what is organizational behavior

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what is organizational behavior

  1. 1. o r g a n i z a t i o n a l b e h a v i orstephen p. robbinse l e v e n t h e d i t i on
  2. 2. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIORS T E P H E N P. R O B B I N SE L E V E N T H E D I T I O NW W W . P R E N H A L L . C O M / R O B B I N S© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.All rights reserved.PowerPoint Presentationby Charlie CookWhat Is OrganizationalBehaviorChapter One
  3. 3. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Define organizational behavior (OB).2. Describe what managers do.3. Explain the value of the systematic study ofOB.4. List the major challenges and opportunities formanagers to use OB concepts.5. Identify the contributions made by majorbehavioral science disciplines to OB.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  4. 4. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–3After studying this chapter,you should be able to:6. Describe why managers require a knowledgeof OB.7. Explain the need for a contingency approachto the study of OB.8. Identify the three levels of analysis in thisbook’s OB model.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES(cont’d)
  5. 5. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–4What Managers DoManagerial Activities• Make decisions• Allocate resources• Direct activities of othersto attain goalsManagers (or administrators)Individuals who achieve goals through other people.
  6. 6. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–5Where Managers WorkOrganizationA consciously coordinated social unit,composed of two or more people, thatfunctions on a relatively continuous basisto achieve a common goal or set ofgoals.
  7. 7. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–6Management FunctionsManagementFunctionsPlanning OrganizingLeadingControlling
  8. 8. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–7Management Functions (cont’d)PlanningA process that includes defining goals,establishing strategy, and developingplans to coordinate activities.
  9. 9. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–8Management Functions (cont’d)OrganizingDetermining what tasks are to be done,who is to do them, how the tasks are tobe grouped, who reports to whom, andwhere decisions are to be made.
  10. 10. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–9Management Functions (cont’d)LeadingA function that includes motivatingemployees, directing others, selectingthe most effective communicationchannels, and resolving conflicts.
  11. 11. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–10Management Functions (cont’d)ControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are beingaccomplished as planned and correcting anysignificant deviations.
  12. 12. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–11Mintzberg’s Managerial RolesE X H I B I T 1–1Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  13. 13. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–12Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  14. 14. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–13Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  15. 15. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–14Management SkillsTechnical skillsThe ability to apply specializedknowledge or expertise.Human skillsThe ability to work with, understand,and motivate other people, bothindividually and in groups.Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze anddiagnose complex situations.
  16. 16. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–15Effective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)1. Traditional management• Decision making, planning, and controlling2. Communication• Exchanging routine information and processingpaperwork3. Human resource management• Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing,and training4. Networking• Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others
  17. 17. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–16E X H I B I T 1–2Allocation of Activities by TimeSource: Based on F. Luthans, R.M. Hodgetts, and S.A. Rosenkrantz,Real Managers (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988).
  18. 18. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–17Enter Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior(OB)A field of study thatinvestigates the impact thatindividuals, groups, andstructure have on behaviorwithin organizations, for thepurpose of applying suchknowledge toward improvingan organization’s effectiveness.
  19. 19. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–18Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudySystematic studyLooking at relationships, attempting to attributecauses and effects, and drawing conclusions basedon scientific evidence.Provides a means to predict behaviors.IntuitionA feeling not necessarily supported by research.
  20. 20. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–19Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyTheFactsPreconceivedNotions ≠
  21. 21. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–20Toward an OB DisciplineE X H I B I T 1–3
  22. 22. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–21Contributing Disciplines to the OB FieldE X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)PsychologyThe science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimeschange the behavior of humans and other animals.
  23. 23. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–22Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)SociologyThe study of people in relation to their fellow human beings.
  24. 24. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–23Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)Social PsychologyAn area within psychology that blends concepts from psychologyand sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on oneanother.
  25. 25. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–24Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)AnthropologyThe study of societies to learn about human beings and theiractivities.
  26. 26. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–25Contributing Disciplines to the OB Field (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–3 (cont’d)Political ScienceThe study of the behavior of individuals and groupswithin a political environment.
  27. 27. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–26E X H I B I T 1–4Source: Drawing by Handelsman inThe New Yorker, Copyright © 1986by the New Yorker Magazine.Reprinted by permission.
  28. 28. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–27There Are Few Absolutes in OBContingencyVariablesx yContingency variablesSituational factors: variables that moderatethe relationship between two or more othervariables and improve the correlation.
  29. 29. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–28Challenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Globalization– Increased foreign assignments– Working with people from different cultures– Coping with anti-capitalism backlash– Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor Managing Workforce Diversity– Embracing diversity– Changing U.S. demographics– Implications for managers• Recognizing and responding to differences
  30. 30. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–29DomesticPartnersMajor Workforce Diversity CategoriesRaceNon-ChristianNationalOriginAgeDisabilityE X H I B I T 1–5Gender
  31. 31. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–30Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) Improving Quality and Productivity– Quality management (QM)– Process reengineering Responding to the Labor Shortage– Changing work force demographics– Fewer skilled laborers– Early retirements and older workers Improving Customer Service– Increased expectation of service quality– Customer-responsive cultures
  32. 32. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–31What Is Quality Management?1. Intense focus on the customer.2. Concern for continuous improvement.3. Improvement in the quality of everythingthe organization does.4. Accurate measurement.5. Empowerment of employees.E X H I B I T 1–6
  33. 33. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–32Improving Quality and Productivity Quality management (QM)– The constant attainment of customer satisfactionthrough the continuous improvement of allorganizational processes.– Requires employees to rethink what they do andbecome more involved in workplace decisions. Process reengineering– Asks managers to reconsider how work would be doneand their organization structured if they were startingover.– Instead of making incremental changes in processes,reengineering involves evaluating every process interms of its contribution.
  34. 34. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–33Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Improving People Skills Empowering People Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior
  35. 35. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–34Basic OB Model, Stage IE X H I B I T 1–7ModelAn abstraction of reality.A simplified representationof some real-worldphenomenon.
  36. 36. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–35The Dependent VariablesxyDependent variableA response that is affected by an independent variable.
  37. 37. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–36The Dependent Variables (cont’d)ProductivityA performance measure that includeseffectiveness and efficiency.EffectivenessAchievement of goals.EfficiencyThe ratio of effectiveoutput to the inputrequired to achieve it.
  38. 38. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–37The Dependent Variables (cont’d)AbsenteeismThe failure to report to work.TurnoverThe voluntary andinvoluntary permanentwithdrawal from anorganization.
  39. 39. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–38The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB)Discretionary behavior that is notpart of an employee’s formal jobrequirements, but that neverthelesspromotes the effective functioningof the organization.
  40. 40. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–39The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Job satisfactionA general attitude toward one’s job, the differencebetween the amount of reward workers receive andthe amount they believe they should receive.
  41. 41. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–40The Independent VariablesIndependentVariablesIndividual-LevelVariablesOrganizationSystem-LevelVariablesGroup-LevelVariablesIndependent variableThe presumed cause of some change in the dependentvariable.
  42. 42. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 1–41Basic OBModel,Stage IIE X H I B I T 1–8

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