Coronary artery dissection and perforation

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Coronary artery dissection and perforation

  1. 1. Coronary artery dissection and perforation
  2. 2. • Despite its numerous benefits, serious and potentially life-threatening complications of PCI can occur, including iatrogenic coronary dissection and perforation • Up to 30% of all conventional balloon angioplasties result in angiographically significant coronary artery dissection • In recent registries, perforation has been reported to occur in 0.3–0.6% of all patients undergoing PCI Am J Cardiol 1991;68:467-471 Am J Cardiol 2000;86(6):680-2, A8.
  3. 3. • The incidence of these complications has been augmented by the development of coronary interventional devices intended to remove or ablate tissue, such as transluminal extraction coronary atherectomy, directional coronary atherectomy, excimer laser coronary angioplasty and high-speed mechanical rotational atherectomy
  4. 4. Coronary Artery Dissection • Percutaneous coronary intervention, which depends upon mechanical dilatation of the artery or ablation of atherosclerotic plaque, is requisitely associated with plaque fracture, intimal splitting and localized medial dissection • these tears may extend into the media for varying distances, and may even extend through the adventitia resulting in frank perforation
  5. 5. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) classification system for intimal tears Type A dissections represent minor radiolucent areas within the coronary lumen during contrast injection with little or no persistence of contrast after the dye has cleared Type B dissections are parallel tracts or a double lumen separated by a radiolucent area during contrast injection, with minimal or no persistence after dye clearance Type C dissections appear as contrast outside the coronary lumen ("extraluminal cap") with persistence of contrast after dye has cleared from the lumen Type D dissections represent spiral ("barber shop pole") luminal filling defects, frequently with excessive contrast staining of the dissected false lumen Type E dissections appear as new, persistent filling defects within the coronary lumen Type F dissections represent those that lead to total occlusion of the coronary lumen without distal antegrade flow
  6. 6. • Types A and B are generally clinically benign, whereas types C through F portend significant morbidity and mortality if untreated
  7. 7. • Acute vessel closure is the most feared complication due to coronary artery dissection, and in the pre-stent era occurred in up to 11% of all elective PTCAs • With the advent of coronary stents, the incidence of acute closure in elective PCI is now less than 1% J Am Coll Cardiol 1995;25(4):855-65 J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; March Special Issue
  8. 8. • Ischemic complications in the current era usually occur as manifestations of edge dissections after stenting, which may predispose to stent thrombosis

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