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AcaciAa 2011

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AcaciAa 2011

  1. 1. Carla Downing, Ph. D. Vice President of Product Development November 20111 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Once we stretch our mind around a new idea, it never returns to its former shape. — Oliver Wendell HolmesIntroductionBecoming a strong, capable learner is one of the most rewarding accomplishments any person canachieve; however, individuals must claim this for themselves. No matter how much we would like tobelieve it, no one person can make this happen for another. This does not mean that we as learning pro-fessionals are without valuable influence in the process. It’s our responsibility to help our learners achievegreater heights in thinking and learning. They won’t have to look far to discover the value ofdeveloping learning skills and employing cognitive strategies, but they do have to know where to findinformation on how to develop and effectively utilize such skills and models. Once we help themdiscover and develop in this area, we are then responsible to support their efforts through appropriatedesign and development of learning experiences.How we as learning professionals respond to this challenge will depend to a great extent on thepopulation we work with, our professional training, and our understanding of the needs of ourlearners. At The College Network we agree with Taylor, Marienau, and Fiddler (2000) that experiencesthat have been skillfully designed to assist learners in developing skills that allow them to generate newideas and theories are very powerful. The AcaciAa™ Model reflects our efforts to help our customersbecome effective, efficient learners so that they are well equipped to generate new ideas and theories.After all, being able to generate new ideas and theories doesn’t just help learners reach their formaleducation goals. Being able to generate new ideas and theories is at the core of better decision-making,which will impact their personal lives as well as their professional endeavors.This visual represents the different stages of the model and what learners need to be able to manage forthemselves in order to have the best learning experience possible. We don’t profess our approach to bewithout shortcomings or the answer to every learner’s needs. However, it does reflect our commitment tofacilitate the development of capable learners and support them once they have achieved this status. Getting Started Becoming Master of Your Fate Attend Consider Adjust Connect Internalize Ascend Assess Define it Reflect Divert Build Claim it Which level? Measure Do it Question Revisit Own it Create Determine Hone it Expound Reroute Feel it Evaluate Decide Analyze ApplyThe AcaciAa™ Model – Version 1.0 Comprehend Memorize 2 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  3. 3. Attention is the first step in this [and every] learning experience. — Pat WolfeAttendIt all begins with the learners’ ability to focus their attention. This may seem like an overly simplisticway to suggest someone begin learning; but anyone familiar with Gagné’s Nine Events of Instruction isaware of the importance of attention in the learning process. In the work titled Principles of InstructionalDesign, Gagné and his colleagues state that, skill at gaining the attention of students, involving insightfulknowledge of the particular students involved, is part of the teacher’s art (Gagné, Wager, Golas, & Keller2005). This isn’t just the logical starting point, however. This initial event of gaining the learner’s atten-tion supports the brain’s reception of information, which initiates the physical process of learning (de-fined as creation of neuronal networks).When training people who are new to the practice of designing and developing eLearning experiences,I often make the statement that reading isn’t learning. When I say this I am not trying to discount thevalue of reading. Reading definitely plays an important role in the learning process. Instead, I am tryingto communicate that if learners are simply reading instructional material without attending to it, theyaren’t fully engaged in the learning process. The difference between the two is fairly basic. Many peopleread without actually processing what they are reading. They see the words and they take them in, butthey really don’t process beyond understanding what the words mean. Basically, they approach readingand learning independently of each other—as if it is simply a list of chores to be completed. An engagedlearner is one who brings his or her thoughts and questions to a book (Caine & Caine 2006). To continuein the words of Caine and Caine (2006), they read differently than someone who simply surfs the overtmeanings of the words. During the Attend Stage, learners should decide as they read what is most andleast relevant and direct their attention accordingly.Supporting Learners’ Abilities to AttendThose making decisions regarding the design and development of instructional material, as well asthe design of learning environments, should keep in mind that relevance is of great importance inengaging learners. Because adult learners don’t want to waste even an ounce of energy directed towardlearning, we must ensure that every assignment, passage, and requirement can be tied directly to thelesson and course objectives. In addition, if there is any room for confusion