Ch 2 Management History

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Chapter 2 Management History Robbins Coulter 10e

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Ch 2 Management History

  1. 1. Management tenth edition Stephen P. Robbins Mary Coulter Chapter Management 2 HistoryCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–1
  2. 2. Learning OutcomesFollow this Learning Outline as you read and studythis chapter.2.1 Historical Background Of Management.2.2 Classical Approach.2.3 Quantitative Approach.2.4 Behavioral Approach2.5 Contingency/Contemporary Approach Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–2
  3. 3. Historical Background ofManagement• Ancient Management  Egypt (pyramids) and China (Great Wall)  Venetians (floating warship assembly lines)• Adam Smith  Published The Wealth of Nations in 1776• Industrial RevolutionCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–3
  4. 4. Exhibit 2–1 Major Approaches to ManagementCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–4
  5. 5. Scientific Management • Fredrick Winslow Taylor  The “father” of scientific management  Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911)Says “Management is a science. There is onebest way and one best person to do the task. Ilove efficiency and I love to study people atwork. Management should be an academicdiscipline.” (He had a point…)His work influenced:Bringing psychology into the workplaceGantt Chart and planningHarvard University Offering ManagementDegree Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
  6. 6. Exhibit 2–2 Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles1. Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old rule-of-thumb method.2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker.3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed.4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–6
  7. 7. General Administrative Theory• Henri Fayol  Principles of Management• Max Weber  Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy)  Emphasized rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianismCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–7
  8. 8. Exhibit 2–3 Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management1. Division of work 7. Remuneration2. Authority 8. Centralization3. Discipline 9. Scalar chain4. Unity of command 10. Order5. Unity of direction 11. Equity6. Subordination of 12. Stability of tenure individual interests of personnel to the general 13. Initiative interest 14. Esprit de corpsCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–8
  9. 9. Exhibit 2–4 Weber’s BureaucracyCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–9
  10. 10. Quantitative Approach toManagement• Quantitative Approach  Evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems  British and American military had developed techniques using math/stats to plan for attacks, convoy sizes, bombing raids, etc…  Focuses on improving managerial decision making by applying:  Statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations  Computers do most of this work today Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–10
  11. 11. Exhibit 2–5 What Is Quality Management? Intense focus on the customer Concern for continual improvement Process-focused Improvement in the quality of everything Accurate measurement Empowerment of employeesCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–11
  12. 12. Understanding OrganizationalBehavior• Organizational Behavior (OB)  People are the MOST important asset of an organization or firm (True or False?)Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–12
  13. 13. The Hawthorne Studies•A series of productivity experiments conductedat Western Electric from 1924 to 1932.•Experimental findings Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions. The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.•Research conclusion Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and work behavior than do monetary incentives.Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–13
  14. 14. Exhibit 2–7 The Organization as an Open SystemCopyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–14
  15. 15. Implications of the SystemsApproach• Coordination of the organization’s parts is essential for proper functioning of the entire organization.• Decisions and actions taken in one area of the organization will have an effect in other areas of the organization.• Organizations are not self-contained and, therefore, must adapt to changes in their external environment.Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–15
  16. 16. The Contingency Approach• Contingency Approach Defined  Also sometimes called the situational approach.  There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations.  Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–16
  17. 17. Exhibit 2–8 Popular Contingency Variables• Organization size • As size increases, so do the problems of coordination.• Routineness of task technology • Routine technologies require organizational structures, leadership styles, and control systems that differ from those required by customized or non-routine technologies.• Environmental uncertainty • What works best in a stable and predictable environment may be totally inappropriate in a rapidly changing and unpredictable environment.• Individual differences • Individuals differ in terms of their desire for growth, autonomy, tolerance of ambiguity, and expectations.Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 2–17

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