White7e ppt ch15


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White7e ppt ch15

  1. 1. Jonathan R. White www.cengage.com/cj/white Chapter 15: Law EnforcementBureaucracy and Homeland Security Rosemary Arway Hodges University
  2. 2. The Bureaucracy Challenge Currently, a variety of Senate and House committees are responsible for different aspects of security in the U.S. o Federal, state, local, tribal agencies and private corporations Max Weber o Coined the term of bureaucracy to describe professional, rational organizations designed to serve a purpose. Bureaucracy and Preventing Terrorism There is a controversy concerning homeland security bureaucracy o Efficiency of consolidating power o Efficiency of decentralized services
  3. 3. Intelligence and Bureaucracy FBI is a leading agency for counterterrorism. Important services are shared with Border Patrol, Secret Service and CIA. Under the intelligence reform law of 2004 all intelligence coordination must take place in the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC).
  4. 4. State, Local, and Tribal Law Enforcement Bureaucracies There are more than 800,000 state, local, and tribal law enforcement agencies in the U.S.A. Law enforcement executives must support task orientated methods in counterterrorism. o Task orientation focuses the actions of individuals and departments. Additionally, commitment to threat analysis and identification of pre-incident indicators have to be taken into consideration.
  5. 5. Border Protection Borders of the U.S. are vulnerable in several areas: o Long stretches of unprotected areas along the northern and southern borders are wide open for infiltration. o Over 300 seaports must be secured. o Air travel and entry points require security. o Noncitizens within U.S. borders to be accounted for. The DHS must coordinate the activities of different agencies responsible for border protection. o Custom Service o Immigration and Customs Enforcement o Coast Guard
  6. 6. Policy Disputes The 9-11 Commission Report addressed border security, recommending reforms. More than 500M people cross U.S. borders every year; 330M are foreigners. The system is unable to provide security or monitor foreigners in the U.S. An agency as broad as DHS will face criticism from various outside and inside groups with conflicting demands. DHS issues: o Deployment of personnel o Policies concerning international travelers o Responsibility of local agencies
  7. 7. Immigration Debate Boarder Security involves issues of: o Tightening entry of illegal immigrants o Tighter controls on immigration from countries that may harbor hostility toward the United States Diminyatz notes four major threats related to protection of the southern border: o Terrorism and weapon of mass destruction o Drug trafficking o Human smuggling o Infectious diseases
  8. 8. Immigration Debate Buchanan o Unregulated flow of immigrants from the southern border opens the door to terrorist infiltration and to destruction of American culture. To correct the situation, U.S. military forces should be deployed along the border until civilian law enforcement can be consolidated and effective barriers can be established. The federal government needs to form partnership with local law enforcement. o There is a danger this would impede effective local law enforcement which requires contacts within illegal immigrant communities.
  9. 9. Infrastructure Protection Clarke – There are a number of threats facing the nation’s infrastructure. o Information systems ▪ Most computer systems are vulnerable to viruses. o Internet and computer networks that support transportation and economic systems are also vulnerable to attack. ▪ Shut down electrical grids and computers – shut down transportation and communication o Energy ▪ The nation’s power system and technological organizations that support it are vulnerable to disruptions.
  10. 10. Private vs. Governmental Partnership  Private industries (i.e., General Motors, Wal-Mart) have excellent information gathering and security systems. o Information used for competition and profit  Private industries often share information with the government for the public good. o One-way flow of information  Police forces need to be linked with security forces charged with infrastructure protection.  Cybersecurity also requires expertise beyond the scope of most law enforcement agencies.
  11. 11. Infrastructure Protection All levels of law enforcement are faced with the problems of technical specialists and access to privately owned portions of the infrastructure. Links with the public and private organizations are necessary. Linkages should be developed in two crucial areas: o Police should be linked to the security forces already associated with infrastructure functions. o State and local law enforcement agencies must establish formal and informal networks with the organizations in their jurisdictions.
