Google analytics individual qualification (gaiq) exam preparation
1 Google Analytics Individual Qualification (GAIQ) Exam Preparation One Day GAIQ Study Notes Dhondi Srikanth, Web Analyst. 2/7/2013 Grizli777 | Confidential
It’s a 70 question online exam which you have an hour and a half tocomplete and you have to get 80% to pass (Google recently increased thepass rate from 75% and the reduced the time allowed by 30 minutes). The test comprises of multiple choice questions, usually with 4 answers tochoose from. Some however, are the ‘check all that apply’ type, which youwill find the trickiest.Preparing for the GAIQ test 2Before you take the GAIQ exam, the best resource for preparation isGoogle’s Conversion University lessons, which are broken down in toeasily digestible segments. It goes through the fundamental basics, whichare easy and mostly common sense to more advanced analytic codeplacing and report generation. I would recommend still reviewing all thelessons, especially for those ‘check all that reply’ questions. The lessonsare set out in a sensible order, but content is explained quickly so beprepared to hit the pause button frequently, especially if you are planning totake notes. The lessons which I think were the most useful in terms ofpassing the test and, the ones you should refresh/familiarize yourself withare: • Profiles in Google Analytics • E-Commerce Tracking • Filters in Google Analytics • Domains and Sub-Domains • Cookies and Google AnalyticsThe test will be included a lot of Adwords related questions, which althoughis covered in the lessons, be familiar with running campaigns. Therefore, I’drecommend signing up to an Adwords account to get a feel of how it works.Although I think the Conversion University lessons cover most things.We found both Avinash Kaushik’s books; Web Analytics 2.0 and WebAnalytics: An Hour a Day really easy to read and digest. But the most of theexam questions were generated from Brian Clifton’s Advanced WebMetrics with Google Analyticsbook.
During the GAIQ testWith 70 questions and an hour and a half to complete, this only gives youvery limited time to go research the questions (a minute or so perquestion). However, some of questions you will easily breeze through,leaving enough time to do a bit of research for those trickier ones. Theresources that I recommend having open in your browser during the testare: 3 • Google Search – The answer to most things, although you won’t pass without preparation. • Google Analytics – Make sure you’re logged in • IP Address Range Regex Tool – Useful for IP range question. • Cookie Reference – There were lots of cookie questionsThe best tool was the Conversion University itself.The following notes were extracted from the Google’s ConversionUniversity test preparation presentation (where possible), and are not myproperty. They have been reproduced below to help those duringthe Google Analytics Individual Qualification (GAIQ). The following booksare also a great help to successfully passing the test:Web Analytics 2.0 – by Avinash KaushikWeb Analytics: An Hour a Day - by Avinash Kaushik (Both books are reallyeasy to read and digest)Advanced Web Metrics with Google Analytics – by Brian Clifton (But the mostof the exam questions were generated from this book )
Introduction to Google AnalyticsGoogle Analytics is a free, web analytics tool that is hosted by Google.Google Analytics shows you how visitors actually find and use your site, soyou’ll be able to• make informed site design and content decisions 4• improve your site to convert more visitors into customers• track the performance of your keywords, banner ads, and other marketingcampaigns.• And track metrics such as revenue, average order value, and ecommerceconversion rates.FeaturesGoogle Analytics has been designed to meet the needs of novice users aswell as web analytics experts.Some of the features include:• Map Overlay which can help you understand how to best targetcampaigns by geographic region• AdWords Integration which makes it easy to track AdWords campaignsand allows you to use Google Analytics from your AdWords interface• Internal Site Search which allows you to track how people use the searchbox on your site• Benchmarking so that you can see whether your site usage metricsunderperform or outperform those of your industry vertical.
Data ConfidentialityAll data collected by Google Analytics is anonymous, including wherevisitors comes from, how the visitors navigate through the site, and otheractions they may perform.No personally identifiable information is collected.Google does not share Analytics data with any 3rd parties. 7Furthermore, Google optimization, support, and sales staff may onlyaccess a client’s data with the client’s permission. You can give permissionverbally, over email or through a support ticket that asks for help with aproblem or asks a question about your data.You may elect to share your Google Analytics data “with other Googleproducts”, and Google will use the data to improve the products andservices we provide you. Electing to share your data “Anonymously withGoogle and others” allows you to use benchmarking.To provide benchmarking, Google removes all identifiable informationabout your website, then combines the data with hundreds of otheranonymous sites in comparable industries and reports them in anaggregate form.If you select “do not share my Google Analytics data”, you will not be ableto use benchmarking and may not have access to specific ads-relatedfeatures such as Conversion Optimizer.Again, regardless of your Data Sharing selections, Google does not shareAnalytics data with any 3rd parties.
Initial ScreenUnderstanding the Google Analytics interface will help you find and analyzeinformation more effectively.When you first login to your Google Analytics account, you’ll see a screensimilar to the one on the slide.In this example, the user has access to three Google Analytics accounts. 8Click on the name of the account you would like to access.Analytics SettingsThis takes you to the account-specific page where you manage the set-upand configuration of your account and profiles.You can toggle to your other Analytics accounts using the drop-down menuat the top right of the page.Each profile for the selected account is displayed under “Website Profiles”.From this screen you can access reports for each profile.You can also edit configuration settings, add filters, add or change userpermissions, and add or remove profiles altogether.Report InterfaceClick the “View Reports” link for a profile, and you’ll be taken to thedashboard for that profile.A sample dashboard is shown on the slide.
We’ve called out the user interface features that are available on allreports.Your report navigation, scheduled email settings, Help links, data exportoptions, and the calendar.Note that there are several places to find help information. The Help link onthe top right of the page takes you to the Google Analytics Help Center. 9Also, on the left margin of the page, you’ll see a Help Resources box withlinks.DashboardThe dashboard is where you put all the summary information about yoursite that you want to see at a glance.To add a report to the dashboard, just go to the report you want to add andthen click Add to Dashboard.On the dashboard itself, you can position the report summaries howeveryou like and delete the ones you don’t need.Report StructureIn the left hand navigation, you’ll see that your reports are organized intocategories: Visitors, Traffic Sources, Content, Goals, and Ecommerce.If you don’t have an ecommerce site or don’t have ecommerce reportingenabled, you won’t see the ecommerce section in your navigation.To view reports, click on any of the categories and the reports availablewithin that category will appear.Some reports contain additional sub-reports, like the AdWords report underTraffic Sources.
Click the arrow to see the sub-reports.Setting The Active Date RangeTo change your date range, click the arrow next to the active date rangedisplayed at the upper right of all reports.You can then use the Calendar or the Timeline to select a new date range. 10The “Calendar” tab allows you to select date ranges by clicking on the dayand month within the calendar or you can type dates in the “Date Range”boxes.The “Timeline” tab has a date slider that you can resize and move to coverany range of dates.You can see your site’s traffic trends in the Timeline.Setting A Comparison Date RangeYou can select a date range to compare to the current selected date range.When using the Timeline to set a comparison date range, you’ll see twodate sliders instead of just one.You can use a comparison date range to see how your site is performingmonth over month, year over year or even from one day to another.The date range and comparison date ranges you select will apply to allyour reports and graphs.Graphic By Day, Week And MonthMost reports include an over-time graph at the top. You can make thisgraph display data by day, week, or month.
Multi-Line GraphsYou can also compare two metrics on the same graph to see how they arecorrelated.Click the arrow in the top left of the graph.Then, click the Compare Two Metrics link and select which two metrics youwant to compare. 11In this example, we’re graphing visitors versus average time on site.Graph Roll-OversYou can roll your mouse over the graph and see actual numbers.Exporting Report DataYou can export data from any report. There are four formats: PDF, XML,CSV and tab-separated.Simply click on the Export button at the top of any report page and selectthe format you want.Email ReportsNext to the Export button, you’ll see an Email button.Click it and you’ll see a screen with two tabs: Send Now, and Schedule.You can schedule reports to be delivered daily, weekly, monthly orquarterly.You also have the option to select what format to send them in, such asPDF or CSV.The email scheduling feature provides an easy way to automaticallydistribute specific report data to the people who need it.
