Future tenses

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Future tenses

  1. 1. FUTURE TENSES
  2. 2. Simple FutureI will, I will…
  3. 3. ΚΑΤΑΦΑΣΗ ΕΡΩΤΗΣΗ ΑΡΝΗΣΗI will start Will I start? I will not /won’t startYou will start Will you start? You will not /won’t startHe will start Will he start? He will not /won’t start.She will start Will she start? She will not /won’t startIt will start Will it start? It will not /won’t start.We will start Will we start? We will not /won’t startYou will start Will you start? You will not /won’t start.They will start Will they start? They will not /won’t start.
  4. 4. 1. "Will" to Express a Voluntary Action"Will" often suggests that a speaker will do something voluntarily. A voluntary action is one the speaker offers to do for someone else. We also use "will" when we request that someone help us or volunteer to do something for us. Similarly, we use "will not" or "wont" when we refuse to voluntarily do something.Examples: I will send you the information when I get it. I will translate the email, so Mr. Smith can read it. Will you help me move this heavy table? Will you make dinner? I will not do your homework for you. I wont do all the housework myself! A: Im really hungry. B: Ill make some sandwiches. A: Im so tired. Im about to fall asleep. B: Ill get you some coffee. A: The phone is ringing. B: Ill get it.
  5. 5. 2. "Will" to Express a Promise"Will" is usually used in promises.Examples:I PROMISE… I will call you when I arrive If I am elected President of the United States, I will make sure everyone has access to inexpensive health insurance. I will not tell him about the surprise party. Ill be careful. Dont worry! I wont tell anyone your secret.
  6. 6. 3 "Be going to" to Express a Plan"Be going to" expresses that something is a plan. It expresses the idea that a person intends to do something in the future. It does not matter whether the plan is realistic or not.Examples: He is going to spend his vacation in Hawaii. (…at least he intends to….) She is not going to spend her vacation in Hawaii. A: When are we going to meet each other tonight? B: We are going to meet at 6 PM. Im going to be an actor when I grow up. (…that is, I want to…) Michelle is going to begin medical school next year. They are going to drive all the way to Alaska. Who are you going to invite to the party? A: Who is going to make Johns birthday cake? B: Sue is going to make Johns birthday cake.
  7. 7. 4. "Will" or "Be Going to" to Express a PredictionBoth "will" and "be going to" can express the idea of a general prediction about the future. Predictions are guesses about what might happen in the future. In "prediction" sentences, the subject usually has little control over the future. In the following examples, there is no difference in meaning.Examples: The year 2222 will be a very interesting year. The year 2222 is going to be a very interesting year. John Smith will be the next President. John Smith is going to be the next President. The movie "Zenith" will win several Academy Awards. The movie "Zenith" is going to win several Academy Awards.
  8. 8. ATTENTION: No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Simple Future cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Simple Future, Simple Present is used.Examples: When you will arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Not Correct When you arrive tonight, we will go out for dinner. Correct
  9. 9. Will / Be Going To1.Why are you holding a piece of paper?B: I ………………………..(write) a letter to my friends back homein Texas.2. A: Im about to fall asleep. I need to wake up!B: I ……………………(get) you a cup of coffee. That will wake youup.3. A: I cant hear the television!B: I ……………………….(turn) it up so you can hear it.4. We are so excited about our trip next month to France.We ……………………………..(visit) Paris, Nice and Grenoble.5. Sarah ……………..(come) to the party. Oliver ………………………(be) there as well.
  10. 10. 6. Ted: It is so hot in here! Sarah: I ………………………………(turn) the air-conditioning on.7. I think he …………………………….(be) the next President of the United States.8. After I graduate, I ……………………..(attend) medical school and become a doctor. I have wanted to be a doctor all my life.9. A: Excuse me, I need to talk to someone about our hotel room. I am afraid it is simply too small for four people. B: That man at the service counter ……………………………..(help) you.10. As soon as the weather clears up, we …………………………………… (walk) down to the beach and go swimming.
