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Wilm’s tumor


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Wilm’s tumor

  1. 1. Wilm’s tumor Nephroblastoma Lecture 54
  2. 2. Wilms’ tumor • The peak incidence for Wilms tumor is between 2 and 5 years of age , and 95% of tumors occur before the age of 10 years.
  3. 3. Wilms’ tumor • Approximately 5% to 10% of Wilms tumors both kidneys, • either simultaneously (synchronous) involve or one after the other metachronous). (
  4. 4. • Bilateral Wilms tumors have a median age of onset approximately 10 months earlier than tumors restricted to one kidney, and • these patients are presumed to harbor a germline mutation in one of the Wilms tumor–predisposing genes.
  5. 5. The biology of this tumor illustrates several important aspects of childhood neoplasms, such as • The relationship between malformations and neoplasia, • The histologic similarities between organogenesis and oncogenesis, • The two-hit theory of recessive tumor suppressor genes, • The role of premalignant lesions, and • The potential for judicious treatment modalities to dramatically affect prognosis and outcome.
  6. 6. Pathogenesis and Genetics • The risk of Wilms tumor is increased in association with at least four recognizable groups of congenital malformations associated with distinct chromosomal loci.
  7. 7. I. W AGR syndrome characterized by Aniridia, Genital anomalies, mental Retardation and and a 33% chance of developing Wilms tumor. Aniridia is the absence of the
  8. 8. • Individuals with WAGR syndrome carry constitutional (germline) deletions of 11p13. Studies on these patients led to the identification of the first Wilms tumor–associated gene, WT1 , and a contiguously deleted autosomal dominant gene for ANIRIDIA, PAX6 , both located on chromosome 11p13.
  9. 9. • Patients with deletions restricted to PAX6 function, develop , with normal WT1 sporadic ANIRIDIA, but they are not at increased risk for Wilms tumors.
  10. 10. The presence of germline WT1 deletions in WAGR syndrome represents first hit the “ ”; the development of Wilms tumor in these patients frequently correlates with the occurrence of a nonsense or frameshift mutation in the second WT1 allele (“second hit”).
  11. 11. II. Denys-Drash syndrome A much higher risk for Wilms tumor ( ∼ 90%) characterized by GONADAL DYSGENESIS (male pseudohermaphroditism) and EARLY-ONSET NEPHROPATHY leading to renal failure.
  12. 12. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • The characteristic glomerular lesion in these patients is a diffuse mesangial sclerosis. As in patients with WAGR, these patients germline abnormalities in WT1. also demonstrate
  13. 13. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • In patients with the Denys-Drash syndrome, however, the genetic abnormality is • a dominant-negative missense mutation in the zinc-finger region of the WT1 gene that affects its DNA-binding properties.
  14. 14. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • This mutation interferes with the function of the remaining wild-type allele, yet strangely, it is sufficient only in causing genitourinary abnormalities, but not tumorigenesis; Wilms tumors arising in Denys-Drash syndrome demonstrate bi-allelic inactivation of WT1.
  15. 15. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • In addition to Wilms tumors, these individuals are also at increased risk for developing germ cell tumors called GONADOBLASTOMAS, almost certainly a consequence of disruption in normal gonadal development.
  16. 16. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • WT1 encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor that is expressed within SEVERAL tissues, including THE KIDNEY &GONADS, during embryogenesis. • The WT1 protein is critical for normal renal and gonadal development.
  17. 17. II. Denys-Drash syndrome WT1 has MULTIPLE BINDING PARTNERS, & the choice of this partner can affect whether WT1 functions as a TRANSCRIPTIONAL ACTIVATOR or REPRESSOR in a given cellular context.
  19. 19. II. Denys-Drash syndrome • Despite the importance of WT1 in and its unequivocal role as a NEPHROGENESIS TUMOR SUPPRESSOR GENE, only about 10% of patients with sporadic (nonsyndromic) Wilms tumors demonstrate WT1 mutations, suggesting that the majority of these tumors arise by GENETICALLY DISTINCT PATHWAYS.
  20. 20. III. Children with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome characterized by 1. ENLARGEMENT OF BODY ORGANS (organomegaly), 2. 3. 4. 5. MACROGLOSSIA, HEMIHYPERTROPHY, OMPHALOCELE, and ABNORMAL LARGE CELLS IN THE ADRENAL CORTEX (adrenal cytomegaly).
  21. 21. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome • BWS has served as a model for a nonclassical mechanism of tumorigenesis in HUMANS —GENOMIC IMPRINTING.
  22. 22. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome • The chromosomal region implicated in BWS has been localized to band 11p15.5 (“WT2”), distal to the WT1 locus.
  23. 23. 11p15.5 • This region contains multiple genes that are normally expressed from only one of the two parental alleles, with transcriptional silencing (i.e., imprinting) of the other parental homologue by METHYLATION of the promoter region.
  24. 24. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome BWS • Unlike WAGR or Denys-Drash syndromes, the genetic basis for BWS is considerably more HETEROGENEO US in that NO SINGLE 11P15.5 GENE IS INVOLVED IN ALL CASES.
  25. 25. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome BWS • Moreover, the phenotype of BWS, including the predisposition to tumorigenesis, is influenced by the specific “WT2” imprinting abnormalities present.
  26. 26. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome BWS • One of the genes in this region— • insulin-like growth factor2 (IGF2)—is normally expressed solely from the PATERNAL ALLELE, while the maternal allele is silenced by imprinting.