Curriculum LinksThe Overview reports in each section contain a set of Curriculum links. Youcan use these links to quickly find information that you need.In some cases, these links access reports that are not available from theleft report navigation.Title And Breadcrumbs 12You can always see where you are in a report hierarchy by looking at thetitle and the breadcrumbs at the top of the report.Look at the example on the slide.From the title, you can see that you are in the Referring Link report and thatyou’re looking at traffic from the link blogger.com/home.From the breadcrumbs, you can see that you are in the Referring Sitesreport hierarchy.You can click on any of the breadcrumb links to go back to that report.Narratives And ScorecardsNearly every report contains a short narrative that summarizes the trafficthat’s included in the report.The scorecard below the narrative provides metric aggregates andaverages for the traffic.Each box in the scorecard contains a question mark button. Clicking itopens a small window that explains how the metric is calculated.
Report TabsMost reports provide tabs that show different sets of data.The Site Usage tab shows metrics such as the number of pages viewedper visit, the average time on site, and the bounce rate.The Goal Conversion tab shows the conversion rates for each of yourgoals. 13If you’ve enabled ecommerce reporting on your Profile Settings page, you’llalso see an Ecommerce tab.This tab shows metrics such as Ecommerce revenue, number oftransactions, and average value.The AdWords Campaigns reports have an additional tab called Clicks. Thistab contains AdWords related metrics such as clicks, cost, revenue perclick and ROI.Quick SegmentationYou can segment table data in different ways using the Dimensionpulldown menu.So, for example, if you want to see the traffic in your keywords reportbroken out by City, you just select City from the pulldown menu.Keyword ReportsIn the Keywords and Search Engines reports, you have the option toanalyze just paid, just non-paid traffic, or all search traffic.Simply click on the links above the scorecard to make your selection.
Hourly ReportingSome reports allow you to view results by hour.On these reports, you can select the view you want by clicking on the clockbutton in the top right corner next to “Graph By”.Report ViewsThere are five different Views available in most reports. The first icon 14organizes your report data into a table. This is the default view for manyreports.The second icon allows you to create a pie-chart based on any one of themetrics in the report.The third icon shows a bar-graph based on any metric you select.The fourth icon is the comparison bar graph view. It allows you to quicklysee whether each entry in the table is performing above or below average.The fifth icon allows you to instantly see a summary report with graphs forthe traffic you’re analyzing.Sorting DataColumns within tables can be sorted in both ascending and descendingorder simply by clicking on the column heading.The arrows next to the heading title indicate the order in which the resultsare listed.A down arrow indicates descending order and an upward arrow indicatesascending order.
Expanding Numbers Of Results DisplayedBy default, all reports with tables display ten rows.To display more than ten rows, go to the bottom of your report and click thedropdown menu arrow next to “Show rows”.You can display up to 500 rows per page. 15Find BoxYou can use the Find box at the bottom left of your reports to narrow orrefine your results.For example, if you are looking at the All Traffic Sources report and youwant to only see traffic from the Google domain, you can type in Googleand select “containing”.Or, to exclude all traffic from the Google domain, you would select“excluding”.Contextual Help ResourcesYou can get information about any report you’re looking at by clicking oneof the Help Resources.About this Report offers a brief description of the report.Conversion University provides insight into how you might use and interpretthe data.Common Questions links to Help Center articles that are related to thereport.
Create Context For Your DataWhen analyzing your traffic, avoid focusing on just a single metric. Thispageviews result by itself isn’t actionable because you don’t know what thenumber really means.But, when you look at pageviews in the context of other metrics, you startto get clearer picture. 16For example, look at the bounce rate. Half of the time that people enteredthe site through this page, they left the site without looking at any otherpages. This page is very important. By comparing the pageviews to the siteaverage, we can see that this page accounts for over 28% of all thepageviews.How has the performance of this page changed over time?This page is receiving 20% fewer visits than it did last week and people arespending 10% less time on it. And last week, the bounce rate was only24% — now it’s double that number.So, putting data into context can help us ask the right questions and decideon a course of action.Let’s look at another example.Creating Context With VisualizationsHere we are looking at the Content by Title report.We’re using the Compare to Site Average visualization to see which pageshave significantly higher bounce rates than the site average.The bounce rate for the first title is nearly 20% higher than the site average.The red bar shows that it’s performing worse than the site average.
Looking For TrendsAnalyzing trends is another useful way to bring context into your analysis.The graph on the slide shows us that pageviews peaked in May. Did visitsincrease or did each visitor look at more pages?Investigating Changes In TrendsUsing the Graph Mode to compare Visits and Pageviews, we see that Visits 17and Pageviews have increased proportionally.Data Driven Decision MakingNow let’s identify which traffic sources led to the increase in traffic andrevenue. We do this by looking at the All Traffic Sources report and clickingon the Ecommerce tab.Comparing two days of traffic, we find that — although several sourcessent an increasing number of visitors to the site — only Google organic andGoogle referral had a significant impact on revenue.Therefore, we know that although other campaigns increased overall traffic,they did not bring in purchasers.This kind of information can help you decide where to focus your promotionand site content resources.PageviewIn Google Analytics, a pageview is counted every time a page on yourwebsite loads.So, for example, if someone comes to your site and views page A, thenpage B, then Page A again, and then leaves your site — the totalpageviews for the visit is 3.
VisitA visit — or session — is a period of interaction between a web browserand a website. Closing the browser or staying inactive for more than 30minutes ends the visit.For example, let’s say that a visitor is browsing the Google Store, a site thatuses Google Analytics. He gets to the second page, and then gets a phonecall. He talks on the phone for 31 minutes, during which he does not click 18anywhere else on the site.After his call, he continues where he left off. Google Analytics will count thisas a second visit, or a new session.Note that throughout these modules, the words “visit” and “session” may beused interchangeably.VisitorA visitor is uniquely identified by a Google Analytics visitor cookie whichassigns a random visitor ID to the user, and combines it with the timestampof the visitor’s first visit.The combination of the random visitor ID and the timestamp establish aUnique ID for that visitor.You’ll learn more about the visitor cookie in a subsequent module.Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors – The BasicsGenerally, the Visitors metric will be smaller than the Visits metric which inturn will be smaller than the Pageviews metric.For example, 1 visitor could visit a site 2 times and generate a total of 5pageviews.
Pageviews Vs. Unique PageviewsA pageview is defined as a view of a page that is tracked by the GoogleAnalytics Tracking Code.If a visitor hits reload after reaching the page, this will be counted as anadditional pageview. 19If a user navigates to a different page and then returns to the original page,an additional pageview will also be recorded.A unique pageview represents the number of visits during which that pagewas viewed–whether one or more times. In other words, if a visitor viewspage A three times during one visit, Google Analytics will count this asthree pageviews and one unique pageview.“Absolute Unique” Vs. “New vs. Returning”The “Absolute Unique Visitors” report counts each visitor during yourselected date range only once. So, if visitor A comes to your site 5 timesduring the selected date range and visitor B comes to your site just once,you will have 2 Absolute Unique Visitors. Remember, a visitor is uniquelyidentified by a Google Analytics visitor cookie.The “New vs. Returning” report classifies each visit as coming from either anew visitor or a returning visitor. So when someone visits your site for thefirst time, the visit is categorized as “Visit from a new visitor.” If the personhas browsed your website before, the visit is categorized as “Visit from areturning visitor.”A high number of new visits suggests that you are successful at drivingtraffic to your site while a high number of return visits suggests that the sitecontent is engaging enough for visitors to come back.
You can look at the Recency report to see how recently visitors havevisited. You can look at the Loyalty report to see how frequently they return.Both the Recency and Loyalty reports are under Visitor Loyalty in theVisitors section.Pageviews, Visits, And Visitors In Your reportThe Pageviews metric can be found in the Visitors Overview and in theContent section reports. Most of the other reports show Pages Viewed per 20Visit instead of Pageviews.Unique Pageviews is only found in the Content section.Almost all of the reports show Visits.The Visitors metric — in other words the number of visitors who came toyour site — is found in the Visitors section.Time On PageTo calculate Time on Page, Google Analytics compares the timestamps ofthe visited pages.For example, in the slide, the visitor saw page A, then page B, and then leftthe site.The Time on Page for page A is calculated by subtracting the page Atimestamp from the page B timestamp.So, the Time on Page for page A is 1 minute and 15 seconds.In order for this calculation to take place, the Google Analytics TrackingCode must be executed on both pages.
