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  1. 1. University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB Lecture 007: Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction Review Chapter 6 Questions 1- 7 on page 225 Reading assignment: “ Fundamentals of Building Construction” Chapter 8: Brick Masonry Question: 1 – 7 page 301
  2. 2. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn: </li></ul><ul><li>The sequence in which interior finish operations are carried out, and why </li></ul><ul><li>How mechanical and electrical services are installed in wood light framing </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative ways of insulating wood light framing </li></ul><ul><li>How to increase levels of insulation beyond what a frame can normally accommodate </li></ul><ul><li>Wall and ceiling finish materials </li></ul><ul><li>Interior doors, casings, baseboards, stairs, cabinets, and other millwork </li></ul><ul><li>Installation of flooring materials </li></ul>
  3. 3. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.1 Proportioning Fireplaces </li></ul><ul><li>1. Your teacher will assign a fireplace opening width. Starting from this dimension, complete the three views below and show all the critical dimensions for a correctly proportioned conventional fireplace. </li></ul><ul><li>See the sidebar Proportioning Fireplaces starting on pages 246 – 248 of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>A fireplace width 24” to 48” should be assigned. The following solution is for a 48” opening. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.1 Proportioning Fireplaces </li></ul><ul><li>1. Your teacher will assign a fireplace </li></ul><ul><li>opening width. Starting from this </li></ul><ul><li>dimension, complete the three views </li></ul><ul><li>below and show all the critical </li></ul><ul><li>dimensions for a correctly </li></ul><ul><li>proportioned conventional fireplace. </li></ul><ul><li>See the sidebar Proportioning </li></ul><ul><li>Fireplaces starting on </li></ul><ul><li>pages 246 – 248 of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>A fireplace width 24” to 48” </li></ul><ul><li>should be assigned. The following </li></ul><ul><li>solution is for a 48” opening. </li></ul>
  5. 5. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>2. Make a freehand three-dimensional drawing in the space below to show how this fireplace and hearth will look. You may use any masonry materials, tiles, and/or mantel materials you wish. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>2. Make a freehand three-dimensional drawing in the space below to show how this fireplace and hearth will look. You may use any masonry materials, tiles, and/or mantel materials you wish. </li></ul>
  7. 7. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.2 Proportioning Stairs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Calculate numbers and dimensions of treads and risers for the following stairs. Show all calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Many answers are possible, as long as they comply with the guidelines on pages 258 – 259 of the text. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.2 Proportioning Stairs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Calculate numbers and dimensions of treads and risers for the following stairs. Show all calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>Many answers are possible, as long as they comply with the guidelines on pages 258 – 259 of the text. </li></ul><ul><li>A Exit stair in a high school </li></ul><ul><li>a) total rise 12'-8&quot; (386 mm). Total rise: 12’-8” = 152” </li></ul><ul><li>b) Number of risers, using 7” maximum rise: 152” / 7” = 21+, say 22 risers. </li></ul><ul><li>c) Riser height: 152” / 22 = 6.91” </li></ul><ul><li>d) Number of treads, one less than risers: 21 (including landings) </li></ul><ul><li>e) For tread depth, use 2R + T = 25: T = 25” – 2( 6.91” ) = 11.18”, say 11 1/4” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of risers: 22, </li></ul><ul><li>Riser height: 6.91” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of treads: Since building codes require a landing every 12’ vertical rise, 20 treads and 1 landing are the minimum required in this case. </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of tread: 11 1/4” using 2R+T=25, or 11” code minimum </li></ul>
  9. 9. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>B. Main stair in a single-family residence, total rise 8'-11 1/2&quot; (2731 mm). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Total rise: 8'-11 1/2&quot; = 107.5” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b) Number of risers, using 7.75” maximum rise: 107.5” / 7.75” = 13+, say 14 risers </li></ul><ul><li>c) Riser height: 107.5” / 14 = 7.68” </li></ul><ul><li>d) Number of trades, one less than risers: 13 treads </li></ul><ul><li>e) For tread depth, use 2R+T=25: T = 25” – 2( 7.68” ) = 9.64”, must use 10” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of risers: 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Riser height: 7.68” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of treads: 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of tread: 10 </li></ul>
