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  1. 1. University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB Lecture 008: Chapter 8, Brick masonry Review Chapter 7 Questions 1- 5 on page 265 Reading assignment: “ Fundamentals of Building Construction” Chapter 9: Stone and Concrete Masonry Question: 1 – 6 page 335
  2. 2. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>In this chapter, you will learn: </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative ways of making mortar for masonry </li></ul><ul><li>How bricks are manufactured and specified </li></ul><ul><li>Standard sizes and shapes of bricks </li></ul><ul><li>The basics of bricklaying </li></ul><ul><li>Brick bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Spanning openings in brick walls </li></ul><ul><li>Spanning space with brick domes and vaults </li></ul>
  3. 3. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.1 Selecting Bricks and Mortar </li></ul><ul><li>1. Indicate appropriate brick and mortar selections for each of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Mortar Types are described in Figure 8.5 of the text. Brick Grades and Types are described in Figure 8.15. Additional guidelines are provided on page 60 of the Exercises workbook. </li></ul>
  4. 4. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.1 Selecting Bricks and Mortar </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Brick Mortar Grade Type Type </li></ul><ul><li>a. Little Rock, Arkansas: Exterior SW FBX S or M </li></ul><ul><li>Load-bearing walls for a 17-story </li></ul><ul><li>dormitory with a highly-regular </li></ul><ul><li>and smooth appearance: </li></ul><ul><li>A high-strength mortar type is required where structural loads are high. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Winnipeg, Manitoba: Wall facing inside a NW FBA O or N </li></ul><ul><li>shopping mall, with a “hand-made brick” look </li></ul><ul><li>Structural loads and weathering are not concerns— choose a low-strength mortar type. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Palm Springs, California: Brick retaining wall SW FBA M </li></ul><ul><li>with a very rough texture </li></ul><ul><li>Type M mortar is recommended for masonry in ground contact. </li></ul><ul><li>d. Cody, Wyoming: Exterior brick facing on a SW FBS N </li></ul><ul><li>single-story house, with a moderate range of size and color variation </li></ul><ul><li>Type N mortar is recommended for non-load-bearing masonry veneer. </li></ul><ul><li>e. Mobile, Alabama: Smooth brick sidewalk SW FBX M </li></ul><ul><li>Type M mortar is recommended for masonry in ground contact. </li></ul><ul><li>f. Seattle, Washington: Variegated bricks for an SW or MW FBS or FBA S </li></ul><ul><li>exterior two story reinforced, load-bearing wall </li></ul><ul><li>Type S mortar is recommended for exterior reinforced or load-bearing masonry . </li></ul>
  5. 5. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>2. Give two alternative recipes for type S mortar: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical mortar mixes are described in Figure 8.6 of the text. Note that “Water” is a necessary ingredient. </li></ul>
  6. 6. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>2. Give two alternative recipes for type S mortar: </li></ul><ul><li>Typical mortar mixes are described in Figure 8.6 of the text. Note that “Water” is a necessary ingredient. </li></ul><ul><li>a. With masonry cement: </li></ul><ul><li>Portland Cement: 1/2 volume </li></ul><ul><li>Masonry Cement: 1 volume Type II </li></ul><ul><li>Sand: 2 1/4 to 3 times the total volume of cements </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>b: With lime: </li></ul><ul><li>Portland Cement: 1 volume </li></ul><ul><li>Lime: 1/4 to 1/2 volume </li></ul><ul><li>Sand: 2 1/4 to 3 times the volume of cement and lime </li></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul>
  7. 7. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>3. Starting with a 3/8&quot; (9.5 mm) mortar joint at the bottom, </li></ul><ul><li>fill each rectangle with an elevation view of running bond brick </li></ul><ul><li>work using the designated size of brick. Draw each brick and </li></ul><ul><li>its surrounding mortar joints as accurately as you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Brick sizes are shown on Figure 8.11 of the text. </li></ul>
  8. 8. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>3. Starting with a 3/8&quot; (9.5 mm) mortar joint at the bottom, </li></ul><ul><li>fill each rectangle with an elevation view of running bond </li></ul><ul><li>brickwork using the designated size of brick. Draw each </li></ul><ul><li>brick and its surrounding mortar joints as accurately as </li></ul><ul><li>you can. </li></ul><ul><li>Brick sizes are shown on Figure 8.11 of the text. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.2 Brick Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>In the spaces below, draw elevations and corresponding cross sections of brick walls in each of the indicated bonds. Use modular bricks and a nominal 8&quot; (200 mm) wall thickness. Draw mortar joint thickness accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Brick bonds are illustrated in Figures 8.18 and 8.19 of the text. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.2 Brick Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>In the spaces below, draw elevations and corresponding cross sections of brick walls in each of the indicated bonds. Use modular bricks and a nominal 8&quot; (200 mm) wall thickness. Draw mortar joint thickness accurately. </li></ul><ul><li>Brick bonds are illustrated in Figures 8.18 and 8.19 of the text. </li></ul>