The Time on Page for page B is 0 seconds, because there is nosubsequent timestamp that Google Analytics can use to calculate theactual Time on Page.Time On SiteNow, suppose the visitor continued on to a third page before exiting.The second page now has a Time on Page of 1 minute 10 seconds. 21The Time on Site is now calculated as 2 minutes and 25 seconds.“Avg. Time On Page” VS “Avg. Time On Site”For Average Time on Page, bounces are excluded from the calculation. Inother words, any Time on Page of 0 is excluded from the calculation.For Average Time on Site, bounces remain a part of the calculation.To calculate Average Time on Site, Google Analytics divides the total timefor all visits by the number of visits.Flash Based SitesSome sites make extensive use of Flash or other interactive technologies.Often, these kinds of sites don’t load new pages frequently and all the userinteraction takes place on a single page.As a result, it’s common for sites like this to have high bounce rates andlow average times on site.If you have such a site, you may wish to set up your tracking so that virtualpageviews or events are generated as the user performs various activities.You can learn how to do this in the module on Event Tracking and VirtualPageviews.
“Length Of Visit” VS “Avg. Time On Site”The Length of Visit report categorizes visits according to the amount of timespent on the site during the visit.The graph allows you to visualize the entire distribution of visits instead ofsimply the ‘Average Time on Site’ across all visits.You can see whether a few visits are skewing your ‘Average Time on Site’ 22upward or downward.The Length of Visit report can be found under Visitor Loyalty in the Visitorssection.Traffic Sources ReportsThe reports in the Traffic Sources section show you where your traffic iscoming from on the internet.You can compare your traffic sources against each other to find out whichsources send you the highest quality traffic.Traffic Sources ExplainedDirect Traffic represents visitors who clicked on a bookmark to arrive atyour site, or who typed the URL directly into their browser.Referring Sites include any sites that send traffic to you. These could bebanner ads or links featured on blogs, affiliates, or any site that links to yoursite.Search Engine traffic represents visitors who click on a search results linkin Google, Yahoo, or any other search engine.Search Engine traffic can be organic — in other words, free search results— or paid.
Paid search engine traffic is pay per click or cost per click traffic that youpurchase from a search engine — for example on Google AdWords.Understanding which search engines send you qualified traffic can help youselect the search engines on which you want to advertise.What Makes A Good Source Of Traffic?Looking at the highest traffic drivers is a start, but it doesn’t tell you whether 23the traffic was qualified.In other words, did the traffic help you achieve the goals you’ve set for yoursite?One easy indicator of quality is Bounce Rate — the percentage of visits inwhich the person left without viewing any other pages.In the slide, although blogger.com sent the most traffic, it has an 88%bounce rate. A bounce rate this high suggests that the site isn’t relevant towhat the visitor is looking forBy clicking the “compare to site average” icon and selecting a comparisonmetric, you can see which sources outperform and underperform the siteaverage.So here, for example, if we select Bounce Rate as our comparison metric.we can see that the two most popular sources of traffic underperform thesite average.One note about bounce rate, if your site is a blog, bounce rate may not berelevant. With blogs, it’s common for people to look at a single page andthen leave.
All Traffic SourcesThe All Traffic Sources report lists all of the sources sending traffic to yoursite — including referrals, search engine traffic, and direct trafficThis report is particularly helpful because you can identify your topperforming sources, regardless of whether they are search engines orsites. 24For example, in the report, we see that blogger.com referred more trafficthan any other source. It has a medium of referral because it is a referralfrom a site.The second most popular source of traffic was direct. Direct traffic alwayshas a medium of (none).Free Google search engine traffic was the fourth largest referrer.The medium of organic tells us that this traffic came from clicks on unpaidsearch engine results.The medium of cpc on this entry — for cost per click — tells us that thistraffic came from paid search results.You may sometimes see _referrals_ from google.com. These can comefrom Google Groups posts or static pages on other Google sites.Revenue And Conversion DriversIf you have goals or ecommerce set up on your site, you have a muchwider range of metrics with which to assess performance.Click on the Goal Conversion or Ecommerce tabs to view which sourcesare driving conversions and purchases.
Keywords ReportThe Keywords report is very useful for understanding what visitors wereexpecting to find on your site.Keywords with a high bounce rate tell you where you failed to meet thatexpectation.You can isolate your paid search engine traffic by clicking the Paid link. 25By doing this, you’ll limit the report to just showing your AdWords traffic andpaid traffic from other search engines.If you have paid keywords with a high bounce rate, you should evaluatewhether your landing pages are relevant enough and you might also wantto consider whether you should continue to buy those keywords.Remember, you can use the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs tocompare the performance of keywords in terms of conversions andrevenue.For example, in the slide example, the ‘google kids’ phrase has a 86%bounce rate. Let’s find out what landing page is being used.We start by clicking on the ‘google kids’ entry in the table.Keyword DrilldownThis takes us to the Keyword report for ‘google kids’.To find out which landing page is being used for this keyword, we’ll selectLanding Page from the Dimension pulldown menu.
Keyword DrilldownWe can now see which landing page is being used and evaluate it’srelevance to the keyword.This report can be particularly helpful if multiple landing pages are beingused.You can find out which landing pages are responsible for the poor 26performance and send the keyword traffic to the most effective landingpage. Be sure to also check the bounce rates for organic, non-paidkeywords. This information can offer insights into how to best focus yoursearch engine optimization efforts.Campaign AttributionAs long as you have defined goals and track ecommerce transactions, youcan use the metrics on the Goal Conversion and Ecommerce tabs toassess the performance of any campaign.By default, Google Analytics attributes a conversion or sale to thecampaign that most recently preceded the conversion or sale.For example, if a visitor clicks on an AdWords ad (Campaign 1 in the firstsession) and then later returns via a referral to purchase something(Referrer 1 in the second session), the referral will get credit for the sale.However, if instead the visitor returns directly, then the AdWords ad(Campaign 1) will still get credit for the sale.To prevent a specific referral or campaign from overriding a prior campaign,simply append “utm_nooverride=1” to all referring campaign links as shownin the slide. This ensures that the conversion is always attributed to theoriginal referrer (or first campaign the user clicked on).
Therefore, in the example above, the original campaign will continue to getcredit for the conversion.If a visitor returns via a link without the utm_nooverride, as in the thirdexample, that campaign will get credit for the sale since it overwrites allprevious referring campaigns.Top Content, Content By Title, Content Drilldown 27The first three reports listed in the Content section all show the sameinformation, but each report organizes it differently.The Top Content report lists each page that received traffic.The Content by Title report groups your pages according to Title tag. Youcan click on a title to see the pages that share that title.The Content Drilldown report groups pages according to directory. You canclick on a directory to see the pages in the directory.Why Am I Seeing “/” In My Reports?Pages in your Content reports are represented by their “request URIs”,which is the part of the URL after the domain name.So, a forward slash represents your home page.When you create your profile, you should specify the name of yourhomepage as the Default page.That way, instead of having forward slash show up in your reports, you’llsee your homepage URI instead.Top Landing PagesThe Top Landing Pages report lists all of the pages through which peopleentered your site.
You can use this report to monitor the number of bounces and the bouncerate for each landing page.Bounce rate is good indicator of landing page relevance and effectiveness.You can lower bounce rates by tailoring each landing page to its associatedads and referral links. 28The more relevant the page, the less likely a visitor will be to bounce.Navigation SummaryNavigation Analysis reports can help you understand how people movethrough your site.The reports are listed on the Content Overview page.They’re also available from a pulldown menu when you drill down to a pagedetail report.The first of these — Navigation Summary — can help you see how peoplearrived at a specific page and where they went afterwards.Navigation SummaryHere’s the Navigation Summary report.Percent Entrances shows how frequently the page was a landing page.Percent Previous Pages shows how frequently visitors came to the pageafter viewing another page on the site.Percent Exits shows how frequently visits ended on this page.Percent Next Pages shows how frequently visitors continued on to anotherpage on the site.
The list of pages that were viewed immediately before the page or pages isshown in the left column.The list of pages that were viewed immediately after the page or pages isshown in the right column.Why Are “Previous Page” And “Next Page” The Same?Sometimes the Previous Page, the Next Page, and the page you are 29analyzing are all the same page. This can be caused by visitors hitting therefresh button multiple times and generating “self-referring” hits.It can also be caused, for example, if the page has graphics that the visitorcan click to enlarge.Here’s what happens. The visitor views the page and Google Analyticsregisters a pageview. Then the visitor clicks on a graphic and views theenlarged graphic file.This does not result in a pageview because the enlarged graphic filedoesn’t have the Google Analytics Tracking Code. The visitor then clicksthe back button, which registers another pageview.If there are many images on the page, it’s possible that the visitor will clickon each graphic.This scenario will cause the Previous, current, and Next page to all beidentical.
