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Cengage Learning Publications Chapter 12 Content for Psychology and/or Criminal Justice Course

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  1. 1. Chapter 12:Prisons and Jails
  2. 2. A Short History of American Prisons William Penn’s “Great Law.”  Pennsylvania, 1682.  Forbade corporal punishment, and envisioned prisons as workhouses. The Walnut Street Jail  Philadelphia, 1890  Silence and labor are the keys to rehabilitation.  Suffered from overcrowding and excessive costs.
  3. 3. A Short History of American PrisonsThe Pennsylvania System The New York System Silence and in-cell  Solitary confinement labor leads to insanity in Constant solitary inmates confinement (the  Inmates are allowed to separate system) work together, while Only human contact is maintaining silence with visiting clergy (the congregate system)
  4. 4. A Short History of American PrisonsReform: The “new penology” Imposed silence and separation abolished Inmates offered early release for good behavior.  All inmates begin at level 2, and through good behavior be assigned a level 1 and released. Misbehavior sees an inmate demoted to level 3 and the sentence is extended.  The treatment philosophy is consistent with the medical model.
  5. 5. A Short History of American Prisons Martinson’s “What Works?” is published in 1974, reporting that inmate rehabilitation efforts have been largely unsuccessful. In the 1980’s the “get tough on crime” movement is in full swing, bringing harsher sentences and booming prison populations.
  6. 6. The Prison Population BombFactors in prison growth: Enhancement and stricter enforcement of drug laws Increased probability of incarceration Inmates are serving more time for each crime Federal prison growth
  7. 7. Types of PrisonsMaximum-Security Prisons: Violent and repeat offenders, those with conduct disorders (16% of prisoners) Fortresses, watchtowers, armed guards Cell blocks/wings Standard uniforms and dress codes Inmate’s lives are security-based
  8. 8. Types of PrisonsSupermax: Prisons reserved for the “worst of the worst” Controlled environment Advantages and disadvantages of supermax environment
  9. 9. Types of PrisonsMedium-Security Prisons: House less dangerous inmates than maximum security (35% if prisoners) Less restrictive security than maximum security, usually fences instead of walls Rehabilitative programming is available
  10. 10. Types of PrisonsMinimum-Security Prison: Designed for inmates who are a low-security risk, such as non-violent and first-time offenders (about 49% of prisoners) Inmates have more freedom to move about the facility Security is more relaxed, there are no armed guards Rehabilitative programming and privileges are available
  11. 11. Prison AdministrationFormal Prison Management: Chain of command (a strong hierarchy is vital) May lack continuity of purpose (rehabilitation versus punishment)
  12. 12. Prison AdministrationGoverning Prison Populations: Order  The absence of misconduct, such as murder, assault and rape Amenities  Comforts that make life “livable,” such as clean living conditions, and good food Services  Programs designed to improve inmates’ prospects upon release
  13. 13. The Emergence of Private PrisonsPrivate prisons are correctional facilitiesoperated by private corporations instead ofthe government. Private prisons are often reliant on profit for survival. Private prison populations are forecasted to continue to grow over the near future.
  14. 14. The Emergence of Private PrisonsWhy Privatize? Arguments Against Cost efficiency Privatization:  Competitive bidding  Safety concerns  Labor costs Overcrowding and  Philosophical concerns outsourcing
  15. 15. JailsThe Purposes of Jails: To hold those convicted of misdemeanors To hold individuals pre-trial Temporarily hold juveniles awaiting transfer To hold the mentally ill pending transfer To detain those who have violated probation of parole, or have “jumped-bail” To house inmates awaiting transfer to prison To operate community-based corrections programs such as home confinement and electronic monitoring
  16. 16. JailsThe Jail Population: 88% of jail inmates are male 30% are pretrial detainees 38% have been convicted of their current charge  Some will receive credit for time served. The remainder of inmates housed include the mentally ill and those awaiting transfer.
  17. 17. JailsJail Administration: The burden of jail management  Sheriff’s may view the jail as a lower priority than crime prevention and control The challenge of overcrowding  Living conditions are often miserable  The wide variety of persons incarcerated in jails makes management difficult
  18. 18. The Consequences of High Rates of Incarceration Positive consequences include a correlation with a drop in the crime rate. Negative consequences include social consequences for families and communities, and disenfranchisement of inmates who lose their right to vote.