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The Society For New Communications Research 
THE SOCIAL CONSUMER STUDY 
Social Media and Societal Good 
By Vanessa DiMauro and Don Bulmer
2 
The Social Consumer Study 
Social Media And Societal Good 
Introduction 
The super-connectedness of global communications has challenged how companies 
interact, engage and maintain relevance and trust with their key audiences and the 
public-at-large. The reputation of a company is no longer defined by what they 
“report” or what they “say” they stand for. Instead, they are increasingly defined by 
the shared opinions and experiences of socially-connected consumers. 
With greater access to information and news, heightened awareness of economic and 
(geo) political matters and -- most important -- the experiences of other individuals 
communicated via online communities and social networks, consumers are more 
discerning about the companies they choose to do business with and support. We 
are now in a “so what”, “show me” or “can I trust what you say” business, political and 
social economy. 
In May 2014, we conducted a study to explore the factors that inform, impact and 
shape trust, loyalty and preferences of the digitally connected consumer. We tested 
the belief that brands which can tap into emotions about and awareness of their 
values (human/social) are most likely to inspire positive action and loyalty from 
consumers. 
This report highlights key findings from the research, based on surveys completed 
by 927 respondents mostly from the U.S. with about 10 percent from rest-of-world. 
We conducted this study in conjunction with The Society for New Communication 
Research (SNCR). 
The study explored: 
• Expectations for brands by digitally engaged consumers 
• Characteristics of the relationship factors between a consumer and a brand 
• Whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) influences consumer behavior 
• How strongly do perceptions of a brand’s “making a positive difference” shape 
consumer preferences to purchase or affiliate with the brand 
• The rewards (e.g. product offers, discounts, CSR) that consumers favor most 
from brands 
• The impact of rewards on a consumer’s digital behavior (e.g. purchase, 
endorsement, vote, rate, etc.) 
We also offer guidance for brands on how to engage and reward consumer behavior 
(i.e. encourage action/engagement in exchange for “something” the consumer 
deems of value) to increase levels of loyalty and brand preference. 
In this study, we defined corporate social responsibility as: a societal impact or societal 
good when companies make socially responsible contributions in the community or 
world that go beyond the company’s normal revenue generation in their day-to-day 
strategies and operations. These might include acts that benefit the general public 
such as clean air, clean water, financial stability and literacy.
3 
Gender vs. Generation Gap: There are greater differences in consumer 
decision-making behavior between genders than between generations. 
While we expected to see a strong difference between Millennial consumer behaviors 
vs. older generations, the findings overwhelmingly support gender as a stronger 
factor than generation. Women are two times more likely to turn to social channels 
to inform their decisions about purchases than men (31% vs. 15%). Moreover, women 
place more importance on the degree to which a company commits to operating 
with a social conscience, and are influenced most by: what the media reports about 
a company, online customer reviews and ratings, and a company’s advertisements. 
Twenty-five percent of women are more likely to make a purchase when they learn 
about an organization’s positive social impact actions compared to only 12% of 
men. And, women (regardless of age) are more likely than men to engage online as 
advocates or activists on behalf of or against a brand. 
The Social Influence Factor: Social Media sharing plays a significant 
role in influencing buyer decisions. A seemingly small percentage of people 
who share online one or more times per month (24%) have great influence on a 
much larger majority of consumers who read online sites to inform decisions or 
opinions (67%). Consumer ratings/commentary and personal recommendations 
are most frequently cited as the top sources to inform decision making and 
purchases. Clearly, word of mouth -- or keyboard and touch-screen -- matters. In 
the absence of personal recommendations, buyers frequently go online to inform 
their decisions. The majority of respondents (71%) regularly read social media sites 
as part of their information gathering routine; 76% consider what their friends, 
family or other trusted information sources say about a company when they are 
forming an opinion about a company. 
Loyalty is a Big Win: Once a company earns a consumer’s loyalty, the 
typical factors a consumer uses to make purchase decisions becomes 
less scrutinized because the customer trusts the company to serve them 
well. Quality and price (75% vs. 72%) rate as the most important factors when 
choosing to buy from a company followed by trust (50%), positive ratings online 
(43%) and personal recommendations by family and friends (42%). Once loyalty is 
established, consumers depend less on the input or opinions of others. In these 
situations, continued loyalty is more heavily weighted towards quality, customer 
service and price. 
Consumer Advocacy is Hard Won: When taking action to share an 
opinion online, people are slightly more inclined to do so based on a 
negative experience. 70% of respondents report sharing a negative experience 
online (sometimes/frequently), while 68% state they have shared a positive 
experience online (sometimes/frequently). Respondents who advocate online 
on behalf of brands to which they are loyal tend to focus on clarifying inaccurate 
information about the company as an advocacy activity. 
Consumer Good vs. Societal Good: There is a significant gap in consumer 
views and expectations for a company’s Corporate Social Responsibility 
(CSR) efforts and societal impact. Less than 10% of respondents indicated the 
CSR or societal impact of a company is of high importance in making a decision to 
purchase. Many respondents described societal good using “good for me” examples, 
such as low prices and discounts, rather than “greater good” outcomes for the planet,
4 
social causes and others. While this is a disappointing commentary on consumer 
behavior at large, it suggests there are opportunities for companies to educate 
around what societal good really means, especially if they connect this message to 
how their CSR programs help the world and the consumer. 
