team in early baseball, winning championships in
1861, 1864, and 1865. They sent this card to teams they were1861, 1864, and 1865. They sent this card to teams they were
about to play to let their opponents know they were going upabout to play to let their opponents know they were going up
against the champions.against the champions.
The first all-professional baseball team was the Cincinnati
Red Stockings. It was considered a bold move to decide to
openly pay players to play baseball, and it can be credited to
Club President Aaron B. Champion, who came up with the
idea. In 1869, the Reds' player-manager Harry Wright,
known as the "Father of Professional Baseball," and his team
toured the country and won 60 games without a single loss.
Although the National Association didn't want to support the
professional baseball movement, they were overruled. Major
League baseball in America had begun.
Baseball ‘diamond’: three bases and home plateBaseball ‘diamond’: three bases and home plate
Infield and outfield; fair and foul territoryInfield and outfield; fair and foul territory
Nine players (location): Pitcher (mound), catcher (behind home plate), firstNine players (location): Pitcher (mound), catcher (behind home plate), first
baseman (infield right side), second baseman (infield right-center), shortstopbaseman (infield right side), second baseman (infield right-center), shortstop
(infield left-center), third baseman (infield left side), left fielder (outfield left side),(infield left-center), third baseman (infield left side), left fielder (outfield left side),
center fielder (outfield center), right fielder (outfield right side)center fielder (outfield center), right fielder (outfield right side)
Four umpires (referees): Home plate, first base, second base, third baseFour umpires (referees): Home plate, first base, second base, third base
•Baseball is a game between two teams of nine players each,
played on an enclosed field.
•A RUN (or SCORE) is the score made by an offensive player
who advances from batter to runner and touches first, second,
third and home bases in that order. The order of the bases is in a
counter-clockwise direction around the square from home to first,
•A BATTER is an offensive player who takes his position in the
batter's box and attempts to hit a ball thrown to him by the
PITCHER is the fielder designated to deliver the pitch to
the batter. The pitcher pitches the ball to the batter and the
batter attempts to hit the pitch and become a runner. The
defense attempts to catch the ball after it is hit and put the
batter and/or runners out.
A PITCH is a ball delivered to the batter by the pitcher.
Youth leagues use a 60-foot square field.
The objective of each team is to win by scoring more runs
than the opponent.
Baseball knowledge cont.
•Regulation game consists of nine INNINGS, unless extended
because of a tie score, or shortened (1) because the home team
needs none of its half of the ninth inning or only a fraction of it.
(Little league - 6 innings)
•An INNING is that portion of a game within which the teams
alternate on offense and defense and in which there are three
OUTS for each team. Each team's time at bat is a half-inning.
A GROUND BALL is a batted ball that rolls or
bounces close to the ground.
A FIELDER is any defensive player.
An INFIELDER is a fielder who occupies a
position in the infield.
An OUTFIELDER is a fielder who occupies a
position in the outfield, which is the area of the
playing field most distant from home base
HOW THE GAME WORKSHOW THE GAME WORKS
One team bats, one team in the field
Each side gets to bat until three outs are reached,
then the roles are reversed
Each pair of batting opportunities is an inning, and
there are 9 innings* in a game.
The team with the most points (runs) at the end of
9 innings wins the game.
* Unless the score is tied at the end of 9 innings, in which case the teams play until an
inning ends with one team ahead.
HOW DOES A PLAYER
– Strike out: Three strikes before contact or four
– Fly out: Batted ball is caught before it hits the
– Tag out: Fielder has ball in glove, touches runner
– Force out: Fielder touches base before runner
reaches it (most common type of out)
HOW THE GAME WORKSHOW THE GAME WORKS
(PART 2)(PART 2)
• To score a run, a batter/baserunner must
touch all three bases and home plate without
• When a batter/baserunner is touching the
base, he cannot be tagged out.
• Batters appear in order; once all nine have
• Pitcher starts with the ball,
throws to catcher.
• Batter can either swing or let
the ball go by.
• Swinging strike: Batter swings and
misses -> strike
• Called strike: Batter does not swing,
but the home plate umpire
determines that the pitch was in the
strike zone (i.e. that it would have
been easy to hit) -> strike
• Ball: Batter does not swing, and the ball is outside
the strike zone -> ball
• Foul ball: Batted ball outside of fair territory;
if the batter has less than two strikes, it counts as
one strike; if he has two strikes, nothing happens.
• Strikeout: Batter gets
to three strikes
• Walk: Batter receives
four balls before three strikes – automatic pass
to first base.
• Fly ball: Hit high in the air, fielders try to
catch the ball to get the batter out
• Ground ball: Ball bounces off the ground,
infielders try to force the runner out at first
If the batter hits the
ball into fair
• Infielders try to force the
batter out by throwing the
ball to the first baseman.