we should continue workingon the material until its purpose is crystal clear. This does not mean that you need to oversimplify thecontent. In fact, according to Wolfe (2006) there are two factors that greatly improve learner recall andunderstanding, both of which are controlled by the designer of the learning experience. The first iswhether, or not, the information has meaning and the second factor is whether, or not, the informationhas an emotional hook. While designing learning experiences to meet these standards will initiallyrequire more effort of the designers, McLaren states that it is very important to acknowledge thatlearners will have a better experience if they are allowed to complete tasks that engage their minds ratherthan simply reading and listening to lectures (Hsi & Gale 2003, pg 7). Providing learners with multipleoptions throughout the learning experience to include varying degrees of interaction will more likelyensure that they have a positive experience (Battalio 2009). 3 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking. — Albert EinsteinConsiderAs both a learner and an educator, it has oftentimes amazed me how easy it is to fall into lazy habitsof thinking. Unfortunately, many students have never been taught what it means to think or processinformation, so they aren’t actually falling into lazy habits; they have simply never been taughtproper habits of thinking. The Consider Stage of the AcaciAa™ Model continues to assist learners inunderstanding what it means to be an engaged learner.One of my professors used to tell us, repeatedly, that telling isn’t teaching. Yet, so often we behave as ifdissemination of information is enough to support learners in achieving the required learning. Not so—we must develop instructional experiences that engage our learners and move them along the continuumof engagement. The Consider Stage of the AcaciAa™ model moves learners from attending to informa-tion to more deeply processing information by introducing them to the value of three primary functionsof basic information processing: reflecting, questioning, and expounding.Reflection, Questioning, and ExpoundingReflection, in the learning context, is the deliberate act of thinking back on information previouslyencountered so that as learners take in information they can make meaningful connections betweenthe different pieces and portions of information. So often we as educators conceive of teaching asstarting with our knowledge rather than that of the learner. We ignore what may be our bestopportunity to change a brain by refining and exaggerating the valuable connections that are alreadythere (Zull 2002). Reflection is a way for learners to tie what they are learning to their life experiences.This also leads to emotional connections to the learning that allow neurons to work together, thuscreating the desired connections (Zull 2002). The question posed to learning professionals is this—do you structure your learning experiences so that learners are allowed (or required) to reflect whilethey learn? As much as I hate to admit it, we have all run into colleagues who seem more concerned withthe quantity, rather than the quality, of information they share with learners.Even if we are committed to changing our ways, how does one ensure that learners are integrating theact of reflection into their learning process? The answer to this question is so simple that it seems almostridiculous. The answer? Require learners to stop reading or listening and think. That’s right. Provideactivities and assignments that require them to stop and think about or question what they just heard orread. Have them restate in their own words what they’ve read. Once they can do that without too mucheffort, ask them what they think about what the author or speaker is saying and how it’s being said. Hereare a few more items that you may want to include if you really want to be able to support learners inbuilding a strong knowledge base. • What was this passage about? • Why does it matter? • To what other information is this passage connected? • Identify the most important aspect of this topic or concept. • If it is a concept, ensure you understand all aspects of it and how they are related. 4 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Notice that none of the items can be responded to with yes/no answers or without serious considerationof the material. These types of items don’t just get learners thinking; they lead them to expound ontheir initial thoughts. Too often our learners want to check the completed box before adequatelyexpounding on what they are pondering. The reflective process, when done properly, leads to insight andhas been shown to affect—and ultimately change—patterns in the brain (Ross 2006; Liggan & Kay 1999).The more a learner can reflect, question, and expound, the better they will be able to connect later in thelearning process and avoid lazy habits of thinking. It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change. — Charles DarwinAdjustThere are many self-help books on the market today to assist people in changing their lives, careers,bodies, or relationships. Anyone who has made major changes in life and managed to sustain thosechanges over time knows that while it isn’t easy, it is possible. When it comes to learning, in order toensure success in achieving sustainable learning, learners must be able to adjust their approach based onwho they are