Entrance Path ReportsThe Entrance Paths report is a powerful tool for analyzing navigation paths.For example, let’s say that you want to find out whether people clicked thePurchase button on your landing page and actually completed thepurchase.To find out, go to the Top Landing Pages report and click the landing page 30you want to analyze.Once you are on the Content Detail report for the page, click the EntrancePaths link as shown in the slide.Analyzing A Landing Page Using Entrance PathsYou’ll now see the Entrance Paths report for your landing page.In the middle column, you’ll see all the possible clicks people made on thepage. Choose the link that represents the Purchase page.In the right hand column, you’ll now see all the pages visitors went to afterthe Purchase page. By looking at this list, you’ll be able to see how manyvisits ended up on the Purchase Completion page.This report can show you if the landing page is doing the job you designedit for.Additional Content Reports And Drill-DownYou can use the “Analyze” drop-down menu to view additional reports suchas Entrance Sources and Entrance Keywords.The “Content” drop down menu allows you to select — or search for —specific pages to analyze.
Analytics AccountIf you have access to multiple Analytics accounts, you can access eachaccount from the My Analytics Account drop-down list.For example, if other administrators have added you to their accounts,you’ll see a list of those accounts in the drop down.Creating A New Account 31The last option in the drop-down is “Create New Account” – this is how youwould create a new analytics account under the login that you are currentlyusing.So, when should you create a new account? If you manage the analyticsservices for several websites which belong to different organizations, you’llgenerally want to create a new account for each organization. We’ll discussthis best practice in a few minutes.You are permitted to create up to 25 analytics accounts per Googleusername. However, you can be added as an administrator to an unlimitednumber of accounts.If you’re using Analytics from your AdWords account, you won’t see thisdrop-down. You’ll only see it if you are signed in from google.com/analytics.User ManagerTo give other users access to your Google Analytics account, you use theUser Manager, which you can access here from the Analytics Settingspage. Inside the User Manager, you can view all of the users who currentlyhave access to your account.
“Administrators” And “Users”There are two types of Google Analytics users. “Administrators” haveaccess to all reports and they can also modify Analytics settings.So, Administrators can create profiles, filters, and goals, and they can addusers.Users only have read access to your reports and they can’t modify 32analytics settings. Also, “Users” can be restricted to viewing only specificprofiles.Add/Delete Users And Edit User InfoYou use the User Manager to add new users, remove users, and edit userinformation.Adding A New UserAfter clicking “Add Users” a screen that looks like this will appear. Enter theuser information in the form.In order for you to add a new user, they must have a Google Account.If they don’t have a Google Account, ask them to create oneat google.com/accounts. Use the access type dropdown to select the levelof access you want to give the new user.You can either grant read-only access to certain reports or you can makethem an administrator. Remember that administrators can view all reportsand modify account settings.Granting Access To A UserIf you select the “View Reports Only”, the interface will show you a list of allprofiles associated with your account.Select the profiles you would like this user to have access to and click the“Add” button to apply your changes.
Modifying AccessTo edit the access settings for an existing user, go to the User Managerand click Edit next to the user. You can change their Access Type, and youcan add or remove access to specific profiles.Select the profiles you would like to remove report access to and click onthe “Remove” button. 33Managing Access And AccountsRemember that an administrator has full administrative access to allprofiles within the account.If you manage the analytics services for several websites which belong todifferent organizations, the best practice is to create a separate Analyticsaccount for each organization.Otherwise, if you were to group all the websites of all the differentorganizations into a single account, any Administrators you created on theaccount would have access to all the reports for all the websites.Not only would the administrators be able to see the reports of otherorganizations, they’d also be able to change analytics settings on profilesthat don’t belong to them.This raises the potential for an Administrator to accidentally edit — or evendelete — another organization’s settings and data.Changing Your E-mail Login AddressIf you want to change your e-mail login, create a new Google account. Addyour new login as an administrator to your Google Analytics account.
ProfilesOn your Analytics Settings page, you can see a list of the profiles thatbelong to the account you’ve selected. You’ll generally have a separateprofile for every domain that you track.You might also have profiles that correspond to subdomains. Or you mightset up a profile that only includes data for a filtered subset of traffic of oneof your domains. 34Profiles are very flexible — they are basically just a set of rules that definewhat data is to be included in the reports.Using ProfilesHere are some typical examples of profiles you might set up:You might have a profile that only contains traffic data for a specificsubdomain.You might have a profile that tracks only a certain part of a site or that onlytracks a certain kind of traffic.And you might have profiles each of which has a separate set of reports.You could give some users access to one of these profiles and other usersaccess to another profile.The result would be that each user would only see reports that apply tothem.
ProfilesA profile consists of settings that define the reports that you see. Theseinclude user access, goals, and filter settings.When you create a profile, you have the option of creating a profile for anew domain or an existing domain.Here is a schematic showing an Analytics account with three profiles. The 35first two profiles are tracking domain A, and the third profile is trackingdomain B.Notice the tracking code number for each profile. The longer number,represented by Xs, is the Google Analytics account number–all threeprofiles have the same account number.Next you see that Profiles 1 and 2 each have a “dash 1”, while Profile 3 hasa “dash 2.” This smaller number is the property number.Profiles 1 and 2 are tracking the same domain and have the same propertynumber. They can be referred to as “duplicate profiles.”Profile 3 is tracking a different domain, and has a different propertynumber.Now you may wonder, why would I create duplicate profiles?You might want to apply filters to your duplicate profile so that it contains asubset of data. So, for example, you might filter the data in Profile 2 so thatit only includes AdWords visitors todomain A. In addition, you might want to give certain users access only toProfile 2. This has the effect of only allowing these users to see AdWordstraffic to domain A.
Adding A New ProfileYou’ll need to be an Administrator to add a new profile.To add a new profile, go to the Analytics Settings page and click the AddWebsite Profile link. Then, in the screen that appears, select the Add aprofile for a new domain.Enter the URL for the web property and click Finish. 36Edit ProfileTo edit a profile, click the “Edit” settings link for the profile on the AnalyticsSettings page. You must be an Administrator in order to edit a profile.Using the edit link next to “Main Website Profile information,” you canconfigure various profile settings such as the default page, e-commercereporting, and site search tracking.You can also configure the profile to exclude query string parameters suchas session IDs from the URLs that appear in the report interface.Removing ProfilesTo remove a profile, you can simply click the Delete link next to the profileon the Analytics Settings page. You’ll need to be an Administrator to dothis.Be careful that you are deleting the correct profile, because you won’t beable to recover the historical data for the profile once it’s been deleted.Analyzing All Marketing CampaignsGoogle Analytics allows you to track and analyze all of your marketingcampaigns — including paid search campaigns, banner ads, emails andother programs.
How To Track Your CampaignsThere are two ways to track your campaigns.For AdWords campaigns, you can enable keyword autotagging whichallows Google Analytics to automatically populate your reports with click,cost, and other data for every keyword you buy.In order to enable autotagging, you’ll need to link your AdWords and 37Google Analytics accounts; we’ll look at this in more detail in the next slide.The second way to track campaigns is to manually tag links. So, forexample, you could tag the links in an email message with campaign-identifying information. You may also choose to manually tag AdWordslinks if you do not wish to enable autotagging.The tags are campaign variables that you append to the end of your URLs.Linking AdWords To AnalyticsBy linking Google Analytics to your AdWords account, you can getadvanced reporting that measures performance and ROI for your AdWordscampaigns.Within AdWords, click the Analytics tab to link your accounts. The AdWordslogin that you’re using will need administrator privileges in Analytics inorder to link the accounts.If you don’t already have an Analytics account, you can click the Analyticstab and create one.By default, “Destination URL Autotagging” and “Apply Cost Data” will beselected when you link your accounts. We recommend that you leave bothoptions selected.