• Outfielders try to limit the
number of bases that a
batter can cover by
returning the ball to the infield
as quickly as possible.
• Baserunners attempt to advance as far as possible
without risking getting out. Runners are safe (cannot
be called out) when they are touching any of the
…just when you thought
it was complex enough!
• Home run: If the batter hits the ball out of the field in fair
territory, he (and all runners then on base) get to circle the
bases and score runs.
• Double play: If there is a baserunner on first, fielders can
force the runner out before relaying the ball to first to force
out the batter.
• Stolen base: A baserunner on first can attempt to run to
second base while the pitcher is throwing; if he is not tagged
out before he reaches second, he has ‘stolen’ the base.
• If a fly ball is caught, all base runners must return to their
original base (‘tagging up’) – after that, they may try to run to
additional bases while avoiding being tagged out.
Order of the Game
1. National Anthem
2. First Pitch
3. Innings 1-6
half of 7th
5. Seventh Inning Stretch (‘Take me Out to the
half of 7th
7. Innings 8-9
• Teams attempt to advance one baserunner per inning
through ‘sacrifice’ hits (where the batter
intentionally puts himself out in order to distract the
– Sacrifice fly: A batter will hit a fly ball to a deep part of
the ballpark, giving the runner time to ‘tag up’ (touch his
original base) and advance before the fielders can relay the
ball and tag him out.
– Sacrifice bunt: A batter will deliberately force the ball onto
the infield towards first base, forcing fielders to choose
between an easy out at first or a more difficult out
• Starting batters will be substituted with a ‘pinch
hitter’ when another player has a better probability
of getting a hit.
Things to Remember
• 3 strikes=1 out; 3 outs=1
/2 inning; 9 innings=1 game
• Defensive team has the ball
• No time limit – only three outs/inning
• Batters hit, become base runners, run
counterclockwise until they are out or touch home
• ‘Take me out to the ball-game/Take me out to the
crowd/Buy me some peanuts and Cracker Jack/I
don’t care if I never get back/For it’s root, root,
root for the home team/If they don’t win it’s a
shame/For it’s one…two…three strikes you’re out
at the old ball-game!’
Encarta’s “10 Reasons Baseball is a
1. If a batter fails two-thirds of the time, they're still considered
an excellent batter. It's too bad this standard isn't applied to
everything else in life.
2. It is legal to "steal" in this game. This is, perhaps, a
questionable example for children.
3. If you aren't such a good hitter, you can have a pinch hitter
bat for you. If you aren't such a fast runner, you can have
someone—a pinch runner—come in and run for you. At what
point, you might wonder, is a team entirely comprised of
4. There's a rule preventing pitchers from spitting on the
ball. They can spit anywhere else they like, apparently.
5. If a batter walks with the bases loaded, he is credited
with an RBI (Run Batted In). That's right: even though he
didn't hit the ball.
6. The game is played on dirt and grass, but if the ball
gets dirty, it is replaced with a new clean ball.
7. If a batter accidentally hits the catcher when swinging,
it's the catcher's fault, even if the catcher gets injured.
The batter is awarded a base. The catcher gets an
apology, if he's lucky.
8. The coaches and managers wear the same
uniforms as the players.
9. When a pitcher walks a batter, the batter jogs to
first base. Incongruous, but it is a nice show of
10. The 7th-inning stretch makes baseball the only
sport where spectators must take part in
– ERA (Earned Run Average): Mean
number of runs per 9 innings pitched (how many runs the
pitcher would allow if he pitched a complete game.
– K (Strikeouts): The number of batters that the pitcher has
struck out (usually in a game)
– AVG (Batting Average): Number of hits
/Number of plate appearances
– RBI (Runs Batted In): Number of runners who have scored
due to a batter’s action
– BB (Walks or Base-on-Balls): The number of walks issued
by a pitcher (usually in a game)
Baseball idioms in American
• “to cover your bases”: to make sure that you have taken
care of all of the details
• “curveball”: an unexpected question, comment or request
• “play hardball”: act tough in negotiations
• “off base”: misguided, mistaken
• “in a pickle”: in trouble
• “to give a rain check”: to promise to make up for a cancelled
event at a later date
• “right off the bat”: initially
• “to step up to the plate”: to rise to an occasion or take the
• “to touch base”: ensure that everyone has the same
NECESSARY TO BE SUCCESSFUL.
See some of these fundamentals in the highlights
on the following slide.
FAMOUS BASEBALL PLAYERS IN
Famous Negro League Players
Cool Papa Bell
FAMOUS BASEBALL PARKS
• Est. 1914 home of
the Chicago Cubs
Est. September 1911 home of the Boston Red Sox
Est. April 18, 1923, "The House That Ruth Built" home
of the New York Yankees
Est. May 12, 1966