as learners, what they need at different stages throughout the learning process, and whether,or not, they are on target to reach their learning goals.Some teaching and learning professionals have discussed the value of self-regulation for decades. Whilethere is still relatively little widespread support for the practice of varying instruction in the traditionalclassroom, many agree that students who become empowered to control their own learning experiencebecome transformed as individuals and therefore more engaged in their own learning process (Boyer 2009;Moore & Kearsley 1996; Lane 1997; Palloff & Pratt 1999). Through the increasing use of online andeLearning courses we can better serve our learners in their development of the ability to monitor,manage, and adjust their approach throughout their learning experience. P.T. Northrup states that…self-regulating one’s own learning is an important aspect of online learning… students need tomonitor their progress in an ongoing fashion and adjust their strategies for learning based on theirprogress (Northrup 2009).In order to support learners’ abilities to operate in this manner, the following should be considered whendesigning and developing course materials and activities. • Post lectures online for repeated use by those who need to hear the information more than once. • Tie every assignment, lesson, and lecture to objectives that support course outcomes. Instructional objectives can serve as mile markers or landmarks that allow learners to ensure they are headed in the right direction. • Provide multiple assignment options so that learners are required to make choices regarding how they address or complete course content based on their individual needs. • Follow an andragogical rather than pedagogical approach to instruction. 5 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. As stated previously in the Attend Stage of the model, designing learning experiences that providemultiple options for learners will initially require more effort but will lead to a better overall experiencefor learners. If adult learners are not given the opportunity to create such an experience or encouraged to find existing connections that they can build on, they may revert to treating the material as something to be memorized, rather than understood. —Kathleen TaylorConnectAccording to Wolf (2006), when curricula, courses, and assignments focus on discrete parts oflearning material rather than the big picture, adult learners have difficulty remembering andunderstanding because they do not see how everything fits together. I learned this firsthand duringmy days of classroom instruction while teaching in an Interactive Media program. One of the courses Imost enjoyed teaching was Advanced Interactive Media. I liked teaching this course because it allowedstudents to effectively utilize the information they had learned in the prerequisite courses to design anddevelop meaningful and useful products. However, there was always a handful of students who hadcompleted the lower-level courses successfully but were unable to make the necessary connectionsbetween what they had learned in previous courses and what they were required to do in the moreadvanced course. Not only were they not engaging in basic connection of information as it pertained tothe material and skills they were supposed to be learning in their courses, but some were quite confusedabout the fact that I wasn’t going to re-teach them how to develop instructional graphics, design aninterface, or effectively use a cuing mechanism. Rather, it was my duty in the advanced course toprovide them the opportunity to utilize what they had learned previously to more complex and life-likesituations. This was frustrating for both me and my students because as the instructor I needed to be ableto operate on certain assumptions in order to effectively teach the course.As a method of addressing these issues, I began presenting a mini-lecture before delving into the mate-rial for the more advanced course. This mini-lecture advised them as to how they should approach thesemester if they wanted to be successful in building a knowledge base and skill set that would serve themwell professionally.The essence of the lecture: Students who begin each course in their program as if they are starting at ground zero are missing a valuable opportunity to make meaningful connections that will serve to build their knowledge base over time. Everything you do and learn is connected to where you are heading professionally. The assignments in your classes aren’t just projects we assign to keep you busy. The projects are allowing you to learn and perform in a manner that allows you to make the necessary mental connections you will need as you progress in your program. You see, you aren’t just taking courses; you are actually completing a curriculum for which each of the courses is addressing certain objectives. Each of the courses included in the curriculum leads to the development of knowledge and skills that are not meant to stand alone but rather to build upon one another. 