The, “Destination URL Autotagging” option allows you to differentiate yourpaid ads from organic search listings and referrals.You can choose to tag your AdWords keywords manually if you decide notto take advantage of this feature.However, note that if you manually tag your AdWords campaigns, youwon’t see Ad Group data in your reports. 38The, “Apply Cost Data” option imports cost data into your AdWords reportsso that you can see metrics such as clicks, impressions and ROI in yourAnalytics reports.By leaving both options selected, you get the AdWords performance datayou need to analyze and optimize your AdWords campaigns.When you apply cost data from AdWords to Analytics – by default, everyprofile within that Analytics account will receive ALL AdWords data.Be aware that you can only link one Analytics account to one AdWordsaccount.For administration purposes, you will want to create a new Analyticsaccount for each associated AdWords account.Note that once you have linked an Analytics and AdWords account – thetime zone in Google Analytics will automatically take that of the AdWordsAccount (if they are different).Why Autotagging?Autotagging your links is important because it helps Analytics differentiatethe traffic coming from Google paid listings, outlined in green on the slide,and traffic coming from Google organic listings, which are outlined in red.
If autotagging is not enabled, your Analytics reports will show that the clicksfrom the sponsored listings and the organic listings are both coming fromthe same source: google organic.By default, Analytics considers them both to be from Google organic searchresults.So, enabling autotagging allows you to see which referrals to your site 39came from your paid Google campaigns and which ones came fromGoogle organic search results.How Does Autotagging Work?Autotagging works by adding a unique id, or g-c-l-i-d, to the end of yourdestination URLs.This unique id allows Analytics to track and display click details in yourreports.It is important to note that 3rd party redirects and encoded URLs canprevent autotagging from working properly.You should test these cases by adding a unique parameter to the end ofyour URL — for example you could add ?test=test.Test to make sure that the parameter is carried through to your destinationpage and that the link doesn’t break.Notice that the first query parameter is always preceded with a questionmark. Consequent values are separated using ampersands.How To Enable AutotaggingTo enable autotagging, go to the “My Account” tab within your AdWordsinterface.
Under “Account Preferences” you’ll see the “Tracking” option. Make surethat this reads “yes”. If it says “no”, click the edit link, check the box for“Destination URL Autotagging”, and click “Save Changes”.When linking your AdWords account to Analytics for the first time, you’ll beprompted to automatically select “Destination URL Autotagging” and “CostData Import”. 40If you want to change your autotagging settings later, you can do so byediting your AdWords account preferences.Importing Cost Data From AdWordsTo import cost data into your Analytics account, go to the “Analytics” tabwithin your AdWords interface.Under “Profile Settings”, select “Edit Profile Information”. At the bottom ofthe screen you’ll see an “Apply Cost Data” checkbox.Make sure that this box is checked.Currently, it’s only possible to import cost data from AdWords.Make sure both your AdWords and Analytics accounts are set to the samecurrency so that ROI data is accurately calculated.View AdWords Data In Your ReportsApplying cost data to your Analytics account allows you to view yourAdWords click, cost, and impression data in your Google Analytics reports.This data is found on the “Clicks” tab of your AdWords Campaigns reports.Data Discrepancies: Expected BehaviorYou may notice differences between the data in your Google Analytics andAdWords reports. There are several reasons for these differences.
Tracking Online MarketingGoogle Analytics automatically tracks all of the referrals and search queriesthat send traffic to your website.However, if you are running paid advertising campaigns, you should addtags to the destination URL of your ads.Adding a tag allows you to attach information about the campaign that will 42show up in your Analytics reports.Again, adding tags is not necessary in AdWords if you have enabledautotagging.If you have not enabled autotagging, you can add tags, but keep in mindthat even if you add your own tags, you won’t see any Ad Groupinformation from AdWords.Manual URL TaggingThere are five variables you can use when tagging URLs. To tag a URL,you add a question mark to the end of the URL, followed by your tag, asshown in the slide.The variables and values are listed as pairs separated by an equals sign.Each variable-value pair is separated by an ampersand.Let’s look at each variable.You should use utm_source to identify the specific website or publicationthat is sending the traffic.Use utm_medium to identify the kind of advertising medium — for example,cpc for cost per click, or email for an email newsletter.
Use utm_campaign to identify the name of the campaign — for example,this could be the product name or it might be a slogan.You should always use these three variables when tagging a link. You canuse them in any order you want.If you’re manually tagging paid keyword campaigns, you should also useutm_term to specify the keyword. 43And, you can differentiate versions of a link — for example, if you have twocall-to-action links within the same email message, you can useutm_content to differentiate them so that you can tell which version is mosteffective.Example 1: Tag VS NoTagTo illustrate, let’s look at a two versions of a link to mysite.com, both placedonyoursite.com .The first link in the slide does not have a tag. Traffic from this link will showup in your reports as a referral from yoursite.com. There won’t be anycampaign information.The second link has a tag. Traffic from this link will show up with a sourceof yoursite, and it will show as a banner, instead of a referral.Also, you’ll see this traffic reflected under summerpromo in yourCampaigns report, whereas traffic from the first link will be grouped under(not set).Example 2: Paid Keywords (PPC)Let’s look at a destination URL from an AdWords ad.In the first example, no tag has been provided and autotagging is disabled.In this case, you won’t see this traffic in your AdWords reports.
The second example shows how to manually tag an AdWords link. Thistraffic will show up in your AdWords reports, but there will be no Ad Groupinformation.You must specify cpc as your medium and google as your source in orderto see this traffic in your AdWords reports. You should also specify cpc asyour medium when tagging paid search campaigns from other searchengines. 44The third example shows what an AdWords autotagged URL might looklike once AdWords has appended the g-c-l-i-d variable to the end of theURL.This traffic will show up in your AdWords reports and you’ll see completeCampaign, Ad Group, and keyword information.Where Is The Campaign Information Reflected?Let’s look at where information from each of the tags shows up in yourreports.SourceYou can see all the sources in the All Traffic Sources report. This report willinclude not only all the sources you tagged, but also sources like “direct”and website names.MediumYou can see also see traffic by medium in the All Traffic Sources report. Inaddition to all the mediums you tagged, you’ll also see mediums such as“referral” and “organic”.CampaignCampaigns will appear in the Campaigns report. You’ll also see manuallytagged AdWords campaigns in the AdWords Campaigns report.
In order for a campaign to show up in AdWords Campaigns, you’ll need tohave tagged the associated links with a medium of cpc and a source ofgoogle.TermTerms that you’ve used will show up in the Keywords report and — for anylinks that were tagged with a medium of cpc and a source of google — alsoin the AdWords Keywords report. 45You access the AdWords Keywords report by drilling down from theAdWords Campaigns report.Note that the AdWords keyword that *triggered* the ad will display in yourAnalytics report, rather than the original search query entered by the user.For example, if your paid keyword is “shoes” and a visitor arrives at yoursite by searching for “men’s shoes,” the AdWords keyword report will onlydisplay “shoes” since the broad match or phrase is not captured.ContentYour content tags will show up in the Ad Versions report, along with the adheadlines from autotagged AdWords traffic.You can also segment on any of these variables.For example, to see all of the campaigns in California from which youreceived traffic, you could to to the Map Overlay report, drill down toCalifornia, and segment by Campaign.The URL BuilderYou can use the URL Builder in the Google Analytics Help Center toconstruct your URLs.
You enter in the destination URL and the values for each campaignvariable. You should always use source, medium and campaign name.The URL Builder can be found via the link displayed here on the slide, oryou can search for “URL Builder” in the Analytics Help Center.The URL builder can only construct one URL at a time, so you probablywon’t want to use it to construct every URL for every campaign. 46Generating URLsIf you have a large number of URLs to tag, you can use spreadsheets toautomate the process.Generate a sample URL in the URL Builder and create a simplespreadsheet formula.Spreadsheets can make it much easier to generate thousands of taggedURLs.Best Practices For Tagging LinksStick to these best practices when tagging your advertising campaigns.If you’ve enabled autotagging, don’t manually tag your AdWordsdestination URLs.Second, for each campaign, use the URL Builder to create a template URL.Then, copy and paste from the template to create the rest of the URLs forthe campaign.Third, use consistent names and spellings for all your campaign values sothat they are recorded consistently within your Analytics reports
Finally, use only the campaign variables you need. You should always usesource, medium, and campaign name, but term and content are optional.AdWords Campaigns ReportAdWords-related reports are listed under AdWords in the Traffic Sourcessection.The AdWords Campaigns report, which is the first one listed, contains 47performance metrics for your AdWords keyword ads. This report is actuallythe top level of a hierarchy of reports.By clicking one of of the Campaigns in the table, you drill down to the AdGroups report which lists all of the Ad Groups in that Campaign.Click one the Ad Groups and you drill down to the AdWords Keywordsreport which lists all of the keywords in that Ad Group.Clicks TabThe AdWords Campaigns reports are unique in that they provide an extratab labeled Clicks. The Click metrics are extremely useful for optimizingAdWords spending.Let’s look at the first three.Visits is the number of visits your site received from AdWords keywordcampaigns.Impressions is the number of times your ads were displayed.Clicks shows the number of clicks for which you paid and which your adsreceived.It’s normal for Visits and Clicks to show different numbers. In this case, wehave fewer Clicks than Visits. The reason is that some visitors clicked on
An ROI of 0% means that you earned in revenue the same amount ofmoney you spent.An ROI of 100% means that you spent, say $5, and made $10.In other words, you spent X and received 2X in revenue.It’s not uncommon to get 500% or even 1000% ROI. High ROIs simply 49indicate that your Revenue is many times greater than your Cost.If your RPC numbers are all 0 and your ROI numbers are all -100%, it’sbecause you have 0 Revenue.Make sure that you’ve set goal values or that you’ve enabled e-commercetracking.ROI And Short Date RangesBefore you delete or pause negative ROI keywords, consider how muchyou’ve spent and whether you have enough data yet to make a decision.In particular, watch out for short date ranges. It’s generally not a good ideato make keyword changes on the basis of a few days worth of data.Consider return customers — those that find the site via an AdWords adand then return later to buy again. You’ll miss repeat conversions if you settoo short of a date range.Also, it may take days or longer for many of visitors to become customers.So, set a date range that is at least as long as your expected sales cycle.
