Double loop Reasoning

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Reflection is more than just thinking about action; at a deep level it involves transforming yourself and your practice.

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Double loop Reasoning

  1. 1. This lecture will focus on the difference between single- and double-loop learning and how youcan apply this to youth development practice.
  2. 2. What is single-loop reasoning?
  3. 3. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problemSingle-loop reasoning is reflection in the job
  4. 4. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problemIt happens in the moment
  5. 5. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problemAnd is often reactive
  6. 6. Single-loop reasoning0 Is reflection ‘in the job’ 0 It happens in the moment that a youth development worker (or professional) is presented with a situation 0 It is often reactive
  7. 7. Single-loop reasoning0 Is reflection ‘in the job’ 0 It happens in the moment that a youth development worker (or professional) is presented with a situation 0 It is often reactive0 As such … 0 It often finds shallow answers to issues which are hard to change (eg. the young person did not want to engage) 0 It can lead to no change at all or just the same old rules being followed 0 It ignores asking the question ‘ why did this situation occur in the first place?’
  8. 8. What is double-loop reasoning?
  9. 9. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practiceDouble-loop reasoning is reflection on the job
  10. 10. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practiceIt often happens after a situation has occurred
  11. 11. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practiceIt always involves asking ‘why did this happen?’ deeply and personally
  12. 12. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practice And… ‘how did my reactions andassumptions affect this situation?’
  13. 13. Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem Action is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practiceIt involves four steps:
  14. 14. 1. Reflection on the theory you have about youth development and whether you actually applied that theory in the moment Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or ProblemAction is taken in the moment to correct problem Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practice
  15. 15. 1. Reflection on the theory you have about youth development and whether you actually applied that theory in the moment Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem 2. The creation of a new meaning (answer) to why a situation occurred based on your own reflections aboutAction is taken in the your theory in use and the influence of moment to correct problem your assumptions on your practice Further reflection occurs after the situation to address own practice, assumptions and organisational practice
  16. 16. 1. Reflection on the theory you have about youth development and whether you actually applied that theory in the moment Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem 2. The creation of a new meaning (answer) to why a situation occurred based on your own reflections aboutAction is taken in the your theory in use and the influence of moment to correct problem your assumptions on your practice 3. The creation of a new action and Further reflection occurs after the situation to then the application of that action address own practice, assumptions and organisational practice
  17. 17. 1. Reflection on the theory you have about youth development and whether you actually applied that theory in the moment Youth Development Worker Presented with a Situation or Problem 2. The creation of a new meaning (answer) to why a situation occurred based on your own reflections aboutAction is taken in the your theory in use and the influence of moment to correct problem your assumptions on your practice 3. The creation of a new action and Further reflection occurs after the situation to then the application of that action address own practice, 4. Further reflection (often in assumptions and organisational practice professional conversation) and if positive change has occurred, a change in your professional behaviour
  18. 18. Double-loop reasoning0 Is reflection ‘on the job’ 0 It happens after a situation has occurred 0 It involves asking ‘why’ at a very deep and personal level
  19. 19. Double-loop reasoning0 Is reflection ‘on the job’ 0 It happens after a situation has occurred 0 It involves asking ‘why’ at a very deep and personal level0 As such … 0 It often finds that the theory you hold about youth development may not necessarily be what you do in action 0 It does involve you questioning your own assumptions and behaviours 0 Its focus is on bringing about real change in the way you apply theory to practice
  20. 20. Getting Reflective
  21. 21. Getting Reflective
  22. 22. So … growing up …Think about the following key big picture ideas and writedown the key messages (family mottos/sayings)youwould have had as a child growing up.For example, in my (Fiona’s) family, I learnt in my familythat ‘poverty’ (a big picture idea) was not a big issue inNew Zealand. Unlike other countries we have a welfaresystem and if people actually got ‘off them bums’ andworked then no-one would be poor. This was a keymessage for me – and I had to question it later on….
  23. 23. So … growing up …0 How did your family define/talk about success and how can you have a successful life?
  24. 24. So … growing up …0 How did your family define/talk about success and how can you have a successful life?0 What did you learn about the value of school/ education/tertiary education?
  25. 25. So … growing up …0 How did your family define/talk about success and how can you have a successful life?0 What did you learn about the value of school/ education/tertiary education?0 How about the causes of poverty – how did your family talk about poverty?
  26. 26. So … growing up …0 How did your family define/talk about success and how can you have a successful life?0 What did you learn about the value of school/ education/tertiary education?0 How about the causes of poverty – how did your family talk about poverty?0 Te Tiriti o Waitangi – When it came to the Treaty, even Waitangi day, what messages did you hear about New Zealand’s past, present and future?