6 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Connecting the DisconnectedIn the end, I couldn’t lay the entire burden at the feet of my students. Did my fellow colleagues and I doenough to help our students understand how the courses were interrelated? Were there ways in whichwe could have better supported students in making the proper connections between the courses andcontent? Could we have used technology to allow them to refresh or remediate as needed? Were we allteaching our courses as stand-alone entities that may or may not have supported the students’ abilities tounderstand and effectively complete the curriculum in a meaningful manner? As learning professionals,the manner in which we develop learning experiences must require and support learners so they canconnect the portions of information they are learning. This is a very important part of the learningprocess, especially when engaged in self-directed (self-regulated) learning. Are we helping our learnersdevelop strong knowledge structures, or as posed previously, are we approaching learning based onthe knowledge we want to share with our students rather than starting with where they are in the devel-opment of their own knowledge structures (Zull 2006)? We all have to answer these questions both asindividuals and collectively if we truly want to have a positive impact on our students’ learning and lives. Real power comes from within. —Charles HaanelInternalizeWhile internalization of the learning experience must occur to some degree to effectively address theAttend, Consider, Adjust, and Connect Stages of the model, I thought it best to include it on its own—especially given the fact that development of this model is, at its core, about learners understanding thatthey must turn inward.If you will recall our brief discussion about the fact that reading isn’t learning, you will see that it is onlythrough internalizing what is being read that the learner engages in learning while reading. To restate—meaningful learning only happens when the learner is fully engaged and brings his or her thoughts,questions, and feelings into the experience (Caine & Caine 2006). The problem with getting learners tointernalize their learning is that every message we send them from kindergarten on demonstrates thatthey are not in control of their learning processes and that it’s all about what happens externally.In order to facilitate a shift in their thinking as it relates to who is to control their learning processes, weas designers and developers of the material, environments, and experiences must first relinquish controlof the learning process and then help our learners develop more personal reasons for learning. Learn-ing, when defined as the construction of meaning, is a very personal experience. According to Caineand Caine (2006), one consequence of a new construction of meaning is a shift in perception—in how aperson sees the world and himself or herself in it. They go on to state that in order for the necessary shiftin perception to take place as learners construct meaning, the learner must have an adequate amount ofrelevant experience. In other words, the learner must internalize the learning experience and generatepersonal meaning based on what is relevant to them. A good place to begin is to help them determinewhy they are engaged in this learning experience and what they hope to gain from it.There are many reasons why we engage in learning experiences. No one person has the exact samereason as another, especially when you consider the fact that many have multifaceted reasons forpursuing learning. The most important thing to keep in mind as it relates to effective learning is the fact 7 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. that the more personal, or internal, the motivation the better. From there we should move to helping ourlearners identify and explore what they already know about the topic being studied before launching intonew material or our agenda as educators. …seek learning conditions that enable each individual to reach the highest level of learning possible for her or him. —Benjamin Bloom, Hastings, & MadausAscendOver 50 years ago, between 1949 and 1953, a group of more than 30 university-level educators beganmeeting to discuss the development of a framework to outline the different levels at which learners arerequired to process information. The result of their combined efforts was a book that presented theframework to the world. The framework was named after the editor of the book, Benjamin Bloom,and is referred to by most educators as Bloom’s Taxonomy. In 2001, David Krathwohl, a member of theoriginal group, and a group of colleagues published an updated version of the taxonomy that betterrepresents what we know today about the highest levels of thinking and learning (Anderson et al. 2001).Nearly two decades ago I discovered for myself what a powerful tool Bloom’s Taxonomy is foreducators in that it ensures that instructional objectives, content, and test or quiz items are aligned. ButI also realized it would be just as powerful, if not more so, for learners if they understood the levels ofcognitive processing represented by Bloom’s Taxonomy. As learning professionals we should support ourlearners in applying Bloom’s Taxonomy to their individual learning processes by explaining to them whattakes place cognitively at each of the six levels and providing examples of what it would look like tooperate at the higher levels of the taxonomy. In some cases it might be useful to provide examples specificto the material they are studying. It should be our hope that if they encounter courses later in life thatwere not designed with the appropriate levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy in mind, they will be able