  11. 11. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.2 Brick Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Another bond of your choice or invention </li></ul><ul><li>Many solutions are possible. </li></ul>
  12. 12. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>1. The small retail building whose plan is drawn below is to be built of modular bricks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before construction can begin, you must work out exact dimensions to guide masons. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Count squares to determine each dimension approximately, then fill in the exact dimensions of the brickwork, accurate to the nearest 1/8&quot; or 1 mm, in such a way that only full bricks and half bricks need be used in the stretcher courses. Check your work by adding each chain of short dimensions and comparing the sum to the corresponding overall dimension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick masonry dimensioning is illustrated in Figure 8.22 of the text, and further discussed on pages 65 – 66 of the Exercises workbook. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick masonry dimensioning is illustrated in Figure 8.22 of the text, and further discussed on pages 65 – 66 of the Exercises workbook. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6&quot; (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units: </li></ul>
  15. 15. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6&quot; (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units: </li></ul><ul><li>a. Modular brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) For nominal 2 1/4” brick, 3 courses (3 bricks plus 3 mortar joints) = 8”, so the height of one course = 8” / 3 courses = 2.67” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) 9’ – 6” = 114”; 114” / 2.67” per course = 42.7 courses; say 43 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Height = 43 x 2.67” = 114.81” = 9’ – 6 3/4” 43 courses, 9’ – 6 3/4” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>b. Engineer Standard brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) 1 course is 2 3/4” brick + 3/8” mortar joint = 3 1/8” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 3.125” per course = 36.5 courses; say 37 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Height = 37 x 3.125” = 115.625” = 9’ – 7 5/8” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>37 courses, 9’–7 5/8” </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6&quot; (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units: </li></ul><ul><li>c. Closure Standard brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) 1 course = 3.625” + .375” = 4” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 4” = 28.5”; say 29 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Height = 29 x 4” = 116” = 9’ – 8” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Or, 28 courses: 116” – 4” = 112” = 9’ – 4” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>29 courses, 9’–8”, or 28 courses, 9’–4” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>d. Roman brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) 1 course = 1.625” + .375” = 2” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 2” = 57 courses exactly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Height is exactly 114” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>57 courses, 9’–6” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e. Norman brick </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See modular brick solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>43 courses, 9’–6 3/4” </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.3 Masonry Dimensioning </li></ul><ul><li>2. The ceiling of this building will be flat and constructed of wood joists. If a ceiling height of approximately 9'-6&quot; (2896 mm) is desired, figure the number of courses and the exact height of the wall for each of the following types of masonry units: </li></ul><ul><li>f. King Size brick, 2 5/8” high </li></ul><ul><li>a) 1 course = 2.625” + .375” = 3” </li></ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 3” = 38 courses exactly </li></ul><ul><li>c) Height is exactly 114” </li></ul><ul><li>38 courses, 9’–6” </li></ul><ul><li>g. 8” x 8” x 16” concrete block </li></ul><ul><li>a) Indicated block size is nominal: 1 course = 8” </li></ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 8” = 14.25; say 14 courses </li></ul><ul><li>c) 14 x 8” = 112” = 9’ – 4” </li></ul><ul><li>h. Arizona adobe brick 4” x 12” x 8”, with 1/2” joints </li></ul><ul><li>a) Assume indicated brick size is actual, not nominal: </li></ul><ul><li>1 course = 4” + 1/2” = 4.5” </li></ul><ul><li>b) 114” / 4.5” = 25.33, say 25 </li></ul><ul><li>c) 25 x 4.5” = 112.5” = 9’ – 4 1/2” </li></ul><ul><li>25 courses, 9’–4 1/2” </li></ul>
  18. 18. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.4 Lintels and Arches </li></ul><ul><li>1. Draw in both elevation and section an appropriate design to span each of these openings: </li></ul><ul><li>See Figures 8.25 through 8.33 for examples of various techniques for spanning wall openings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Doorway in a garden wall of Flemish Bond modular brickwork two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale, standing in the opening, before you start designing the opening. You may use special brick shapes if you wish. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.4 Lintels and Arches </li></ul><ul><li>See Figures 8.25 through 8.33 for examples of various techniques for spanning wall openings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a. Doorway in a garden wall of Flemish Bond modular brickwork two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale, standing in the opening, before you start designing the opening. You may use special brick shapes if you wish. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.4 Lintels and Arches </li></ul><ul><li>2. A window opening in a downtown apartment building built of Closure Standard bricks is two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale in the window, and pay attention to how you detail the brickwork at the sill and jambs. Use any bond you wish, and special brick shapes as you see fit. </li></ul>