When quality and price are largely equal in a purchase decision, nearly three in five 
people report a moderate to strong positive impact on likelihood to purchase when 
they discover information on the positive societal impact of a company. Slightly 
more people (61%) report a moderate to strong negative impact on likelihood to 
purchase when hearing news on the negative societal impact of a company. Product 
or service experience (positive or negative) is two times more likely to be shared 
than news of a company’s social impact (positive or negative). News of the negative 
societal impact of a company has greater impact on women (13% more than men). 
Power of the Medium: Social media maintains a strong influence in the 
lives of consumers. Reading social media sites is the second most popular activity 
consumers engage in – just behind watching TV. It rates higher than listening to the 
radio or reading the newspaper. 
Consumers frequently use social channels to share their experiences with companies 
- both positive and negative - and this, in turn has a material impact on influencing 
buyer decision making. 
The Details 
Social media maintains a strong influence in the lives of consumers. Consumers 
use social channels frequently to share their experiences with companies (both 
positive and negative). This has a material influence on buyer decision making. This 
is especially true among women, who are two times more likely than men (31% vs. 
15%) to turn to social channels to inform their decisions about purchases. 
Respondents also reflect the importance of social media when considering 
companies, products and services, with 67% indicating that they read online ratings 
and opinions one or more times per month. Again, women are more likely to be the 
high frequency readers of online opinions. 
How frequently to you do each of the following? 
Never | Ocasionally | Often | Frequently 
Watch television 30+ 180 +260+ 530 
Read social media sites 40 +250+ 300+ 410 
Listen to the radio 70 +250 +290 +390 
Shop for products online 45 +250 +300+ 410 
Shop for products in stores 10 +290+ 430 +270 
Post on social media sites 90 +430 +240+ 240 
Read the newspaper 190 +440 +170+ 200 
Exhibit 1 
3% 18% 26% 53% 
4% 25% 30% 41% 
7% 25% 29% 36% 
2% 29% 39% 30% 
1% 29% 43% 27% 
9% 43% 24% 24% 
19% 44% 17% 20%
5 
How often do you read ratings or opinions about companies/products/ 
services on online social media forums? 
More than once per week 400+110 11% 
About once per week 400+130 13% 
A couple of times per month 600+270 27% 
About once per month 500+180 18% 
A few times per year 500+180 18% 
One or two times per year 300+80 8% 
Never 300+70 7% 
Exhibit 2 
Social Media Influence: Brand Impressions and Purchase 
Decisions 
It’s a business verity that retaining a customer costs less than acquiring a new one -- a 
primary driver for customer retention programs. But what role do social media play 
in reaching, engaging and retaining key customers? We sought to understand which 
factors affect brand loyalty among social media users. 
Through the data, it became clear that social media influence and impact is like 
throwing a pebble in a pond – the ripple effect reaches far and wide. A seemingly 
small percentage of people who share online one or more times per month (24%) 
have great influence on a much larger majority of consumers who read online sites 
to inform decisions or opinions (67%). 
The majority of respondents (71%) regularly read social media sites as part of their 
information gathering routine and 76% consider what their friends, family or other 
trusted information sources say about a company when they are forming an opinion 
about a company. 
Especially interesting were responses to the question “when deciding whether you 
will purchase products or services from a company that you have not used before,” 
66% (the top response) report that online sites where ratings and commentary 
from other consumers are posted were their 1st or 2nd source of information. This 
factor was weighted more heavily than friends or family recommendations. 
This influence trend is reinforced throughout the study, especially during the 
conjoint analysis segment of the study. We offered study participants a portfolio 
of company descriptors with varying conditions ranging from the price of the 
company’s products (low / moderate/ high), general quality of products offered 
(low/moderate/high), length of time the company has been in business (20+years/5 
or less) and general reputation (positive societal impact/ negative societal impact). 
While product or service quality is the most important factor in purchase decisions, 
the positive or negative information shared on social media played a critical role. 
37% of buyers surveyed weigh quality as a factor and 27% consider information 
shared on social media channels.
6 
How often do you post your ratings or opinions about companies/products/ 
services in online social media forums? 
More than once per week 300+20 2% 
About once per week 300+20 2% 
A couple of times per month 500+90 9% 
About once per month 600+110 11% 
A few times per year 600+230 23% 
One or two times per year 600+270 27% 
Never 600+260 26% 
Exhibit 3 
Have you ever actively defended or advocated for a company you felt loyal 
to? If so, describe a time when you did? (open ended) 
Shared my positive experience with others 600+310 31% 
Defended company 600+240 24% 
Recommended a product or service 600+170 17% 
Used social media to share 600+120 12% 
Shared info about social good 300+50 5% 
Employee advocacy 200+30 3% 
Told company 200+20 2% 
Exhibit 4 
The Experience Factor: Customer Experience is King 
The research highlighted that a positive customer experience is the single most 
important factor in determining loyalty among respondents. Even more important 
than price! To learn more about loyalty factors we posed an open-ended question in 
the study “What are the events or factors that cause you to be “loyal” to a company, 
that is, you continue using that company as opposed to actively seeking other 
options?” and received 600 responses from 525 individual survey takers. 
The discrete responses ranged widely but the themes were concentrated around 
having an all-around positive customer experience, consistently receiving good 
value for the price, and a longstanding positive reputation. Some examples of how 
respondents described a positive customer experience included: pleasant in-store 
interactions, easy to do business with, generous return policies, listens and responds 
to issues. Overwhelmingly, a positive customer experience was critical to establishing 
and sustaining customer loyalty among respondents. 
Further, we identified that: 
• Quality and price (75% vs. 72%) rate as the most important factors when choosing 
to buy from a company followed by trust (50%), positive ratings online (43%) and 
personal recommendations by family and friends (42%). 