  11. 11. Simple Present / Simple Future 1. Today after I …………………..(get) out of class, I ………………….(go) to a movie with some friends. 2. When you ………………..(arrive) in Stockholm, call my friend Gustav. He ……………………..(show) you around the city and help you get situated. 3. A: Do you know what you want to do after you …………………. (graduate) ? B: After I ……………………(receive) my Masters from Georgetown University, I ………………….(go) to graduate school at UCSD in San Diego. I …………………..(plan) to complete a Ph.D. in cognitive science. 4. If it ……………..(snow) this weekend, we …………………(go) skiing near Lake Tahoe. 5. Your father ……………………….(plan) to pick you up after school today at 3:00 oclock. He …………………………..(meet) you across the street near the ice cream shop. If something happens and he cannot be there, I………………………. (pick) you up instead.
  12. 12. 6. If the people of the world ………………….(stop, not) cuttingdown huge stretches of rain forest, we ………………………..(experience) huge changes in the environment during thetwenty-first century.7. If Vera ………………..(keep) drinking, she ……………..(lose,eventually) her job.8. I promise you that I…………………. (tell, not) your secret toanybody. Even if somebody …………………….(ask) me aboutwhat happened that day, I …………………….(reveal, not) thetruth to a single person.9. She ………………………(make) some major changes in herlife. She ………………………(quit) her job and go back toschool. After she ……………………..(finish) studying, she…………………….(get) a better-paying job and buy a house.She is going to improve her life!10. Tom ………………………(call) when he……………………. (arrive)in Madrid. He ………………………….(stay) with you for two orthree days until his new apartment ……………………………..(be)available.
  13. 13. Future ContinuousI ‘ll be waiting for you……
  14. 14. ΚΑΤΑΦΑΣΗ ΕΡΩΤΗΣΗ ΑΡΝΗΣΗ I will be waiting Will I be waiting? I will not /won’t be waiting You will be waiting Will you be waiting ? You will not /won’t be waiting He will be waiting Will he be waiting? He will not /won’t be waiting She will be waiting Will she be waiting ? She will not /won’t be waiting It will be waiting Will it be waiting? It will not /won’t be waiting We will be waiting Will we be waiting ? We will not /won’t be waitingYou will be waiting Will you be waiting ? You will not /won’t be waitingThey will be waiting Will they be waiting? They will not /won’t be waiting
  15. 15. 1. Interrupted Action in the FutureUse the Future Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action in the future. Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.Examples: I will be watching TV when she arrives tonight. I will be waiting for you when your bus arrives. He will be studying at the library tonight, so he will not see Jennifer when she arrives.Notice in the examples above that the interruptions ( marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
  16. 16. 2. Specific Time as an Interruption in the FutureIn USE 1, described above, the Future Continuous is interrupted by a short action in the future. In addition to using short actions as interruptions, you can also use a specific time as an interruption.Examples: Tonight at 6 PM, I am going to be eating dinner. (I will be in the process of eating dinner…) At midnight tonight, we will still be driving through the desert. (We will be in the process of driving through the desert…)
  17. 17. 3. Parallel Actions in the FutureWhen you use the Future Continuous with two actions in the same sentence, it expresses the idea that both actions will be happening at the same time. The actions are parallel.Examples: I am going to be studying and he is going to be making dinner. Tonight, they will be eating dinner, discussing their plans, and having a good time. While Ellen is reading, Tim will be watching television. Notice "is reading" because of the time clause containing "while."
