Andragogy Marcy Desmarais


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  • Hello – This I Marcy Desmarais. I researched and wrote paper about Applying Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Model to Instructional System Design.
  • To understand Andragogy we must begin with pedagogy. Pedagogy is how children learn. All formal education was based on pedagogy, which places the student in a submissive role. The teacher controls the learning.
  • Androagogy was termed by Alexander Kapp, a German Teacher in the 1800’s. Malcolm Knowles took Androgogy to another level in the 70’s when he further studied adult learning and developed a Model of Adult learning that placed the student in control of learning. His model is holds some of the same approaches as holistic and humanistic learning theories. Knowles’s has a list of 5 assumptions concerning adult learning.
  • Adults have a need to know why they should learn something. 2. Adults have a deep need to be self directed in their learning 3. Adults have a greater volume and different quality of experience than youth 4. Adults become ready to learn when they have to perform more effectively 5. Adults enter into a learning experience with a problem or life centered way of learning.
  • Malcolms model was based on his assumptions concerning adult learning and begins by addressing the climate and environment that the adult will be in while learning. He encourages people to feel comfortable with the trainee, facilitator and peers to have an open, fun, and friendly atmosphere.
  • In our Rothwell book for this class we learned that there are many different ways to diagnos our audience’s needs. Knowles model on the other hand focuses on the “trainee” which is based on his assumptions concerning adult learning. Knowles proposes that learning is not a need unless the trainee perceives it to be and by allowing them to participate in the planning of their own learning, he helps them want to learn what they need to learn. Knowles suggests an emphasis on self-diagnostic procedures such as simulation exercises, assessments; competency based testing, and feedback. Once the learner has diagnosed their own needs, Knowles suggests translating them into objectives for learning. Once the needs, abilities, and goals of the training are established then the designer can move into planning, designing, and evaluation methods of the instructional course.
  • Knowles process design is based on “what the learner wants to learn”, which is based on his assumptions concerning adult learning. Knowles admits that his model is not perfect and may not be realistic in every situation. He says that “pedagogical assumptions” are more likely to work in an environment when an adult needs to learn a new process or concept (ASTD pg 261). Over the years Knowles continued to study adult learning and eventually focused on combining, both pedagogy and androgy to gain the best result in training.
  • “ Andragogy is “the best known ‘theory’ of adult learning,” and it “has also caused more controversy, philosophical debate, and critical analysis than any other concept/theory/or model proposed thus far” (pp. 249-250 Merrian and Caffarella 1991). The 1970s and early 1980s witnessed much writing, debate, and discussion about the validity of andragogy as a theory of adult learning (Merriam 2001). Most of the controversy revolves around the fact that there have been assumptions made about the difference between adult and childhood learning (Brookfield). Perhaps validity may be lacking in Knowles assumptions concerning Adult learning and there is confusion surrounding Androgy, is it a model or theory? Knowles himself, has admitted Androgy may not work in every situation and he continued to change his own perspectives surrounding Androgogy throughout his life.
  • Knowles assumptions concerning adult learning can easily be applied to technology today. First, Adults need to know why they are learning something and how it applies to them. This may be accomplished before students even engage in using technology, such as if a Certificate in Customer Service must be obtained to move to the next step on the ladder at work. Second, Adults have a deep need to be self-directing, which is exactly how an on-line class can be structured. A worker can choose how much energy they put into the training and for how long, of course if incentives are involved, the adult learner may move quicker. Third, an adult’s experience can be taken into consideration with instructional system design using technology. A student could quickly excel through the requirements they understand and move into new learning. Fourth, Knowles assumed adults become ready to learn something when “they experience a need to learn it in order to cope more satisfyingly with real-life tasks or problems.” (Knowles 1980, 44). The instructional designer must keep in mind that technology-based opportunities should be concrete and relate to workers needs and future goals. In addition, an instructor can encourage workers by designing experiences which simulate situations that the worker will encounter on the job. A way to present new learning to adults may be to get them to consider how it will help them in their own future. If the company promotes learning to advance and make more money, most would choose to try. If it is a necessary part of the workers job and he already knows it then offering advanced information on the same job and examples of how the person’s job may change over the next 5-10 years may motivate them to learn because it would be relevant to them in continuing working.
  • My paper presented aspects of androgy that need to be taken into consideration when designing training. An understanding of Malcolm Knowles assumptions concerning adult learners is paramount to designing effective training for adults. With an understanding of what motivates adult to learn an instructional designer can combine today’s technology to develop trainings that will benefit companies and the workers. Knowles infuses a deeper, more substantial meaning into andragogy which encompasses philosophical foundations and has influenced learning theory and concepts for at least the past 50 years. There is still plenty to delve into considering advanced technology today and Knowles suggestions of independent learning. Instructional designers today and in the future need to understand learning theory and models such as Knowles to be successful as a change agent in today world.
  • Andragogy Marcy Desmarais

    1. 1. Applying Malcolm Knowles Andragogy Model to ISD Marcy A. Desmarais HRD 847
    2. 2. Pedagogy <ul><li>Formal education is based on “pedagogy” – How children learn. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Further study in psychology lead to a submissive role for students </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/Facilitator decides what, when, why something is learned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Andragogy <ul><li>Termed by Alexander Kapp as “Adult Learning” </li></ul><ul><li>Malcolm Knowles adopted and developed a “model of adult learning” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Places the Adult in control of learning </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to “holistic” and “humanistic” approaches </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model based on assumptions of adult learning characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Malcolm Knowles Assumption of Adult Learning <ul><li>ADULTS: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Have a need to know why they should learn something </li></ul><ul><li>2. Have a deep need to be self-directing </li></ul><ul><li>3. Have a greater volume and different quality of experience than youth </li></ul><ul><li>4. Become ready to learn when they have to perform more effectively </li></ul><ul><li>5. Adults enter into a learning experience with a problem or life-centered way to learning </li></ul>
    5. 5. Malcolm Knowles “Model” of Developing Training for Adults <ul><li>Begins by addressing the “climate” and “environment” of learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages collaboration between facilitator, trainee, and peers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comfortable environment – all the tools learner needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geared towards a fun, friendly, and approachable learning atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Next Step in Model <ul><li>“ Trainee” diagnoses their “own” needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is not a need unless trainee decides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-diagnostic procedures such as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation exercises </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Competency based testing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Transfer these needs into objectives for the training </li></ul>
    7. 7. RESULT OF ALLOWING LEARNERS TO DIAGNOS THEIR OWN NEEDS <ul><li>Emerges into a process design and procedure for facilitation that the learner feels they “need” </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles admits that his model is not perfect and may not be “realistic” in every situation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Critical Analysis <ul><li>70’s and 80’s discussions about the validity of andragogy </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the controversy surrounds “differences made between the learning of adults and children” </li></ul><ul><li>Is it a “model” or “theory” </li></ul>
    9. 9. Applying Knowles Model to Technological Instructional Design <ul><li>Allow worker to see that learning will lead to advancement at work or a need on the job (#1 Adults need to know why they are learning) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Self- Directed Learning” – Develop training that allows student to work at own pace (Company incentives may increase how quickly student completes) </li></ul><ul><li>Consideration of “Adult Experience” – Student can take a placement test and begin at point that they need to learn </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adult need to learn for real-life task” – Simulate on-the-job situations, How will it help them in the future (job protection) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Advantages to using Technology in System Design <ul><li>Ability for instructor to be flexible in training and focus on the “needs” of the adult learner </li></ul><ul><li>Company will benefit by investing in “human capital” </li></ul><ul><li>Continued and improved training </li></ul>