• Women are nearly twice as likely as men (13% vs. 7%) to place “positive societal 
impact” among their top three reasons to share online.
7 
Rank the importance of the following factors when you are choosing to buy 
products or services from a company. 
3rd | 2nd| 1st 
The company offers the best quality 190+ 250+ 310 
The company offers the best price 210+ 280+ 230 
The company is one I trust 160 +150 +190 
The company receives good ratings online 160 +1600 +110 
friends or family 190 +100+ 130 
The company is recommended by my 
on the community/world 60 +20 +20 
The company has a positive societal impact 
The company is popular (e.g. a new fad) 20 +20 +10 
Exhibit 5 
Social Media Behavior & Brand Advocacy 
To better understand how consumers think about taking action to criticize or advocate for 
a brand, we asked respondents to describe an incident and give an example. 
70% of respondents report sharing a negative experience online (sometimes/ 
frequently) vs. 68% stating they shared a positive experience online (sometimes/ 
frequently). Interestingly, we found respondents who advocate online on behalf 
of a brand cite clarifying inaccurate information about a company to which the 
respondent is loyal among the key reasons for taking action. 
There was a high awareness among respondents that they have the power to 
reach large numbers of people through their social sharing activities. When taking 
action to publish an opinion online, respondents were more inclined to do so based 
on a negative experience than a positive one. Product quality experiences had 
significantly greater influence than a company’s societal impact. 
We also learned that once a customer is loyal to a brand, they tend to consult online 
sources less often to inform future purchase decisions. Continued brand loyalty is 
based on quality, customer service and price. 
What are the events or factors that cause you to be “loyal” to a company, 
that is, you continue using that company as opposed to actively seeking 
other options? 
Quality 600+510 51% 
Customer service 600+480 48% 
Price 600+360 36% 
Reward programs 300+90 9% 
Prior experience 300+90 9% 
Trustworthy/Reputation 300+70 7% 
Positive social impact 300+50 5% 
Exhibit 6 
19% 25% 31% 
21% 28% 23% 
16% 15% 19% 
16% 16% 11% 
19% 10% 13% 
6% 2% 2% 
2% 2%1%
8 
How often have each of the following factors influenced you to post your 
ratings or opinions about a company/product/service in an online forum? 
Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Frequently 
When I have a positive experience with a company’s 
products/services 160+ 150 +450+ 230 
When I have a negative experience with a company’s 
16% 15% 45% 23% 
products/services 160 16% +140+ 14% 390+ 39% 310 
31% 
When I discover information about the positive 
social impact of a company’s products/services 360 36% +300 30% 270 +27% +60 
6% 
When I discover information about the negative 
social impact of a company’s products/services 350 300 ++270+ 90 
35% 30% 27% 9% 
Exhibit 7 
Consumer Good vs. Social Good 
We asked a series of standard and open-ended questions to understand how 
a company’s behavior in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or 
societal impact reflects in consumer views and preference to companies. The 
definition used in the study: 
CSR is a societal impact or societal good when companies make socially 
responsible contributions in the community or world that go beyond the 
company’s normal revenue generation in their day-to-day strategies and 
operations. These might include acts that benefit the general public such as 
clean air, clean water, financial stability and literacy. 
The responses were surprisingly clear that a company’s commitment to societal 
impact can be quite superficial, with little consumer interrogation about 
distinguishing a company’s true impact compared to the firm’s “marketing” of 
its social good activities. 
Many people defined a societal good using examples such as “good to me” (e.g. 
low prices, discounts) rather than a “greater good” (e.g. to the planet, a cause, 
or others). Respondents did not appear to distinguish between companies 
which showcase the impact of their “greater good” efforts and other companies 
whose efforts were more marketing of beliefs. 
In addition, through conjoint analysis described in the Methods section of this 
paper, we sought to isolate the impact of CSR on consumer purchase behavior 
when all other buying factors were equalized. We posed a number of factors 
including: length of time a company has been in business; whether or not the 
company makes a positive contribution to CSR or is reported to have made a 
negative impact on society, along with the price (low or high) and quality (low 
or high) factors. 
When quality and price are largely equal: 
• Nearly three in five respondents report a moderate to strong positive 
impact on likelihood to purchase when they discover information on the 
positive societal impact of a company. 
• Slightly more (61%) report a moderate to strong negative impact on 
likelihood to purchase when hearing news on the negative societal impact 
of a company. 
• Product or service experience (positive or negative) is two times more likely 
to be shared than news of a company’s social impact (positive or negative).
9 
• News of the negative societal impact of a company has greater impact on 
women (13% more than men) 
While a company’s societal impact is not a main loyalty factor across the 
board, the respondents who identified with this factor tended to be more 
passionate in their responses than those for whom CSR was not considered 
as important. 
What societal impact means to consumers can range 
widely – there is no shared understanding 
In effort to understand what respondents perceive to be evidence of 
corporate social impact we asked them to share examples of companies that 
are making an impact and how. Specifically we asked respondents to name 
the company they discovered was making a positive societal impact, share 
what that information was, and how they obtained that information. Two 
hundred and seventeen people offered detailed responses. 
Categorized examples include: 
• Donating to charity, supporting foundations or causes 
• Environmentally friendly building (e.g. solar farms or green data centers) 
• Making cruelty-free products 
• Using multi-racial or un-manipulated images of models 
• Organic or non-GMO ingredients 
• Fair pay practices 
• Environmentally-friendly practices (recycle, plant trees) 
• Encouraging staff to volunteer 
• Hiring people with special needs or immigrants 
Many different types of companies were identified ranging from small 
local companies to multi-nationals. Among the most frequently cited were 
(alphabetical) Amazon, Tom’s Shoes, Starbucks, Target and Wal-Mart. 