  18. 18. REMEMBER: No Future in Time ClausesLike all future tenses, the Future Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Continuous, Present Continuous is used.Examples: While I am going to be finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Not Correct While I am finishing my homework, she is going to make dinner. Correct
  19. 19. Simple Future / Future Continuous1. Sandra: Where is Tim going to meet us? Marcus: He …………………….(wait) for us when our train arrives. I am sure he …………………....(stand) on the platform when we pull into the station. Sandra: And then what? Marcus: We …………..………(pick) Michele up at work and go out to dinner. 2. Ted: When we get to the party, Jerry ……………………(watch) TV, Sam ……………………….(make) drinks, Beth ……………………….(dance) by herself, and Thad ………………..……..(complain) about his day at work. Robin: Maybe, this time they wont be doing the same things. Ted: I am absolutely positive they ………………………..(do) the same things; they always do the same things. 3. Florence: Oh, look at that mountain of dirty dishes! Who …………………… (wash) all of those? Jack: I promise I …………………………..(do) them when I get home from work. Florence: Thanks. Jack: When you get home this evening, that mountain will be gone and nice stacks of sparkling clean dishes …………………………….(sit) in the cabinets.
  20. 20. Simple Present / Simple Future /Present Continuous / Future Continuous 1. Right now, I am watching TV. Tomorrow at this time, I …………………(watch) TV as well. 3. I am going on a dream vacation to Tahiti. While you (do) paperwork and…………….…………. (talk) to annoying customers on the phone, I ……………………. (lie) on a sunny, tropical beach. Are you jealous? 4. We (hide) when Tony …………………………(arrive) at his surprise party. As soon as he opens the door, we…………………….. (jump) out and………………………………. (scream) , "Surprise!" 5. We work out at the fitness center every day after work. If you ………………………….(come) over while we …………………………(work) out, we will not be able to let you into the house. Just to be safe, we …………………………………. (leave) a key under the welcome mat so you will not have to wait outside. 6. While you ………………………..(study) at home, Magda …………………………….(be) in class. 7. When you ……………………….(get) off the plane, I …………………………………(wait) for you. 8. I am sick of rain and bad weather! Hopefully, when we …………………………… (wake) up tomorrow morning, the sun (shine) . 10. If you …………………………(need) to contact me sometime next week, I ……………………………..(stay) at the Sheraton in San Francisco.
  21. 21. FUTURE PERFECT
  22. 22. ΚΑΤΑΦΑΣΗ ΕΡΩΤΗΣΗ ΑΡΝΗΣΗI will have started Will I have started? I will not/ won’t have startedYou will have started Will you have started You won’t have startedHe will has started Will he have started? He won’t have staredShe will has started. Will she have started? She won’t have startedIt will has started Will it have started? It won’t have startedWe will have started Will we have started? We won’t have startedYou will have started Will you have started? You won’t have startedThey will have started. Will they have started? They won’t have started
  23. 23. 1. Completed Action Before Something in the FutureThe Future Perfect expresses the idea that something will occur before another action in the future OR that something will happen before a specific time in the future.Examples: By next November, I will have received my promotion. By the time he gets home, she will have cleaned the entire house. I won’t have finished this test by 3 oclock. Will she have learned enough Chinese to communicate before she moves to Beijing? Sam is probably going to have completed the proposal by the time he leaves this afternoon. By the time I finish this course, I will have taken ten tests. How many countries will you have visited by the time you turn 50? Notice in the examples above that the reference points (marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because the interruptions are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses
  24. 24. 2. Duration Before Something in the Future We use the Future Perfect to show that something will continue up until another action in the future.Examples: I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave. By Monday, Susan is going to have had my book for a week.