  21. 21. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>8.4 Lintels and Arches </li></ul><ul><li>2. A window opening in a downtown apartment building built of Closure Standard bricks is two wythes thick. Draw yourself to scale in the window, and pay attention to how you detail the brickwork at the sill and jambs. Use any bond you wish, and special brick shapes as you see fit </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  22. 22. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. How many syllables are in the word “masonry” (Hint: There cannot be more syllables in a word than there are vowels. Many people, even masons and building professionals, mispronounce this word.) </li></ul>
  23. 23. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. How many syllables are in the word “masonry” (Hint: There cannot be more syllables in a word than there are vowels. Many people, even masons and building professionals, mispronounce this word.) </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 syllables in “masonry.” It should never be pronounced “ma-son-er-ry.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the most common types of masonry units? </li></ul>
  25. 25. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are the most common types of masonry units? </li></ul><ul><li>The most common types of masonry units are bricks, concrete masonry units, and stone. </li></ul>
  26. 26. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are the molding process used in manufacturing bricks? How do they differ from one another? </li></ul>
  27. 27. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>3. What are the molding process used in manufacturing bricks? How do they differ from one another? </li></ul><ul><li>The soft mud process molds bricks by forcing relatively moist clay into rectangular molds. The dry-press process uses a high-pressure machine to force relatively dry clay into molds. The stiff mud process, the most widely used of the three, extrudes a rectangular column of clay from a die and cuts it into individual bricks with a wire. </li></ul>
  28. 28. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>4. List the functions of mortar. </li></ul>
  29. 29. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>4. List the functions of mortar. </li></ul><ul><li>Mortar serves as an adhesive, holding masonry units together; as a cushion to create full bearing between units; as a sealant to keep weather from penetrating between units; and as a part of the finished surface of the wall. </li></ul>
  30. 30. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>5. What are the ingredients of mortar? What is the function of each ingredient? </li></ul>
  31. 31. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>5. What are the ingredients of mortar? What is the function of each ingredient? </li></ul><ul><li>The most common type of mortar is made up of fine sand, which gives bulk and strength to the mortar; portland cement, a binder, which gives strength and weather resistance; hydrated lime, which imparts workability; and water, which activates the cement and lime and also imparts workability. </li></ul>
  32. 32. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Why are mortar joints tooled? Which tooling profiles are suitable for a brick wall in a severe climate? </li></ul>
  33. 33. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>6. Why are mortar joints tooled? Which tooling profiles are suitable for a brick wall in a severe climate? </li></ul><ul><li>Mortar joints are tooled to give a neat appearance of the desired type, and to compress the face of the mortar so as to make it more weathertight. Concave and vee joints are suitable for severe climates. </li></ul>
  34. 34. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Review Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>7. What is the function of a structural brick bond such as common or Flemish bonds? Draw the three most popular brick bonds from memory. </li></ul><ul><li>A structural bond ties two or more wythes of masonry into a single wall. (The three most popular structural bonds—common, Flemish, and English—are illustrated in Figures 8.18 and 8.19 of the textbook.) </li></ul>
  35. 35. ID 218 Interior System, Materials and Codes Chapter 8, Brick Masonry: <ul><li>Chapter 8 Web Links   </li></ul><ul><li>www.bia.org </li></ul><ul><li>Brick Industry Association </li></ul><ul><li>www.generalshale.com </li></ul><ul><li>General Shale Company </li></ul><ul><li>www.glengerybrick.com </li></ul><ul><li>Glen-Gery Brick Company </li></ul><ul><li>www.imiweb.org </li></ul><ul><li>International Masonry Institute </li></ul>
  36. 36. University of New Haven ID 218 Interior Systems, Materials and Codes by: Denis R. Ouimette AIA, OAQ, NCARB <ul><li>To do for next class: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fundamentals of Building Construction” </li></ul><ul><li>Chapter 9: Stone and Concrete Masonry </li></ul><ul><li>Question: 1 – 6 page 335 </li></ul>

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