Additional observations are: 
• Women place more importance on the degree to which a company 
commits to operating with a social conscience, influenced most by: what 
the media reports about a company, online customer reviews and ratings, 
and a company’s advertisements. 
• When discovering information about the positive societal impact 80% of 
the people engage via a mix of online and offline channels. Women are 
more likely to share online than men (32% vs. 25%). 
• Half of respondents placed (positive) environmental and societal impact 
among the top three influencers for increasing likelihood to buy products. 
• Nearly half of respondents placed (negative) environmental impact 
among the top three reasons for decreasing likelihood to buy products.
10 
How important are the following factors when you form your impressions 
about a company? 
Not at all Important | Mildly Important | Moderately Important | Very Important 
The quality of the products/services 10+ 30 +170+ 800 
The cost of products/services 10 +70+ 370+ 550 
The company’s customer care program 30 3% 180 +18% +410 41% 370 
+37% 
about the company 30 +200 +420+ 340 
What friends, family or other trusted people say 
3% 20% 42% 34% 
Customer reviews and ratings on Social Media sites 40 4% +220+ 22% 430 43% 300 
+30% 
The degree to which the company operates with a 
social conscience 110 11% 330 +33% 380+ +38% 190 
19% 
The company’s rewards program 70 +330 +420+ 180 
Length of time the co has been in business 100 +370 +390+ 150 
What the media /reports about the company 80 +360 +430+ 130 
What the company says in ads 140 +440 +330+ 100 
The company’s social media presence 310 +420 +210+ 70 
Exhibit 8 
It is especially interesting to note that, in the question regarding key factors for FORMING 
an impression of a company, customer care programs are not especially high. However, 
as noted earlier, it is a driving factor for establishing and maintaining loyalty. 
When you discover information concerning the positive societal impact of 
a company’s practices, what impact does that information have on your 
likelihood to purchase their products/services? 
Strong Positive Impact 500+190 19% 
Moderate Positive Impact 600+390 39% 
Mild Positive Impact 600+320 32% 
No Impact at All 300+90 9% 
Exhibit 9 
Rank the following company communications in order based on which 
makes you more likely to buy products / services from these companies. 
3rd | 2nd| 1st 
the savings on to our customers 100+ 130+ 400 
Company takes extra efforts to keep our costs low, and pass 
healthcare & a “living wage” 160+ 200+ 230 
Company ensures that all of our employees and suppliers have 
Our company is committed to (and transparent about) the 
environmental and societal impact of our business in the 
communities where we operate (manufacture, produce, 
retail, etc) 
240 +170 +100 
Company reinvests a considerable amount of profits from 
revenues to improve the quality, value & experience of our 
24% 17% 10% 
products/services 150 +250 +110 
Company gives 5% of profits to charity 150 +110+ 90 
local high school & college students 140 +90 +40 
Company offers internships & other learning opportunities to 
national charities 50 +40 +20 
Employees devote 4 days each year to working for local & 
Exhibit 10 
1% 3% 17% 80% 
1% 7% 37% 55% 
7% 33% 42% 18% 
10% 37% 39% 15% 
8% 36% 43% 13% 
14% 44% 33% 10% 
31% 42% 21% 7% 
10% 13% 40% 
16% 20% 23% 
15% 25% 11% 
15% 11% 9% 
14% 9% 4% 
5% 4% 2%
11 
Observations on the Gender Gap 
Women are significantly more likely to be influenced by information they learn 
regarding an organization’s positive impact on society. Specifically, women place 
more emphasis on the degree to which a company commits to operating with a 
conscience, what the media reports about a company, customer reviews and ratings, 
and advertisements. 
Twenty-five percent of women are more likely to make a purchase when they learn 
about an organization’s positive social impact actions compared to only 12% of 
men. When women discover information concerning the negative societal impact 
of a company’s practices they are 31% less likely to purchase from that company, 
compared to 21% of men. 
It is also interesting to note the sharing behaviors women use to promote a product 
or support an organization that is having a positive societal impact. Women are 
more likely than men post ratings or opinions when they have a positive experience; 
more likely to look for ratings or opinions online than men; are more likely share 
information about an organization online (solely or in concert with sharing with 
friends and family) than men (32% vs. 25%). It is clear women are generally more 
responsive to information about an organization’s impact on society and are quick 
to make their views known online and offline. 
How an organization’s societal contributions influence purchase preference also 
displays a gender gap. Women are more likely to place charitable donations as a top 
three influence trigger for likelihood to buy products and services from a company, 
and are more likely to avoid purchasing from companies reported to have underpaid 
employees or engaged in hiring discrimination. On the flip-side, men responded to 
reinvestment of profits for social good as consideration factor for purchase decisions, 
and are more likely to cite fraudulent claims as a deterrent to making purchases.
12 
Distinguishing Features of the Social Media Activist 
Through the study, we sought to develop an understanding and profile of the social 
media consumer advocate/activist. Based on an analysis of responses related to 
online behavior and purchasing influence/incentives, women (regardless of age) are 
most likely to engage with – on behalf of or in opposition to -- a brand online . 
Here is the profile of a social media advocate/activists based on the study: 
• More likely to be Women Under 35 (32% vs. 25% who are not social media 
activists) 
• More likely to be Twitter users (51% vs. 37%) 
• Have seen an improvement on their financial situation over the past two years 
(61% vs. 52%) 
• More likely to access the Internet via a mobile device (35% vs. 28%) rather than a 
personal computer 
Passive social media consumers tend to be men (regardless of age) and more likely 
to not have had their financial situation improve in the past 2 years, and have the 
lowest rates of Mobile device use as their primary means to connect to the Internet. 