toeffectively navigate the material using their personal knowledge of the model. If we take our commitmentas learning professionals seriously, it should also be our hope that our learners will utilize this valuablemodel when engaged in workplace learning and job performance as well. Although few can state whyfrom the cognitive perspective, employers are generally big fans of employees who can effectively operateat the appropriate cognitive levels while engaged in their day-to-day professional endeavors. Clark (2008)states that an advantage of any organization competing in a global talent pool is innovative and creativeexpertise. The ability to effectively utilize Bloom’s Taxonomy allows learners and employees to continuelearning beyond what we attempt to teach them and enables them to reach their highest level of learningand performance. 8 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. …if one thing stands out about adult learning it is that a self-diagnosed need for learning produces much greater motivation to learn than does an externally diagnosed need. —Malcolm KnowlesAssessAs you have probably noticed, there are a couple of consistent themes throughout the AcaciAa™ Model,one of which is self-regulation. The Assess Stage of the model is part of this same theme. Learners beingable to effectively control their experience will require them to assess, for themselves, what they are doingand whether, or not, they are doing it effectively.In order to become successful by today’s standards, learners must be able to systematically gatherinformation pertaining to their performance so they can measure whether their methods and approachesare working. In connection with the information discussed in the Internalize Stage of the model, thiswill be a much more useful activity if the learner does this from within rather than if all evaluation andassessment of their learning occurs externally. According to Knowlton, generative self-evaluations canextend students’ thinking beyond the immediate content and engage them in issues of ontology andepistemology. They consider what they really do know and how they have come to know it. As studentsengage in generative self-evaluations, they are thinking about their own thinking (Knowlton 2009).Until we as educators provide the means (information and training) for our learners to perform inthis manner as well as the opportunity (created by our relinquish of control as mentioned specificallyin the Adjust and Internalize Stages of the model) for them to do so, we do them a great injustice.Integrating opportunities for learners to begin evaluating their personal performance can begin witheducators providing more useful feedback more frequently and holding learners accountable to changetheir performance based on that feedback. In addition, having them complete open-ended items thatrequire them to speak to the quality of their performance or contribution to the class dynamic will helpthem develop the ability to Assess their overall performance independently. With each requirement torespond to our feedback or rate their own performance, they will become more comfortable and capableof operating in this manner.NOTE: You may have noticed that the “a” that represents the Assess Stage in the AcaciAa™ Model is in superscript. This is intentional, as the author feels that an individual’s ability to assess his or her performance impacts their ability to successfully operate in all other stages of the model. They must nearly constantly engage in assessment of their behavior. 9 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. SummaryThe diagram below shows how the AcaciAa™ Model (The AcaciAa™ Model – Version 2.0) might lookonce learners begin taking control of their learning processes. The individual stages of the model can’t standalone or be addressed as totally separate entities as they are simply too interrelated. We want our learnersto feel free to constantly evaluate their specific actions and assess their overall performance to determinewhether, or not, they are on target to meet their goals. They will never be able to achieve this until theyinternalize all aspects of the learning process and have been empowered to operate in this manner.In order for them to empower themselves to operate in this manner, they must feel qualified to takecontrol. In order to take control we must teach them what it means to operate effectively in each of theseaspects and stages of learning and cognition. The College Network’s Center for Learning Empowermentis assisting learners in the development of the skills necessary for them to assess their progress andthe overall quality of their learning in a meaningful manner. We are achieving this through the use ofinteractive media solutions created specifically with adult learners in mind. As stated in the Introduction,we don’t profess our approach to be without shortcomings in that few models are the answer to everylearner’s needs. However, it does reflect our commitment to facilitate the development of capable learnersand support them as they work to achieve this status. The AcaciAa™ Model – Version 2.0 10 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. About the College NetworkSince 1992, The College Network™ has provided individuals with the opportunity to advance theireducation and careers with college degrees and professional certificates from highly acclaimeduniversities. The College Network has developed