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  2. 2.  William Penn’s “Great Law” ◦ Pennsylvania, 1682. ◦ Forbade corporal punishment, and envisioned prisons as workhouses. The Walnut Street Jail ◦ Philadelphia, 1890 ◦ Silence and labor are the keys to rehabilitation. ◦ Suffered from overcrowding and excessive costs.
  3. 3.  Contrast the Pennsylvania and the New York penitentiary theories of the 1800s.
  4. 4. The Pennsylvania System The New York System Silence and in-cell labor  Solitary confinement Constant solitary leads to insanity in confinement (the inmates separate system)  Inmates are allowed to Only human contact is work together, while with visiting clergy maintaining silence (the congregate system)
  5. 5.  The Reformers and the Progressives ◦ The “new penology” ◦ The medical model The Reassertion of Punishment
  6. 6.  List the factors that have caused the prison population to grow dramatically in the last several decades.
  7. 7. Factors in prison growth: Enhancement and stricter enforcement of drug laws Increased probability of incarceration Inmates are serving more time for each crime Federal prison growth Rising incarceration rates of women
  8. 8.  List and briefly describe the four types of prisons.
  9. 9.  Types of Prisons: ◦ Maximum security ◦ Supermax ◦ Medium security ◦ Minimum security
  10. 10. Maximum-Security Prisons: Designed and organized to control and disciplines dangerous felons Fortresses, watchtowers, armed guards Cell blocks/wings Standard uniforms and dress codes Inmate’s lives are security-based
  11. 11.  Questions: ◦ Describe your reaction to the video. Considering this is a maximum security prison and these are the most violent offenders in Georgia, do you think the video was sympathetic to the offenders?
  12. 12. Supermax Prisons: Prisons reserved for the “worst of the worst” Controlled environment Operate in a state of perpetual lockdown
  13. 13. Medium-Security Prisons: House less dangerous inmates than maximum security Less restrictive security than maximum security, usually fences instead of walls Rehabilitative programming is available
  14. 14. Minimum-Security Prison: Designed for inmates who are a low-security risk, such as non-violent and first-time offenders Inmates have more freedom to move about the facility Security is more relaxed, there are no armed guards Rehabilitative programming and privileges are available
  15. 15.  Describe the formal prison management system.
  16. 16. Formal Prison Management: Chain of command (a strong hierarchy is vital) May lack continuity of purpose (rehabilitation versus punishment)
  17. 17.  List the reasons why private prisons can often be run more cheaply than public ones.
  18. 18.  The Emergence of Private Prisons - correctional facilities operated by private corporations rather than the government. Cost Efficiency ◦ Lower labor costs ◦ Competitive bidding ◦ Less red tape Overcrowding and Outsourcing
  19. 19.  The Argument Against Private Prisons ◦ Safety Concerns ◦ Philosophical Concerns The Future of Privatization in the Corrections Industry
  20. 20.  Summarize the distinction between jails and prisons, and indicate the importance of jails in the American correctional system.
  21. 21.  The Function of Jails ◦ To hold those convicted of misdemeanors ◦ To hold individuals pre-trial ◦ Temporarily hold juveniles awaiting transfer ◦ To hold the mentally ill pending transfer ◦ To detain those who have violated probation of parole, or have “jumped-bail” ◦ To house inmates awaiting transfer to prison ◦ To operate community-based corrections programs such as home confinement and electronic monitoring
  22. 22.  Questions: ◦ Do you believe Treatment Officers should be employed in all jails and prisons? How would this change the correctional facility? ◦ What role does/should rehabilitation play in today’s prison?
  23. 23.  The Jail Population • Pretrial detainees • Sentenced Jail Inmates • Other Jail Inmates
  24. 24.  Explain how jails are administered.
  25. 25.  Jail Administration ◦ Most operated on a county level by an elected sheriff. ◦ Jails often generate income.
  26. 26.  Identify some of the consequences of our high rates of incarceration.
  27. 27.  Positive consequence: A correlation with a drop in the crime rate. Negative consequences: Social consequences for families and communities; disenfranchisement of inmates who lose their right to vote.