  27. 27. So … growing up …0 How did your family define/talk about success and how can you have a successful life?0 What did you learn about the value of school/ education/tertiary education?0 How about the causes of poverty – how did your family talk about poverty?0 Te Tiriti o Waitangi – When it came to the Treaty, even Waitangi day, what messages did you hear about New Zealand’s past, present and future?
  28. 28. These messages, unexamined, will…0 Influence how your own principles of positive youth development will be put into practice0 Unintentionally affect how you put theory, even PYD theory, into practice
  29. 29. For example0 If you were raised to believe that working hard will lead to success, you might find yourself reacting to young people in social disadvantage with the same messages
  30. 30. For example0 If you were raised to believe that working hard will lead to success, you might find yourself reacting to young people in social disadvantage with the same messages0 Then …. when the young person fails to respond you might use words like ‘choice’ and ‘disengagement’ to see the behaviour as a fault of the youth
  31. 31. For example0 If you were raised to believe that working hard will lead to success, you might find yourself reacting to young people in social disadvantage with the same messages0 Then …. when the young person fails to respond you might use words like ‘choice’ and ‘disengagement’ to see the behaviour as a fault of the youth0 While some of this might have some truth … it means that you will find it hard to make a difference because you will not be addressing the wider social issues that lead to disadvantage
  32. 32. An example …
  33. 33. Trying to give a voice to youthAdrian has been working in a youth centre for a year. Hehas been using Photovoice as a PYD approach to engageyouth in storytelling. Joe, a 16 year old, has refused toengage in the project and sits to the side in mostmeetings.Adrian has put Joe’s behaviour and disengagementdown to the facts that Joe is living with a local gang andspends most of her time huffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of the time so simply can’tengage.
  34. 34. Trying to give a voice to youthAdrian has been working in a youth centre for a year. Hehas been using Photovoice as a PYD approach to engageyouth in storytelling. Joe, a 16 year old, has refused toengage in the project and sits to the side in mostmeetings.Adrian has put Joe’s behaviour and disengagementdown to the facts that Joe is living with a local gang andspends most of her time huffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of the time so simply can’tengage.
  35. 35. Okay enough of that…
  36. 36. Adrian has put Joe’s behaviourand disengagement down to thefacts that Joe is living with a localgang and spends most of her timehuffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of thetime so simply can’t engage.
  37. 37. Adrian has put Joe’s behaviourand disengagement down to thefacts that Joe is living with a localgang and spends most of her timehuffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of thetime so simply can’t engage.0 The reflection is very much in the moment and is quite reactive – ie Adrian is just justifying why something is not working
  38. 38. Adrian has put Joe’s behaviourand disengagement down to thefacts that Joe is living with a localgang and spends most of her timehuffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of thetime so simply can’t engage.0 The reflection is very much in the moment and is quite reactive – ie Adrian is just justifying why something is not working0 The reflection is not internal to Adrian – it is not asking ‘why’ of ‘me’ but only of the situation
  39. 39. Adrian has put Joe’s behaviourand disengagement down to thefacts that Joe is living with a localgang and spends most of her timehuffing (sniffing petrol). Adrianbelieves Joe is out-of-it most of thetime so simply can’t engage.0 The reflection is very much in the moment and is quite reactive – ie Adrian is just justifying why something is not working0 The reflection is not internal to Adrian – it is not asking ‘why’ of ‘me’ but only of the situation0 The reflection would ultimately not lead to change
  40. 40. To make it double-loop0 Adrian would need to ask why he initially reflected in the way that he did:
  41. 41. To make it double-loop0 Adrian would need to ask why he initially reflected in the way that he did: 0 Was putting the reflection back on Joe and her engagement actually PYD practice?
  42. 42. To make it double-loop0 Adrian would need to ask why he initially reflected in the way that he did: 0 Was putting the reflection back on Joe and her engagement actually PYD practice? 0 What assumptions and underlying theories outside of PYD really did influence Adrian’s reflection?
  43. 43. To make it double-loop0 Adrian would need to ask why he initially reflected in the way that he did: 0 Was putting the reflection back on Joe and her engagement actually PYD practice? 0 What assumptions and underlying theories outside of PYD really did influence Adrian’s reflection? 0 What would have been an alternative response/reflection which would allow Adrian to question his assumptions?
  44. 44. This is a true story…
  45. 45. In this case …Adrian did give it a go. He was right that Joe had been huffingbut in talking to Joe about the stories being told (not Joe’shuffing behaviour), Adrian found that Joe actually disagreedwith the youth in the group.Most youth felt that gangs were bad, but Joe had foundacceptance in a gang family. She felt that the Adrian and theyoung people would not like to hear her view because ‘it waswrong.’Adrian was then able to change the methodology so thatJoe’s perspective came through.Adrian also found himself learning more about the reality ofJoe’s life and disadvantage in her community.
  46. 46. In conclusion0 Double-loop reasoning can be hugely challenging for youth workers simply because it involves being critical about: 0 Yourself and your practice 0 The personal beliefs and assumptions you have about society and youth development
  47. 47. In conclusion0 Double-loop reasoning can be hugely challenging for youth workers simply because it involves being critical about: 0 Yourself and your practice 0 The personal beliefs and assumptions you have about society and youth development0 And, challenging yourself to engage in double-loop reasoning can lead to transformation in both your practice and the lives of young people

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