courses for adult learners based on the IMPACT™model, which allows for better student outcomes by providing learners with the ability to acquireknowledge in the way that is best suited for their individual behavioral and learning styles. Coursesdeveloped using the IMPACT model are ideal for institutions seeking a curriculum that has the mostbeneficial student results with the least amount of faculty development effort.The American Council on Education’s College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE CREDIT) hasevaluated and recommended college credit for 45 of The College Network’s courses. The AmericanCouncil on Education, the major coordinating body for all of the nation’s higher education institutions,seeks to provide leadership and a unifying voice on key higher education issues and to influence publicpolicy through advocacy, research, and program initiatives. For more information, visit the ACECREDIT website at http://www.acenet.edu/credit.By using The College Network’s IMPACT learning solution, not only will you receive access to the 45courses recommended for ACE CREDIT, an instructor module will provide your faculty with full controlover the course content and student interaction as well. In addition, The College Network offers a fullsuite of services to support the growth and efficiency of our academic partners—from marketing andenrollment through customer service and support.Contact The College Network for more information at partner@collegenetwork.com or visitwww.collegenetwork.com/partners. 11 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. ReferencesAnderson, L. W., D. R. Krathwohl, et al. 2001. A Taxonomy of Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A Revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Longman.Battalio, J. 2009. “Interaction Online: A Reevaluation.” The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Boyer, N. R. 2009. “The Learning Contract Process: Scaffolds for Building Social, Self-Directed Learning.” The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Bloom, B. S., J. T. Hastings, and G. F. Madaus. 1971. Handbook on Formative and Summative Evaluation of Student Learning. McGraw Hill: New York.Caine, G., and R. N. Caine. 2006. “Meaningful Learning and the Executive Functions of the Brain.” The Neuroscience of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 110. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Clark, R. C. 2008. Building Expertise: Cognitive Methods for Training and Performance Improvement. Hoboken: Wiley Publishing.Gagné, R. M., W. W. Wager, K. C. Golas, and J. M. Keller. 2005. Principles of Instructional Design, 5th edition. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning.Haanel, C. 1912. The Master Key System.Hsi, S., and C. Gale. 2003. Effective E-learning Using Learner-Centered Design. Tutorial notes of paper presented at the annual meeting Computer Human Interaction. Ft. Lauderdale, FL.Knowles, M. S. 1980. The Modern Practice of Adult Education: From Pedagogy to Andragogy, 2nd edition. Chicago: Follett.Knowlton, D. S. 2009. “Evaluating College Students’ Efforts in Asynchronous Discussion: A Systematic Approach.” The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Lane, C. 1997. “Technology and Systemic Educational Reform.” Guide to Teleconferencing and Distance Learning. Livermore, CA: Applied Business teleCommunications.Liggan, E. Y., and J. Kay. 1999. “Some Neurobiological Aspects of Psychotherapy: A Review.” Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 8: 103–114.McLaren, A. C. 2009. “Designing Effective eLearning: Guidelines for Practitioners.” The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.Moore, M. G., and G. Kearsley. 1996. Distance Education: A Systems View. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Northrup, P. T. 2009. “Online Learner’s Preferences for Interaction.” The Perfect Online Course: Best Practices for Designing and Teaching. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing. 12 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Palloff, R. M., and K. Pratt. 1999. Building Learning Communities in Cyberspace: Effective Strategies for the Online Classroom. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Ross, C. A. 2006. “Brain Self-Repair in Psychotherapy: Implications for Education.” The Neuroscience of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 110. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Taylor, K. 2006. “Brain Function and Adult Learning: Implication for Practice.” The Neuroscience of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 110. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Taylor, K., C. Marienau, and M. Fiddler. 2000. Developing Adult Learners: Strategies for Teachers and Trainers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Wolfe, P. 2006. “The Role of Meaning and Emotion in Learning.” The Neuroscience of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 110. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Zull, J. E. 2002. The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning. Stylus Publishing: Sterling, VA.Zull, J. E. 2006. “Key Aspects of How the Brain Learns.” The Neuroscience of Adult Learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 110. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 13 Copyright © 2011, The College Network, Inc. All rights reserved.

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