  10. 10. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>C. Exterior entrance steps to a courthouse, total rise 4'-9&quot; (1448 mm). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Total rise: 4’-9” = 57” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Number of risers, using 6” for gentle exterior slope: 57” / 6” = 9.5, say 9 or 10 risers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Riser height: 57” / 9 = 6.33”, or, 57” / 10 = 5.70” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Number of treads, one less than risers: 8 or 9 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) For tread depth, use 2R + T = 27: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T = 27” – 2( 6.33” ) = 14.34”, say 14” </li></ul><ul><li>T = 27” – 2( 5.70” ) = 15.60”, say 15 1/2” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of risers: 9 @ 6.33” or 10 @ 5.70” </li></ul><ul><li>Riser height: as above </li></ul><ul><li>Number of treads: 8 @ 14” or 9 @ 15 1/2” </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of tread: as above </li></ul>
  11. 11. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>2. You are designing the renovation of a beautiful 70-year-old house. The plan of the entrance room is shown below. You must add to this room a new stair to an upper floor that lies 9'-2&quot; (2794 mm) above, and the owner requests that it be 3'-6&quot; (1067 mm) wide. Work out the tread and riser proportions for this stair, and draw your design for the stair carefully to scale on the plan drawing. Show calculations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>2. You are designing the renovation of a beautiful 70-year-old house. The plan of the entrance room is shown below. You must add to this room a new stair to an upper floor that lies 9'-2&quot; (2794 mm) above, and the owner requests that it be 3'-6&quot; (1067 mm) wide. Work out the tread and riser proportions for this stair, and draw your design for the stair carefully to scale on the plan drawing. Show calculations. </li></ul><ul><li>a) Total rise: 9'-2&quot; = 110” </li></ul><ul><li>b) Number of risers, using 7.75” maximum rise: 110” / 7.75” = 14+, say 15 risers </li></ul><ul><li>c) Riser height: 110” / 15 = 7.33” </li></ul><ul><li>d) Number of trades, one less than risers: 14 treads </li></ul><ul><li>e) For tread depth, use code minimum: 10” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of risers: 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Riser height: 7.33” </li></ul><ul><li>Number of treads: 14 (two are landings) </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of tread: 10” </li></ul>
  13. 13. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>2. You are designing the renovation of a beautiful 70-year-old house. The plan of the entrance room is shown below. You must add to this room a new stair to an upper floor that lies 9'-2&quot; (2794 mm) above, and the owner requests that it be 3'-6&quot; (1067 mm) wide. Work out the tread and riser proportions for this stair, and draw your design for the stair carefully to scale on the plan drawing. </li></ul>
  14. 14. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>Two friends of yours operate a successful business conducting bicycling tours through the wooded hill country of southern Wisconsin. They would now like to build a half dozen simple hoStels on scattered rural roadside sites to serve as overnight shelters for tour groups, and have asked you to design a prototype. You have agreed with them that each hostel should be a single-story wood platform frame building of about 750 square feet (70 m2) with a sleeping loft above that is about half this size. The main floor should have a single bathroom with toilet, wash basin, and shower, a rudimentary kitchen for heating prepared meals, and a fireplace. Outside, an attached rain shelter for up to 20 bicycles is required. Materials for exterior and interior should be simple, rugged, and consistent with the rural settings of the hostels. </li></ul><ul><li>Many solutions are feasible. This problem draws on information from parts of </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters 5, 6, and 7. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Draw a floor plan of your design at the indicated scale. </li></ul>
  15. 15. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>1. Draw a floor plan of your design at the indicated scale. </li></ul>
  16. 16. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>2. Draw a small perspective illustrating the exterior appearance of the hostel. </li></ul>
  17. 17. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>3. Draw an accurate roof framing plan at the same scale as the floor plan on the previous </li></ul>
  18. 18. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>4. List materials for the following uses, specifying species, grade and/or method of sawing as appropriate. </li></ul><ul><li>a. Foundation type and material: cast-in-place concrete, crawlspace </li></ul><ul><li>b. Joists and rafters: #2 and better Sprice-Pine-Fir </li></ul><ul><li>c. Studs: “Stud” grade </li></ul><ul><li>d. Subflooring: C-C Plugged plywood </li></ul><ul><li>e. Sheathing: C-D Exposure 1 </li></ul><ul><li>f. Roofing: Handsplit red cedar shakes </li></ul><ul><li>g. Siding: Red cedar shingles </li></ul><ul><li>h. Fascias, corner boards, exterior trim: Pine, stained </li></ul><ul><li>i. Exterior doors: Solid core wood </li></ul><ul><li>j. Window type and material: Wood casements </li></ul><ul><li>k. Thermal insulation: Glass fiber batts in walls; Phenolic foam board over roof sheathing </li></ul><ul><li>l. Ceiling finish material: Exposed framing and roof sheathing, with semi- transparent white stain </li></ul><ul><li>m. Wall finish material: 1-inch T&G pine boards, stained </li></ul><ul><li>n. Flooring and stair treads: Sheet linoleum flooring, oak stair treads </li></ul><ul><li>o. Interior trim: Sugar pine, stained </li></ul><ul><li>p. Entrance stairs and deck: 2x3 tight-grain cedar Entrance </li></ul>