How Does Ad Position Affect Performance?If you want to see how ad position affected keyword performance, you canuse the Keyword Positions report to find out.The keywords are listed on the left and you can use the dropdown menuabove the list to sort them.Then, select the keyword you want to analyze and you’ll see how it 50performed in each ad position for the metric you select.For example, in the slide, we’re comparing ad positions based on pagesviewed per visit.The Side 1 position for this keyword referred visitors who looked at anaverage of between 20 and 21 pages, and the Side 8 position referredvisitors who looked at an average of between 17 and 18 pages.TV CampaignsYou can upload your TV ad—a video file—to your AdWords account andstart a campaign on nationwide TV.You specify the time of day and week, audience demographic, and type ofprogram you’d like to target.Once you’ve set up your TV campaign, you can track it using the TVCampaigns report.You can drill down into specific TV campaigns and see the impressionsdelivered, number of ad airings, cost and CPM alongside your metrics likevisits, time on site, and conversions.For example, this screenshot shows website visits plotted againstimpressions delivered — the number of active TVs tuned to yourcommercial.
Looking at your web traffic metrics alongside your TV campaign metricscan help you optimize your TV campaigns.Audio CampaignsWith Google Audio Ads, you can buy and manage both local and nationalradio campaigns on over 1600 radio stations — all from your AdWordsaccount. 51Once your Audio Ads campaigns are running, you can use the AudioCampaigns report to track them.You can drill down into specific Audio campaigns and also Audio DMA’s —Designated Market Areas.You can see the impressions delivered, number of ad airings, cost andCPM alongside metrics like visits, time on site, and conversions.You can conduct a before and after campaign analysis to see incrementallift and assess whether certain campaigns or markets are impacting betterthan others.This screenshot shows website visits plotted against impressions delivered.By looking at website metrics alongside your Audio campaign metrics, youcan learn what is working best and optimize your campaigns accordingly.How Well Does Each Ad Perform?Although it’s not listed under AdWords, The Ad Versions report can helpyou optimize your keyword ads.Assuming that you’ve enabled autotagging, you’ll see an entry in the tablefor each of your ad headlines.
You can compare site usage, goal conversions, and ecommerceperformance for each ad — although there is no Clicks tab, so you won’t beable to see metrics like ROI and clickthrough rate.A limitation of this report is that it can only differentiate ads based on theheadline. But if each of your ads has a distinct headline, you’ll see an entryfor each ad. 52Also, note that if you’ve any tagged links with the utm_content variable,you’ll see traffic from those links in this report as well.GoalsDefining site goals and tracking goal conversions is one of the best ways toassess how well your site meets its business objectives. You should alwaystry to define at least one goal for a website.So what is a goal? A goal can be any activity on your website that’simportant to the success of your business.For example, an account signup is a goal. A request for a sales call isanother example of a goal.To define a goal in Google Analytics, you specify the page that visitors seeonce they have completed the activity.For an account sign-up, you might set the “Thank You for signing up” pageas a goal.Goals In ReportsEach time that a visitor sees the page you defined as a goal, a conversionis recorded.
You can see total conversions and conversion rates for each of your goalsin your reports.FunnelsFor each goal that you define, you can also define a funnel. A funnel is theset of steps , or pages, that you expect visitors to visit on their way tocomplete the conversion.A sales checkout process is a good example of a funnel. And the page 53where the visitor enters credit card information is an example of one of thefunnel steps.So, the goal page signals the end of the activity — such as a “thank you” or“confirmation” page — and the funnel steps are the pages that visitorsencounter on their way to the goal.Why Define Funnels?Defining a funnel is valuable because it allows you to see where visitorsenter and exit the conversion process.For example, if you notice that many of your visitors never go further thanthe “Enter shipping information” page, you might focus on redesigning thatpage so that it’s simpler.Knowing which steps in the process lose would-be customers allows you toeliminate bottlenecks and create a more efficient conversion path.Setting Up GoalsTo set up a goal, first go the Analytics Settings page and edit the the profilefor which you want to configure a goal.Goal And Funnel Set-UpOnce you are on the Profile Settings page, look for the “Conversion Goalsand Funnel” section.
Select a goal and click Edit. You can create up to 4 goals for each profile.Entering Goal And Funnel InformationNext, enter the URL of the goal page. You don’t have to enter the entireURL. You can simply enter the request URI – that’s what comes after thedomain or hostname.So, if the complete URL is www.googlestore.com/confirmation.php, you 54only need to enter /confirmation.php.Make sure that the URL you enter corresponds to a page that the visitor willonly see once they complete the conversion activity. So, pick somethinglike the Thank You page or a confirmation page for your goal.You can also enter a name for the Goal — here we’ve entered “CompletedOrder”. This name will appear in your conversion reports.Defining a funnel is optional. To define your funnel steps, you add theURLs of the pages leading up to the goal URL. Just as with goals, youdon’t have to enter the entire URL of a funnel step — just the request URIis fine.Provide a name for each step in the funnel — here we’ve entered “Selectgift card “ for Step 1. The names you enter will appear in your reports.Next, we’ll talk about the Match Type setting.Goal URL Match TypesThe match type defines how Google Analytics identifies a goal or funnelstep. You have three choices for the Match Type option.“Head Match” is the default. It indicates that the URL of the page visitedmust match what you enter for the Goal URL, but if there is any additionaldata at the end of their URL then the goal will still be counted. For example,
some websites append a product ID or a visitor ID or some other parameterto the end of the URL. Head Match will ignore these.Here’s another example, illustrated on this slide: If you want every page ina subdirectory to be counted as a goal, then you could enter thesubdirectory as the goal and select Head Match.“Exact Match” means that the URL of the page visited must exactly match 55what you enter for the Goal URL. In contrast to Head Match, which can beused to match every page in a subdirectory, Exact Match can only be usedto match one single page. Also notice that Exact Match does not match thesecond pageview, “/offer1/signup.html?query=hats” because of the extraquery parameter at the end.“Regular Expression Match” gives you the most flexibility. For example, ifyou want to count any sign-up page as a goal, and sign-up pages canoccur in various subdirectories, you can create a regular expression thatwill match any sign-up page in any subdirectory. Regular Expressions willbe covered in a later module.When you use Regular Expression Match, the value you enter as the goalURL as well as each of the funnel steps will be read as a RegularExpression.Remember that regardless of which option you choose, Google Analytics isonly matching Request URIs. In other words, the domain name is ignored.”Case Sensitive” SettingsCheck “Case Sensitive” if you want the URLs you entered into your goaland funnel to exactly match the capitalization of visited URLs.Goal ValueThe “Goal Value” field allows you to specify a monetary value for goal. Youshould only do this for non-ecommerce goals.