  25. 25. REMEMBER: No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Future Perfect cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect, Present Perfect is used.Examples: I am going to see a movie when I will have finished my homework. Not Correct I am going to see a movie when I have finished my homework. Correct
  26. 26. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  27. 27. ΚΑΤΑΦΑΣΗ ΕΡΩΤΗΣΗ ΑΡΝΗΣΗI will have been fishing Will I have been fishing ? I won’t have been fishingYou will have been fishing Will you have been fishing? You won’t have been fishingHe will have been fishing Will he have been fishing? He won’t have been fishingShe will have been fishing Will she have been fishing? She won’t have been fishingIt will have been fishing Will it have been fishing? It won’t have been fishingWe will have been fishing Will we have been fishing? We won’t have been fishingYou will have been fishing Will you have been fishing? You won’t have been fishingThey will have been fishing Will theyhave been fishing? They won’t have been fishing
  28. 28. 1 Duration Before Something in the FutureWe use the Future Perfect Continuous to show that something will continue up until a particular event or time in the future. "For five minutes," "for two weeks," and "since Friday" are all durations which can be used with the Future Perfect Continuous. Notice that this is related to the Present Perfect Continuous and the Past Perfect Continuous; however, with Future Perfect Continuous, the duration stops at or before a reference point in the future.Examples: They will have been talking for over an hour by the time Thomas arrives. She is going to have been working at that company for three years when it finally closes. James will have been teaching at the university for more than a year by the time he leaves for Asia. How long will you have been studying when you graduate? We are going to have been driving for over three days straight when we get to Anchorage. A: When you finish your English course, will you have been living in New Zealand for over a year? B: No, I will not have been living here that long. Notice in the examples above that the reference points ( marked in italics) are in Simple Present rather than Simple Future. This is because these future events are in time clauses, and you cannot use future tenses in time clauses.
  29. 29. 2 Cause of Something in the FutureUsing the Future Perfect Continuous before another action in the future is a good way to show cause and effect.Examples: Jason will be tired when he gets home because he will have been jogging for over an hour. Claudias English will be perfect when she returns to Germany because she is going to have been studying English in the United States for over two years.
  30. 30. Future Continuous vs. Future Perfect ContinuousIf you do not include a duration such as "for five minutes," "for two weeks" or "since Friday," many English speakers choose to use the Future Continuous rather than the Future Perfect Continuous. Be careful because this can change the meaning of the sentence. Future Continuous emphasizes interrupted actions, whereas Future Perfect Continuous emphasizes a duration of time before something in the future. Study the examples below to understand the difference.Examples: He will be tired because he will be exercising so hard. This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will be exercising at that exact moment in the future. He will be tired because he will have been exercising so hard. This sentence emphasizes that he will be tired because he will have been exercising for a period of time. It is possible that he will still be exercising at that moment OR that he will just have finished.
  31. 31. REMEMBER No Future in Time ClausesLike all future forms, the Future Perfect Continuous cannot be used in clauses beginning with time expressions such as: when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc. Instead of Future Perfect Continuous, Present Perfect Continuous is used.Examples: You wont get a promotion until you will have been working here as long as Tim. Not Correct You wont get a promotion until you have been working here as long as Tim. Correct
  32. 32. Future Perfect / Future Perfect Continuous 1.By the time we get to Chicago this evening, we ………………………(drive) more than four hundred miles. We are going to be exhausted. 2. When Sarah goes on vacation next month, she ………………………..(study) German for over two years. She should be able to communicate fairly well while she is in Austria. 3. I have not traveled much yet; however, I ……………………….(visit) the Grand Canyon and San Francisco by the time I leave the United States. 4. By the time you finish studying the verb tense tutorial, you ……………………(master) all twelve tenses including their passive forms. 5. Drive faster! If you dont hurry up, she …………………….. (have) the baby by the time we get to the hospital.
  33. 33. 6. I came to England six months ago. I started my economics course three months ago. When I return to Australia, I …………………..(study) for nine months and I ……………….(be) in England for exactly one year. 7. Margie just called and said she would be here at 8 oclock. By the time she gets here, we ……………..(wait) for her for two hours. 8. Frank just changed jobs again. If he keeps this up, he ………………….(change) jobs at least four or five times by the end of the year. 9. Come over to my house around 9 oclock. By then, I …………………..(complete) my history essay and we can go see a movie. 10. In June, my grandmother and grandfather ………………….. (be) married for fifty years.

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