Social media Detractors, or those who’s online actions are driven by negative 
experiences tend toward higher percentages having a Twitter account, and greater 
numbers with improved financial situation (at least compared to and Passive). 
Methods 
There were 927 respondents to this study (858 through an online panel and 69 
from social media sites). Results were examined both in aggregate, and across the 
following three categories: Age: 18-25 (9%; n=80) Young Millennials, 26-35 (36%; 
n=334) Older Millennials, 31 to 45 (19%; n=177), Over 45 (36%; n=327), Gender: 54% 
women (n=494), 46% men (n=426) and LinkedIn Users: High (Often or Frequent 
48%; n=448) and Low (Never or Rarely 52%; n=477). 
About The Authors 
Don and Vanessa have been collaborators on multiple research studies for the past 
five years; The New Symbiosis of Professional Networks: Social Media’s Impact on 
Business and Decision-making by Donald Bulmer and Vanessa DiMauro (Feb 28, 
2010) and The Social Mind by Vanessa DiMauro, Peter Auditore and Don Bulmer (Apr 
1, 2012). The studies can be downloaded at http://www.slideshare.net/vdimauro 
Vanessa DiMauro is the founder and CEO of Leader Networks, a research and strategy 
consulting company that helps organizations succeed in social business and B2B 
online community building. DiMauro is a popular speaker, researcher and executive 
advisor. With over 15 years experience in social business leadership positions, she has 
founded and run numerous online communities, and has developed award winning 
social business strategies for some of the largest and most influential companies 
in the world. Many of her clients have won industry awards such as Forrester’s 
Groundswell and SNCR’s Excellence in Communications. 
Her work has been covered by leading publications such as the New York Times, 
the Wall Street Journal and Forbes. DiMauro was recently named a one of 40 top 
social marketing masters worldwide by Forbes. Vanessa DiMauro sits on several
13 
boards including The Society of New Communications Research (SNCR) and Social 
Media Today. She is former Executive-In-Residence at Babson College’s Olin School 
of Management, holds both a B.A. and M.A. from Boston College and blogs at http:// 
www.leadernetworks.com/blog/. 
Don Bulmer has 19 years of multi-national experience leading award winning 
marketing, communication and business development programs with measurable 
effect in accelerating the sales and competitive strength of energy enterprise 
technology, Internet start-up and professional service companies. Don’s expertise 
includes designing multi-faceted marketing and communication programs to 
support the launch of companies and the introduction of new products and services 
that have led to the creation and redefinition of several multi-million and multi-billion 
dollar, 3rd party validated market categories. 
At Royal Dutch Shell Don is responsible for social media and brand innovation 
strategy. He holds a B.A. degree from the University of the Pacific and a Certificate 
of Professional Development from The Wharton School at the University of 
Pennsylvania. 
Don is a member of the board of directors at The Churchill Club and is also a member 
of the board of directors and a fellow at the Society for New Communications 
Research (SNCR). He was inducted into the PR News Hall of Fame in 2009. 
Don is a frequent speaker at industry events and shares his experiences and 
insights on leadership, influencer marketing, social media and communications 
through his popular blog - Everyday Influence with articles that often appear on 
SocialMediaToday, CustomerThink and Social Business One. 
About SNCR 
The Society for New Communications Research is a global nonprofit 501(c)(3) 
research and education foundation and think tank founded in 2005 to focus on the 
advanced study of the latest developments in new media and communications, 
and their effect on traditional media and business models, communications, culture 
and society. SNCR is dedicated to creating a bridge between the academic and 
theoretical pursuit of these topics and the pragmatic implementation of new media 
and communications tools and methodologies. The Society’s Fellows include a 
leading group of futurists, scholars, business leaders, professional communicators, 
members of the media and technologists from around the globe. 
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The Social Consumer Study

  • 1. The Society For New Communications Research THE SOCIAL CONSUMER STUDY Social Media and Societal Good By Vanessa DiMauro and Don Bulmer
  • 2. 2 The Social Consumer Study Social Media And Societal Good Introduction The super-connectedness of global communications has challenged how companies interact, engage and maintain relevance and trust with their key audiences and the public-at-large. The reputation of a company is no longer defined by what they “report” or what they “say” they stand for. Instead, they are increasingly defined by the shared opinions and experiences of socially-connected consumers. With greater access to information and news, heightened awareness of economic and (geo) political matters and -- most important -- the experiences of other individuals communicated via online communities and social networks, consumers are more discerning about the companies they choose to do business with and support. We are now in a “so what”, “show me” or “can I trust what you say” business, political and social economy. In May 2014, we conducted a study to explore the factors that inform, impact and shape trust, loyalty and preferences of the digitally connected consumer. We tested the belief that brands which can tap into emotions about and awareness of their values (human/social) are most likely to inspire positive action and loyalty from consumers. This report highlights key findings from the research, based on surveys completed by 927 respondents mostly from the U.S. with about 10 percent from rest-of-world. We conducted this study in conjunction with The Society for New Communication Research (SNCR). The study explored: • Expectations for brands by digitally engaged consumers • Characteristics of the relationship factors between a consumer and a brand • Whether corporate social responsibility (CSR) influences consumer behavior • How strongly do perceptions of a brand’s “making a positive difference” shape consumer preferences to purchase or affiliate with the brand • The rewards (e.g. product offers, discounts, CSR) that consumers favor most from brands • The impact of rewards on a consumer’s digital behavior (e.g. purchase, endorsement, vote, rate, etc.) We also offer guidance for brands on how to engage and reward consumer behavior (i.e. encourage action/engagement in exchange for “something” the consumer deems of value) to increase levels of loyalty and brand preference. In this study, we defined corporate social responsibility as: a societal impact or societal good when companies make socially responsible contributions in the community or world that go beyond the company’s normal revenue generation in their day-to-day strategies and operations. These might include acts that benefit the general public such as clean air, clean water, financial stability and literacy.