  19. 19. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>5. Draw a complete eave detail reflecting your design for the hostel as shown in the perspective. Include all interior and exterior finishes, using the materials you have specified. Label all components </li></ul>
  20. 20. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>5. Draw a complete eave detail reflecting your design for the hostel as shown in the perspective. Include all interior and exterior finishes, using the materials you have specified. Label all components </li></ul>
  21. 21. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>6. Draw and label a complete detail of the intersection of the main floor, foundation, and outside wall. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>7.3 Platform Frame Design Project </li></ul><ul><li>6. Draw and label a complete detail of the intersection of the main floor, foundation, and outside wall. </li></ul>
  23. 23. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. List the sequence of operations required to complete the interior of a wood light frame building and explain the logic of the order in which these operations occur. </li></ul>
  24. 24. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. List the sequence of operations required to complete the interior of a wood light frame building and explain the logic of the order in which these operations occur. </li></ul><ul><li>(The answer to this question is given in some detail at the beginning of the chapter.) Page 228 </li></ul>
  25. 25. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are some alternative ways of insulating the walls of a wood light frame building to R-values beyond the range normally possible with ordinary 2x4 (38x89 mm) studs? </li></ul>
  26. 26. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li> 2. What are some alternative ways of insulating the walls of a wood light frame building to R-values beyond the range normally possible with ordinary 2x4 (38x89 mm) studs? </li></ul><ul><li>Insulation values of wood frame walls can be increased by using 2x6 studs and 5 1/2” insulating batts, by using insulating foam sheathing over 2x4 studs, by using double-wall construction that includes two independent layers of studs to provide more thickness for batt insulation, or by using a high R-value foamed in place insulation. R-15 batts are also available that make it possible to produce an R-19 wall with 2x4 studs. </li></ul>
  27. 27. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why are plaster and gypsum board so popular as interior wall finishes in wood frame buildings? List as many reasons as you can. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Why are plaster and gypsum board so popular as interior wall finishes in wood frame buildings? List as many reasons as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Plaster and gypsum board are popular because they are relatively inexpensive, resistant to fire, and because they accept either paint or wallpaper as finishes. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>4. What is the level of humidity in a building at the time installation of the interior wall finishes is completed? Why? What should be done about this, and why? </li></ul>
  30. 30. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>4. What is the level of humidity in a building at the time installation of the interior wall finishes is completed? Why? What should be done about this, and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity is high in a building at the time the interior wall finishes are completed because of water evaporating from the framing lumber of the building, the concrete and masonry work, and the interior wall finish materials themselves, especially if a plaster finish is used. The building should be ventilated thoroughly for a period of days before finish carpentry operations begin, and, if necessary, the heating system in the building should be turned on to speed the drying-out process. In this way, the humidity inside the building can be reduced to minimize the amount of atmospheric moisture that will be absorbed by interior trim and flooring materials. </li></ul>
  31. 31. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Summarize the most important things to keep in mind when designing a stair. </li></ul>
  32. 32. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>5. Summarize the most important things to keep in mind when designing a stair. </li></ul><ul><li>Some important considerations in designing stairs: The overall layout should be a safe one, with no winders, adequate headroom, adequate width, constant tread and riser proportions, landings at appropriate intervals, and handrails at a convenient height. Treads and risers must be carefully proportioned using accepted dimensional formulas and limitations. </li></ul>
  33. 33. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 7, Interior Finishes for Wood Light Frame Construction: <ul><li>Chapter 7 Web Links   </li></ul><ul><li>www.awinet.org </li></ul><ul><li>Architectural Woodwork Institute </li></ul><ul><li>www.icynene.com </li></ul><ul><li>Icynene Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>www.jm.com </li></ul><ul><li>Manville Insulation </li></ul><ul><li>www.jeld-wen.com </li></ul><ul><li>JELD-WEN Windows & Doors </li></ul><ul><li>www.owenscorning.com </li></ul><ul><li>Owens–Corning Fiberglas  </li></ul>
  34. 34. University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB <ul><li>To do for next class: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fundamentals of Building Construction” </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 8: Brick Masonry </li></ul><ul><li>Question: 1 – 7 page 301 </li></ul>

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