  27. 27. • In some Wilms tumors, loss of imprinting (i.e., re-expression of the maternal IGF2 allele) can be demonstrated, leading to overexpression of the IGF-2 protein.
  28. 28. • In other instances there is a selective deletion of the imprinted maternal allele, combined with duplication of the transcriptionally active paternal allele in the tumor (uniparental paternal disomy), which has an identical functional effect in terms of overexpression of IGF-2.
  29. 29. • Since the IGF-2 protein is an embryonal growth factor, it could conceivably explain the features of OVERGROWTH associated with BWS, as well as the increased risk for Wilms tumors in these patients.
  30. 30. • Of all the “WT2” genes, imprinting abnormalties of IGF2 strongest relationship to tumor predisposition in BWS. have the
  31. 31. • A subset of patients with BWS harbor mutations of cell cycle regulator CDKN1C the (also p57 or KIP2 known as ); however, these patients have a significantly lower risk for developing Wilms tumors.
  32. 32. • In addition to Wilms tumors, patients with BWS are also at increased risk for developing HEPATOBLASTOMA, • PANCREATOBLASTOMA, • ADRENOCORTICAL TUMORS, and RHABDOMYOSARCOMAS.
  33. 33. β-catenin • Recent genetic studies have also elucidated the role of β-catenin in Wilms tumor. It will be recalled that β-catenin belongs to the developmentally important WNT (wingless) signaling pathway. WNT - Wingless-related integration
  34. 34. • Gain-of-function mutations of the gene encoding β-catenin have been demonstrated in approximately 10% of sporadic Wilms tumors; there is a significant overlap between the presence of WT1 & β-catenin mutations, suggesting a synergistic role events in the genesis of Wilms tumors. for these
  35. 35. Nephrogenic Rests • Nephrogenic rests are putative precursor lesions of Wilms tumors and are seen in the renal parenchyma adjacent to approximately 25% to 40% of unilateral tumors; this frequency rises to nearly 100% in cases of bilateral Wilms tumors.
  36. 36. • In many instances the nephrogenic rests share GENETIC ALTERATIONS with the adjacent Wilms tumor , underscoring their preneoplastic status.
  37. 37. • The appearance of nephrogenic rests varies from EXPANSILE MASSES that resemble Wilms tumors (hyperplastic rests) SCLEROTIC RESTS to consisting predominantly of fibrous tissue and occasional admixed immature tubules or glomeruli.
  38. 38. • It is important to document the presence of nephrogenic rests in the resected specimen, since these patients are at an increased risk of developing Wilms tumors in the contralateral kidney and require frequent and regular surveillance for many years.
  39. 39. Morphology Grossly, Wilms tumor tends to present as a large, solitary, wellcircumscribed mass, although 10% are either bilateral or multicentric at the time of diagnosis.
  40. 40. On cut section The tumor is soft, homogeneous, and tan to gray with occasional foci of hemorrhage, cyst formation, and necrosis.
  41. 41. Microscopy • Microscopically, Wilms tumors are characterized by recognizable attempts to recapitulate different stages of nephrogenesis.
  42. 42. • The classic triphasic combination of 1.BLASTEMAL , 2.STROMAL , & 3.EPITHELIAL cell types is observed in the vast majority of lesions, although the percentage of each component is variable.
  43. 43. • Sheets of small blue cells with few distinctive features characterize the BLASTEMAL component. • EPITHELIAL DIFFERENTIATION is usually in the form of abortive tubules or glomeruli. • STROMAL CELLS are usually fibrocytic or myxoid in nature, although skeletal muscle differentiation is not uncommon.
  44. 44. • Rarely, other heterologous elements are identified, including • Squamous or mucinous epithelium, • Smooth muscle, • Adipose tissue, • Cartilage, • Osteoid and • Neurogenic tissue.
  45. 45. • Approximately 5% of tumors reveal ANAPLASIA, defined as the presence of cells with • large, hyperchromatic, pleomorphic NUCLEI and ABNORMAL MITOSES.
  46. 46. • The presence of ANAPLASIA correlates with the presence of • p53 mutations and • the emergence of resistance to chemotherapy.
  47. 47. • Recall that p53 elicits pro-apoptotic signals in response to DNA damage. • The loss of p53 function might explain the relative unresponsiveness of anaplastic cells to cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  48. 48. Wilms' tumor in the lower pole of the kidney with the characteristic tan-to-gray color and well-circumscribed margins.
  49. 49. Clinical Features. • • • • • Abdominal mass Hematuria, Pain in the abdomen, Intestinal obstruction, Hypertension
  50. 50. • In a considerable number of these patients, pulmonary metastases are present at the time of primary diagnosis.
  51. 51. Prognosis • Cure Rate 85 % • Anaplastic histology remains a critical determinant of adverse prognosis. • Even anaplasia restricted to the kidney (i.e., without extra-renal spread) confers an increased risk of recurrence and death.
  52. 52. • Molecular parameters that correlate with adverse prognosis include • loss of genetic material on chromosomes 11q and 16q, and • gain of chromosome 1q in the tumor cells.
  53. 53. • Along with the increased survival of individuals with Wilms tumor have come reports of an increased relative risk of developing second primary tumors, including • Bone and soft-tissue SARCOMAS, • Leukemia Lymphomas, • Breast cancers. and and
  54. 54. • While some of these neoplasms represent the presence of a germline mutation in a cancer predisposition gene, • others are a consequence of therapy, most commonly RADIATION administered to the cancer field.