  • 3. 3 Gender vs. Generation Gap: There are greater differences in consumer decision-making behavior between genders than between generations. While we expected to see a strong difference between Millennial consumer behaviors vs. older generations, the findings overwhelmingly support gender as a stronger factor than generation. Women are two times more likely to turn to social channels to inform their decisions about purchases than men (31% vs. 15%). Moreover, women place more importance on the degree to which a company commits to operating with a social conscience, and are influenced most by: what the media reports about a company, online customer reviews and ratings, and a company’s advertisements. Twenty-five percent of women are more likely to make a purchase when they learn about an organization’s positive social impact actions compared to only 12% of men. And, women (regardless of age) are more likely than men to engage online as advocates or activists on behalf of or against a brand. The Social Influence Factor: Social Media sharing plays a significant role in influencing buyer decisions. A seemingly small percentage of people who share online one or more times per month (24%) have great influence on a much larger majority of consumers who read online sites to inform decisions or opinions (67%). Consumer ratings/commentary and personal recommendations are most frequently cited as the top sources to inform decision making and purchases. Clearly, word of mouth -- or keyboard and touch-screen -- matters. In the absence of personal recommendations, buyers frequently go online to inform their decisions. The majority of respondents (71%) regularly read social media sites as part of their information gathering routine; 76% consider what their friends, family or other trusted information sources say about a company when they are forming an opinion about a company. Loyalty is a Big Win: Once a company earns a consumer’s loyalty, the typical factors a consumer uses to make purchase decisions becomes less scrutinized because the customer trusts the company to serve them well. Quality and price (75% vs. 72%) rate as the most important factors when choosing to buy from a company followed by trust (50%), positive ratings online (43%) and personal recommendations by family and friends (42%). Once loyalty is established, consumers depend less on the input or opinions of others. In these situations, continued loyalty is more heavily weighted towards quality, customer service and price. Consumer Advocacy is Hard Won: When taking action to share an opinion online, people are slightly more inclined to do so based on a negative experience. 70% of respondents report sharing a negative experience online (sometimes/frequently), while 68% state they have shared a positive experience online (sometimes/frequently). Respondents who advocate online on behalf of brands to which they are loyal tend to focus on clarifying inaccurate information about the company as an advocacy activity. Consumer Good vs. Societal Good: There is a significant gap in consumer views and expectations for a company’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) efforts and societal impact. Less than 10% of respondents indicated the CSR or societal impact of a company is of high importance in making a decision to purchase. Many respondents described societal good using “good for me” examples, such as low prices and discounts, rather than “greater good” outcomes for the planet,
  • 4. 4 social causes and others. While this is a disappointing commentary on consumer behavior at large, it suggests there are opportunities for companies to educate around what societal good really means, especially if they connect this message to how their CSR programs help the world and the consumer. When quality and price are largely equal in a purchase decision, nearly three in five people report a moderate to strong positive impact on likelihood to purchase when they discover information on the positive societal impact of a company. Slightly more people (61%) report a moderate to strong negative impact on likelihood to purchase when hearing news on the negative societal impact of a company. Product or service experience (positive or negative) is two times more likely to be shared than news of a company’s social impact (positive or negative). News of the negative societal impact of a company has greater impact on women (13% more than men). Power of the Medium: Social media maintains a strong influence in the lives of consumers. Reading social media sites is the second most popular activity consumers engage in – just behind watching TV. It rates higher than listening to the radio or reading the newspaper. Consumers frequently use social channels to share their experiences with companies - both positive and negative - and this, in turn has a material impact on influencing buyer decision making. The Details Social media maintains a strong influence in the lives of consumers. Consumers use social channels frequently to share their experiences with companies (both positive and negative). This has a material influence on buyer decision making. This is especially true among women, who are two times more likely than men (31% vs. 15%) to turn to social channels to inform their decisions about purchases. Respondents also reflect the importance of social media when considering companies, products and services, with 67% indicating that they read online ratings and opinions one or more times per month. Again, women are more likely to be the high frequency readers of online opinions. How frequently to you do each of the following? Never | Ocasionally | Often | Frequently Watch television 30+ 180 +260+ 530 Read social media sites 40 +250+ 300+ 410 Listen to the radio 70 +250 +290 +390 Shop for products online 45 +250 +300+ 410 Shop for products in stores 10 +290+ 430 +270 Post on social media sites 90 +430 +240+ 240 Read the newspaper 190 +440 +170+ 200 Exhibit 1 3% 18% 26% 53% 4% 25% 30% 41% 7% 25% 29% 36% 2% 29% 39% 30% 1% 29% 43% 27% 9% 43% 24% 24% 19% 44% 17% 20%
  • 5. 5 How often do you read ratings or opinions about companies/products/ services on online social media forums? More than once per week 400+110 11% About once per week 400+130 13% A couple of times per month 600+270 27% About once per month 500+180 18% A few times per year 500+180 18% One or two times per year 300+80 8% Never 300+70 7% Exhibit 2 Social Media Influence: Brand Impressions and Purchase Decisions It’s a business verity that retaining a customer costs less than acquiring a new one -- a primary driver for customer retention programs. But what role do social media play in reaching, engaging and retaining key customers? We sought to understand which factors affect brand loyalty among social media users. Through the data, it became clear that social media influence and impact is like throwing a pebble in a pond – the ripple effect reaches far and wide. A seemingly small percentage of people who share online one or more times per month (24%) have great influence on a much larger majority of consumers who read online sites to inform decisions or opinions (67%). The majority of respondents (71%) regularly read social media sites as part of their information gathering routine and 76% consider what their friends, family or other trusted information sources say about a company when they are forming an opinion about a company. Especially interesting were responses to the question “when deciding whether you will purchase products or services from a company that you have not used before,” 66% (the top response) report that online sites where ratings and commentary from other consumers are posted were their 1st or 2nd source of information. This factor was weighted more heavily than friends or family recommendations. This influence trend is reinforced throughout the study, especially during the conjoint analysis segment of the study. We offered study participants a portfolio of company descriptors with varying conditions ranging from the price of the company’s products (low / moderate/ high), general quality of products offered (low/moderate/high), length of time the company has been in business (20+years/5 or less) and general reputation (positive societal impact/ negative societal impact). While product or service quality is the most important factor in purchase decisions, the positive or negative information shared on social media played a critical role. 37% of buyers surveyed weigh quality as a factor and 27% consider information shared on social media channels.