By setting a goal value, you make it possible for Google Analytics tocalculate metrics like average per-visit-value and ROI. These metrics willhelp you measure the monetary value of a non-ecommerce site.Just think about how much each goal conversion is worth to your business.So, for example, if your sales team can close sales on 10% of the peoplewho request to be contacted via your site, and your average transaction is$500, you might assign $50 or 10% of $500 to your “Contact Me” goal. 56Again, to avoid inflating revenue results, you should only provide values fornon-ecommerce goals.Goal Conversions VS TransactionsThere is an important difference between goal conversions and e-commerce transactions.A goal conversion can only happen once during a visit, but an e-commercetransaction can occur multiple times during a visit.Let’s say that you set one of your goals to be a PDF download and youdefine it such that any PDF download is a valid goal conversion. And let’ssay that the goal is worth $5.In this case, if a visitor comes to your site and downloads 5 PDF filesduring a single session, you’ll only get one conversion worth $5. However,if you were to track each of these downloads as a $5 e-commercetransaction, you would see 5 transactions and $25 in e-commerce revenue.You’ll learn how to set up ecommerce tracking and how to track PDFdownloads in later modules.Profiles And Goal TrackingYou can have up to 4 goals for each profile. If you want to track additionalgoals, just set up duplicate profiles.
Filters And Goal SettingsIf you are using a filter that manipulates the Request URI, make sure thatyour goal is defined so that it reflects the changed Request URI field.For example, in the slide, we have a profile that defines /thankyou.html as agoal. But we have another profile with a filter that appends the hostname tothe Request URI. 57So, for this profile, we need to change the goal definition accordingly.Funnel ReportingIf you define a funnel for a goal, Google Analytics populates the FunnelVisualization report, shown here in the slide.On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, youcan see where they leave the funnel and where they go.The middle shows you how visitors progress through the funnel — howmany of them continue on to each step.In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top ofthe funnel and 187 completed orders, at the bottom of the funnel. Thisreport is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitors abandonyour conversion funnel.Reverse Goal Path ReportingHere’s another report in the Goals section. It’s the Reverse Goal Pathreport. You can see this data even if you haven’t defined a funnel. It liststhe navigation paths that visitors took to arrive at a goal page and showsyou the number of conversions that resulted from each path.In this example, we can see that 96 of the conversions — or about 15% ofthem — resulted from the first navigation path that’s shown.
This is a great report for identifying funnels that you hadn’t consideredbefore and it can give you great ideas for designing a more effective site.Funnel Visualization ReportIf you define a funnel for a goal, Google Analytics populates the FunnelVisualization report, shown here in the slide.On the left, you can see how visitors enter your funnel. On the right, you 58can see where they leave the funnel and where they go. The middle showsyou how visitors progress through the funnel, how many of them continueon to each step.In this example, we can see that there were 9,283 entrances at the top ofthe funnel and 187 completed orders at the bottom of the funnel.This report is very useful for identifying the pages from which visitorsabandon your conversion funnel.Finding The Report And Selecting A GoalTo find the Funnel Visualization report, look in the Goals section.Once you are in the report, you can select the goal you want to analyzefrom the Select Goal drop-down menu.Funnel Entrance PagesThe boxes along the left side of the funnel show the pages from whichvisitors entered the funnel.(entrance) shows the number of times that the funnel page was a landingpage.In this example, 11,514 visitors came to the View Product Categories pagefrom the home page.
Funnel Exit PagesThe boxes on the right show where visitors went when they abandoned thefunnel.For each step, you can see the pages that visitors went to.(exit) means that the person not only abandoned the funnel but also leftyour site. In this example, there were 1,423 funnel exits from the View 59Product Categories page that went to the software.asp page.Progressing Through The FunnelIn this example, only 29% of visits to the View Shopping Cart page actuallyproceeded to the login page.The remaining 2,418 times, the person either left the funnel for anotherpage or left the site entirely.This data is valuable because you can use it to see what pages of your sitemay need to be altered.For instance, in this example, you might want to improve the design of thethe “View Shopping Cart” page so that more visitors log in and continue.You can also see that only 41% of visits to the Login page continue on tothe Place Order page. So, the Login page may also need improvements.Understanding The NumbersLet’s look at all the numbers in the report.Here is the number of funnel entrances to the first step of the funnel.Here is the number of funnel abandonments that occurred from this step.
Here is the number and percentage of funnel entrances that continued onto the next step.Here is the number of funnel entrances to the second step of the funnel.Here is the number of visits to the second funnel step. It includes thosewho proceeded from the first step and those who entered the funnel at thisstep. 60Here is the number and percentage of visits to the second funnel step thatcontinued on to the next step.FiltersGoogle Analytics filters provide you with an extremely flexible way ofdefining what data is included in your reports and how it appears.You can use them to customize your reports so that data that you deemuseful is highlighted in interesting ways. Filters can also help you clean upyour data so that it is easier to read.There are two types of filters in Google Analytics – predefined filters andcustom filters.You can use the Filter manager to create new filters, to edit their settings,and to delete them.To apply filters to a profile, you edit the profile.How Do Filters Work?Filters process your raw traffic data based on the filter specifications. Thefiltered data is then sent to the respective profile.Once data has been passed through a filter, Google cannot re-process theraw data.
That’s why we always recommend that you maintain one unfiltered profileso that you always have access to all of your data.How To Set-Up Filters?Filters process your raw traffic data based on the filter specifications. Thefiltered data is then sent to the respective profile.Once data has been passed through a filter, Google cannot re-process the 61raw data.That’s why we always recommend that you maintain one unfiltered profileso that you always have access to all of your data.Predefined FiltersGoogle Analytics provides three commonly used predefined filters — you’llsee these filters under the “Filter Type” drop-down when you are creatingyour filters.The first filter called “Exclude all traffic from a domain” excludes traffic fromthe domain that you specify in the Domain field directly below the FilterType dropdown. If you apply this filter, Google Analytics will apply a reverselookup with each visitor’s IP address to determine if the visitor is coming infrom a domain that should be filtered out. Domains usually represent theISP of your visitor although larger companies generally have their IPaddresses mapped to their domain name.The second filter, “Exclude all traffic from an IP address”, removes trafficfrom addresses entered into the IP address field. This filter is generallyused to exclude your internal company traffic.The third filter, “Include only traffic to a subdirectory”, causes your profile toonly report traffic to a specified directory on your site. This is typically usedon a profile that is created to track one part of a website.
Best Practices For FiltersAs a best practice, we recommend that you create a filter to exclude yourinternal company traffic from your reports.To do this you can use the predefined filter type called “Exclude all trafficfrom an IP address”. You will need to enter your IP address or range ofaddresses into the ‘IP address” field. 62Creating Custom FiltersIn addition to the three pre-defined filters that Analytics offers, you can alsocreate custom filters for your profiles.Custom filters offer you greater control over what data appears in yourprofiles.To create a custom filter, select “Custom filter” from the “Filter Type” drop-down. Additional fields will appear when you choose this option.Custom FiltersEach custom filter has three main parts.The first part of a custom filter is “Filter Types”. There are six filter typesavailable and each one serves a specific purpose. We’ll look at these in aminute.The second part is the “Filter Field”. There are numerous fields you can useto create your filter. Examples of some commonly used fields are the“Request URI” and “Visitor Country” fields.The complete list of fields can be found through the link shown here or youcan search for “filter fields” in the Analytics Help Center.The third part of a custom filter is the “Filter Pattern”. This is the text stringthat is used to attempt to match pageview data. The pattern that you
provide is applied to the field and, if it matches any part of the field, itreturns a positive result and causes an action to occur. You’ll need to usePOSIX Regular Expressions to create the filter pattern. Learn more in themodule on Regular Expressions.Filter TypesHere’s a chart that describes the filter types. 63Exclude and Include filters are the most common types. They allow you tosegment your data in many different ways. They’re frequently used to filterout or filter in traffic from a particular state or country.Lowercase and Uppercase filters do not require a filter pattern, only a filterfield. Lowercase and Uppercase filters are very useful for consolidating lineitems in a report. Let’s say, for example, that you see multiple entries inyour reports for a keyword or a URL, and the only difference between themultiple entries is that sometimes the URL or keyword appears with adifferent combination of uppercase and lowercase letters. You can use theLowercase and Uppercase filters to consolidate these multiple entries intoa single entry.Search and Replace filters replace one piece of data with another. Theyare often used to replace long URL strings with a shorter string that iseasier to read and identify in your reports.You can use Advanced filters to remove unnecessary data, replace onefield with another, or combine elements from multiple filter fields. Forexample, a best practice when tracking multiple subdomains in a singleprofile is to append the subdomain name to the page names. You can dothis by creating an advanced filter that appends Hostname to Request URI.Let’s look at an example of a Search and Replace filter.