  12. 12. Thinking Internationally Terrorism is an abstract concept fluctuating according to political circumstances. Security forces require people with critical thinking skills. o Abstract reasoning skills o Knowledge of international politics and history ▪ Specialized expertise in particular regions Law enforcement agencies in the U.S. generally do not have skilled specialists. o Presents problems as DHS tries to create information networks.
  13. 13. Rivalries Federal agencies, at times, act more like rivals than partners. o 9-11 Commission noted this in its report. Federal agencies’ failure to cooperate with each other can influence local police relationships. Many police executives in the U.S. are not convinced the FBI is in partnership with efforts to stop terrorism. If law enforcement in the U.S. is to become part of homeland defense, the relationship between the FBI and local law enforcement must improve.
  14. 14. Local Control and Revenue Sources Civil libertarians believe consolidated police power will erode civil rights. Local government officials worry their agendas will be lost in the federal maze. Costs of homeland security responsibilities adds a level of frustration to local governments. o Some jurisdictions want homeland security money distributed evenly. o Larger jurisdictions argue that money should be distributed according to likelihood of attack. o Others are concerned that homeland security grants are given to local governments for bizarre reasons. ▪ $36,000 to the state of Kentucky to keep terrorists from infiltrating bingo halls.
  15. 15. Border Security: Critique and Reform Bureaucracies in the U.S. are squandering the opportunity to defend it. Flynn – U.S. has made two crucial mistakes: o Homeland security separated from national security. o Under-qualified personnel that cannot maintain national security. U.S. has not organized its resources for defense. Prepared to fight overseas while neglecting to protect the home front.
  16. 16. Border Security: Critique and Reform Flynn – According to the CIA, weapons of mass destruction would most likely be smuggled into the U.S. by sea. o Difficult to inspect all of the cargo containers in seaports. o Oceans represent an opportunity for terrorists. Bush administration has done very little to protect the nation’s seaports. o U.S., in 2004, spent more money every three days to fight the war in Iraq than it has in three years of protecting seaports.
  17. 17. Border Security: Critique and Reform Nation’s critical infrastructure remains open to attack. o Department of Defense, in 2005, was allotted $7.6 billion to enhance the fortifications of its bases.  In the same budget, the infrastructure for the entire nation received $2.6 billion. o Dirty bombs and chemical threats can be developed from hazardous material.  Over the past three years funds to secure the disposal of such material have been drastically reduced.
  18. 18. Border Security: Critique and Reform While enhanced border security is necessary, this alone will not protect the U.S. against a terrorist attack. Jihadists are fully aware of vulnerabilities in the infrastructure. Safest and most effect way to hit the U.S. is to hit the infrastructure. o Jihadists understand the economic effect of their actions.
  19. 19. Border Security: Critique and Reform Flynn – Development of an integrated system against terrorism would reduce the drug trade, contraband smuggling, and theft. Law enforcement agencies should look for weaknesses in the system, probe them, and make changes based on the results. Not every attack can be prevented; however, most terrorism can be deterred through cooperative partnership.
  20. 20. Successful Law Enforcement New approaches to the law enforcement mission: o Police must be prepared to look beyond the arrest situations to communicate intelligence beyond local jurisdiction. o Local police can expand their skills in detecting and reporting deceptive behavior. o Homeland Security must develop emergency response plans that would define roles and responsibilities to be put into place after an incident. o Joint terrorism Task Forces ▪ System that separates criminal and national security intelligence.
  21. 21. JTTF System The JTTF system may serve as an example for the first step in law enforcement cooperation. Regional units designed to combat terrorism combine o Local police officers o State police officers o Various federal police officers o Prosecutors o Correctional officers
  22. 22. JTTF System Local and state officers are given federal authority; these officers’ presence give federal agents the ability to act in local jurisdictions. Local police are in a perfect position to engage in intelligence gathering activities. o France o Germany o Canadians and British