  • 6. 6 How often do you post your ratings or opinions about companies/products/ services in online social media forums? More than once per week 300+20 2% About once per week 300+20 2% A couple of times per month 500+90 9% About once per month 600+110 11% A few times per year 600+230 23% One or two times per year 600+270 27% Never 600+260 26% Exhibit 3 Have you ever actively defended or advocated for a company you felt loyal to? If so, describe a time when you did? (open ended) Shared my positive experience with others 600+310 31% Defended company 600+240 24% Recommended a product or service 600+170 17% Used social media to share 600+120 12% Shared info about social good 300+50 5% Employee advocacy 200+30 3% Told company 200+20 2% Exhibit 4 The Experience Factor: Customer Experience is King The research highlighted that a positive customer experience is the single most important factor in determining loyalty among respondents. Even more important than price! To learn more about loyalty factors we posed an open-ended question in the study “What are the events or factors that cause you to be “loyal” to a company, that is, you continue using that company as opposed to actively seeking other options?” and received 600 responses from 525 individual survey takers. The discrete responses ranged widely but the themes were concentrated around having an all-around positive customer experience, consistently receiving good value for the price, and a longstanding positive reputation. Some examples of how respondents described a positive customer experience included: pleasant in-store interactions, easy to do business with, generous return policies, listens and responds to issues. Overwhelmingly, a positive customer experience was critical to establishing and sustaining customer loyalty among respondents. Further, we identified that: • Quality and price (75% vs. 72%) rate as the most important factors when choosing to buy from a company followed by trust (50%), positive ratings online (43%) and personal recommendations by family and friends (42%). • Women are nearly twice as likely as men (13% vs. 7%) to place “positive societal impact” among their top three reasons to share online.
  • 7. 7 Rank the importance of the following factors when you are choosing to buy products or services from a company. 3rd | 2nd| 1st The company offers the best quality 190+ 250+ 310 The company offers the best price 210+ 280+ 230 The company is one I trust 160 +150 +190 The company receives good ratings online 160 +1600 +110 friends or family 190 +100+ 130 The company is recommended by my on the community/world 60 +20 +20 The company has a positive societal impact The company is popular (e.g. a new fad) 20 +20 +10 Exhibit 5 Social Media Behavior & Brand Advocacy To better understand how consumers think about taking action to criticize or advocate for a brand, we asked respondents to describe an incident and give an example. 70% of respondents report sharing a negative experience online (sometimes/ frequently) vs. 68% stating they shared a positive experience online (sometimes/ frequently). Interestingly, we found respondents who advocate online on behalf of a brand cite clarifying inaccurate information about a company to which the respondent is loyal among the key reasons for taking action. There was a high awareness among respondents that they have the power to reach large numbers of people through their social sharing activities. When taking action to publish an opinion online, respondents were more inclined to do so based on a negative experience than a positive one. Product quality experiences had significantly greater influence than a company’s societal impact. We also learned that once a customer is loyal to a brand, they tend to consult online sources less often to inform future purchase decisions. Continued brand loyalty is based on quality, customer service and price. What are the events or factors that cause you to be “loyal” to a company, that is, you continue using that company as opposed to actively seeking other options? Quality 600+510 51% Customer service 600+480 48% Price 600+360 36% Reward programs 300+90 9% Prior experience 300+90 9% Trustworthy/Reputation 300+70 7% Positive social impact 300+50 5% Exhibit 6 19% 25% 31% 21% 28% 23% 16% 15% 19% 16% 16% 11% 19% 10% 13% 6% 2% 2% 2% 2%1%
  • 8. 8 How often have each of the following factors influenced you to post your ratings or opinions about a company/product/service in an online forum? Never | Rarely | Sometimes | Frequently When I have a positive experience with a company’s products/services 160+ 150 +450+ 230 When I have a negative experience with a company’s 16% 15% 45% 23% products/services 160 16% +140+ 14% 390+ 39% 310 31% When I discover information about the positive social impact of a company’s products/services 360 36% +300 30% 270 +27% +60 6% When I discover information about the negative social impact of a company’s products/services 350 300 ++270+ 90 35% 30% 27% 9% Exhibit 7 Consumer Good vs. Social Good We asked a series of standard and open-ended questions to understand how a company’s behavior in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or societal impact reflects in consumer views and preference to companies. The definition used in the study: CSR is a societal impact or societal good when companies make socially responsible contributions in the community or world that go beyond the company’s normal revenue generation in their day-to-day strategies and operations. These might include acts that benefit the general public such as clean air, clean water, financial stability and literacy. The responses were surprisingly clear that a company’s commitment to societal impact can be quite superficial, with little consumer interrogation about distinguishing a company’s true impact compared to the firm’s “marketing” of its social good activities. Many people defined a societal good using examples such as “good to me” (e.g. low prices, discounts) rather than a “greater good” (e.g. to the planet, a cause, or others). Respondents did not appear to distinguish between companies which showcase the impact of their “greater good” efforts and other companies whose efforts were more marketing of beliefs. In addition, through conjoint analysis described in the Methods section of this paper, we sought to isolate the impact of CSR on consumer purchase behavior when all other buying factors were equalized. We posed a number of factors including: length of time a company has been in business; whether or not the company makes a positive contribution to CSR or is reported to have made a negative impact on society, along with the price (low or high) and quality (low or high) factors. When quality and price are largely equal: • Nearly three in five respondents report a moderate to strong positive impact on likelihood to purchase when they discover information on the positive societal impact of a company. • Slightly more (61%) report a moderate to strong negative impact on likelihood to purchase when hearing news on the negative societal impact of a company. • Product or service experience (positive or negative) is two times more likely to be shared than news of a company’s social impact (positive or negative).