Customize data ViewsYou can also use profiles and filters together to create customized dataviews.Let’s say that you want to have two different views of your data — one viewincludes only traffic to a subdomain and the other view only includescustomers from a specific geographic region. 65To do this, you’d set up Profile 2 and Profile 3 as shown here in the chart.Or, for example, you might want to set up a profile that only inlcudesGoogle AdWords traffic. We’ll look at how to do this in the next slide.Remember, you always want to maintain a profile that contains all of yourdata. That’s Profile 1 in the chart.How To Include Only Google AdWords Traffic?To set up a profile that includes only Google AdWords traffic, you need toapply the two Custom Include filters shown in the slide.In filter one, you’ll filter on campaign source for a pattern of google.In filter two, you’ll filter on campaign medium for a pattern of cpc.You can apply these two filters in any order.Tracking SubdomainsLet’s look at how you can use profiles and filters to track subdomains.If your subdomains are totally separate businesses, and you have no needfor reports that include cumulative traffic to both, then you could simplycreate a unique profile for each subdomain.
To do this, you’d install the “dash 1” version of your tracking code on yourSubdomain A pages, and the “dash 2” version of your tracking code onyour Subdomain B pages.But what if you want to analyze the traffic aggregated across bothsubdomains? In this case, you could set up at 3 duplicate profiles. Then,you’d apply an Include filter to two of the profiles. 66Profile 1 includes all traffic to both subdomains.Profile 2 only includes traffic to subdomain A.Profile 3 only includes traffic to subdomain B.In this scenario, you’d install identical tracking code on every page of thesite regardless of subdomain.Best Practices For Filters And ProfilesWhen setting up profiles and filters for your Analytics account, you shouldalways create one unfiltered profile that can be a back-up in case yourfilters do not function as planned or you need more data than you originallythought.Remember, once your raw data has passed through filters, Google cannotgo back and reprocess the data. So, maintaining an unfiltered profileprovides you with a backup.Best Practices For Include And Exclude FiltersYou can apply multiple include and exclude filters to a single profile, butkeep in mind that when more than one filter is applied, the filters will beexecuted in the same order that they are listed in your Profile Settings.In other words, the output from one filter is then used as the input for thenext filter.
The example shown here illustrates that if you want to include only usersfrom California and Texas, you cannot create two separate include filtersbecause they will cancel each other out. The solution is to create one filterthat uses a regular expression to indicate that the Visitor Region should beCalifornia or Texas.One AdWords Account, Multiple URLsIf you drive traffic from AdWords to multiple sites, each of which is tracked 67in a separate Analytics profile, you’ll need to apply a filter to each site’sprofile.Because, when you apply cost data from an AdWords account, data fromthe entire account is applied to each profile – Google Analytics doesn’tautomatically match campaigns to specific profiles. To illustrate what wouldhappen if you don’t apply a filter, let’s imagine that you have two sites andyou spend $50 to drive traffic to each of them.Without a filter, the Clicks tab on each profile would include $100 worth ofcost data instead of just the $50 you spent for that site.So, for each profile that should include a subset of your AdWords data,you’ll need to create a custom include filter.Filters For Cost SourcesIn your profile settings, select “edit filter”.Create a custom filter and select the Include filter type.For the filter field, select “Campaign Target URL”. This field only applies toGoogle AdWords data.Use a regular expression to create the filter pattern based on the AdWordsdestination URL that is applicable to this profile.
Once you’ve saved this filter, only AdWords data for this profile will bedisplayed in the reports.Regular Expressions (RegEx)A regular expression is a set of characters and metacharacters that areused to match text in a specified pattern.You can use regular expressions to configure flexible goals and powerful 68filters.For example, if you want to create a filter that filters out a range of IPaddresses, you’ll need to enter a string that describes the range of the IPaddresses that you want excluded from your traffic.Let’s start off by looking at each metacharacter.Metacharacters are characters that have special meanings in regularexpressions.Dot.Use the dot as a wildcard to match any single character.The operative word here is “single”, as the regex would NOT match Act 10,Scene 3. The dot only allows one character, and the number ten containstwo characters — a 1 and a 0.How would you write a regular expression that would match “Act 10, Scene3”?You could use two dots.To make your regex more flexible, and match EITHER “Act 1, Scene 3” or“Act 10, Scene 3”, you could use a quantifier like the + sign.
But we’ll talk about repetition a bit later in this module.Backslash /Backslashes allow you to use special characters, such as the dot, asthough they were literal characters.Enter the backslash immediately before each metacharacter you would liketo escape. 69“U.S. Holiday” written this way with periods after the U and the S wouldmatch a number of unintended strings, including UPS. Holiday, U.SbHoliday, and U3Sg Holiday.Remember that the dot is a special character that matches with any singlecharacter, so if you want to treat a dot like a regular dot, you have toescape it with the backslash.You’ll use backslashes a lot, because dots are used so frequently inprecisely the strings you are trying to match, like URLs and IP addresses.For example, if you are creating a filter to exclude an IP address,remember to escape the dots.Character Sets And Ranges Use square brackets to enclose all of the characters you want as matchpossibilities. So, in the slide, you’re trying to match the string U.S. Holiday,regardless of whether the U and the S are capitalized.However, the expression won’t match U.S. Holiday unless periods are usedafter both the U and the S. The expression also requires that the H iscapitalized.
There is a regex you can write to match all of these variations. Thequestion mark used here is another “quantifier”, like the ‘+’ sign mentionedearlier.Again, we’ll talk about repetition in the next slide.You can either individually list all the characters you want to match, as wedid in the first example, or you can specify a range. 70Use a hyphen inside a character set to specify a range. So instead oftyping square bracket 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9, you can type square bracket 0dash 9.And, you can negate a match using a caret after the opening squarebracket.Typing square bracket caret zero dash nine will exclude all numbers frommatching.Note that later in this module, you will see the caret used a different way—as an anchor. The use of the caret shown here is specific to character sets,and the negating behaviour occurs only when the caret is used after theopening square bracket in a character set.Quantifiers And Repetitions ? + *Now let’s talk about using quantifiers to indicate repetition.In earlier examples, we’ve used the plus sign and the question mark.The question mark requires either zero or one of the preceding character.In the expression “3-1-?” , the preceding character is a 1. So, both 3 and 3-1 would match.
The plus sign requires at least one of the preceding character. So, “3-1-+”wouldn’t match just a 3. It would match 3-1, 3-1-1, and so on. The asteriskrequires zero or more of the preceding character. In the expression, “3-1-*”,the preceding character is a 1. So it would match 3, 3-1-, 3-1-1, and soforth.You can also SPECIFY repetition using a minimum and maximum numberinside curly brackets. 71Recall that a dot matches any single character. What would you use tomatch a wildcard of indeterminate length?Dot star will match a string of any size. Dot star is an easy way to say“match anything,” and is commonly used in Google Analytics goals andfilters.Grouping ( )It is handy to use the parentheses and the pipe symbol (also known as theOR symbol) together.Basically, you can just list the strings you want to match, separating eachstring with a pipe symbol — and enclosing the whole list in parentheses.Here, we’ve listed four variations of “US” that we’ll accept as a match forUS Holiday.If it’s not in the list, it won’t get matched. That’s why “US Holiday” won’t getmatched if one of the periods is missing.In our list, we’ve accounted for both periods missing, but not for just oneperiod missing.Using question marks, the second regex in the slide will match all of theabove.
Anchors ^ $The caret signals the beginning of an expression. In order to match, thestring must BEGIN with what the regex specifies..The dollar sign says, if there are any more characters after the END of thisstring, then it’s not a match.So, caret US means start with US. US Holiday matches, but “Next Monday 72is a US Holiday” does not match.Holiday$ means end with Holiday. US Holiday still matches, but “USHoliday Schedule” does not match.Anchors can be useful when specifying an IP address. Take a look at theseexamples.Shorthand Character Classes /d /s /wSome character classes are used so commonly that there is a shorthandyou can use instead of writing out the ranges within square brackets.Let’s look at the example of a simplified regex that could match an addres:Backslash d means match any one digit zero through nine.Use curly brackets and a minimum and maximum number to specify howmany digits to match.Backslash d followed by 1 comma 5 in curly brackets means that theaddress must contain at least one digit, and at most five digits.Backslash s means that the number should be followed by one space,backslash w means match any alphanumeric character and the star meansinclude as many alphanumeric characters as you want.