  • 9. 9 • News of the negative societal impact of a company has greater impact on women (13% more than men) While a company’s societal impact is not a main loyalty factor across the board, the respondents who identified with this factor tended to be more passionate in their responses than those for whom CSR was not considered as important. What societal impact means to consumers can range widely – there is no shared understanding In effort to understand what respondents perceive to be evidence of corporate social impact we asked them to share examples of companies that are making an impact and how. Specifically we asked respondents to name the company they discovered was making a positive societal impact, share what that information was, and how they obtained that information. Two hundred and seventeen people offered detailed responses. Categorized examples include: • Donating to charity, supporting foundations or causes • Environmentally friendly building (e.g. solar farms or green data centers) • Making cruelty-free products • Using multi-racial or un-manipulated images of models • Organic or non-GMO ingredients • Fair pay practices • Environmentally-friendly practices (recycle, plant trees) • Encouraging staff to volunteer • Hiring people with special needs or immigrants Many different types of companies were identified ranging from small local companies to multi-nationals. Among the most frequently cited were (alphabetical) Amazon, Tom’s Shoes, Starbucks, Target and Wal-Mart. Additional observations are: • Women place more importance on the degree to which a company commits to operating with a social conscience, influenced most by: what the media reports about a company, online customer reviews and ratings, and a company’s advertisements. • When discovering information about the positive societal impact 80% of the people engage via a mix of online and offline channels. Women are more likely to share online than men (32% vs. 25%). • Half of respondents placed (positive) environmental and societal impact among the top three influencers for increasing likelihood to buy products. • Nearly half of respondents placed (negative) environmental impact among the top three reasons for decreasing likelihood to buy products.
  • 10. 10 How important are the following factors when you form your impressions about a company? Not at all Important | Mildly Important | Moderately Important | Very Important The quality of the products/services 10+ 30 +170+ 800 The cost of products/services 10 +70+ 370+ 550 The company’s customer care program 30 3% 180 +18% +410 41% 370 +37% about the company 30 +200 +420+ 340 What friends, family or other trusted people say 3% 20% 42% 34% Customer reviews and ratings on Social Media sites 40 4% +220+ 22% 430 43% 300 +30% The degree to which the company operates with a social conscience 110 11% 330 +33% 380+ +38% 190 19% The company’s rewards program 70 +330 +420+ 180 Length of time the co has been in business 100 +370 +390+ 150 What the media /reports about the company 80 +360 +430+ 130 What the company says in ads 140 +440 +330+ 100 The company’s social media presence 310 +420 +210+ 70 Exhibit 8 It is especially interesting to note that, in the question regarding key factors for FORMING an impression of a company, customer care programs are not especially high. However, as noted earlier, it is a driving factor for establishing and maintaining loyalty. When you discover information concerning the positive societal impact of a company’s practices, what impact does that information have on your likelihood to purchase their products/services? Strong Positive Impact 500+190 19% Moderate Positive Impact 600+390 39% Mild Positive Impact 600+320 32% No Impact at All 300+90 9% Exhibit 9 Rank the following company communications in order based on which makes you more likely to buy products / services from these companies. 3rd | 2nd| 1st the savings on to our customers 100+ 130+ 400 Company takes extra efforts to keep our costs low, and pass healthcare & a “living wage” 160+ 200+ 230 Company ensures that all of our employees and suppliers have Our company is committed to (and transparent about) the environmental and societal impact of our business in the communities where we operate (manufacture, produce, retail, etc) 240 +170 +100 Company reinvests a considerable amount of profits from revenues to improve the quality, value & experience of our 24% 17% 10% products/services 150 +250 +110 Company gives 5% of profits to charity 150 +110+ 90 local high school & college students 140 +90 +40 Company offers internships & other learning opportunities to national charities 50 +40 +20 Employees devote 4 days each year to working for local & Exhibit 10 1% 3% 17% 80% 1% 7% 37% 55% 7% 33% 42% 18% 10% 37% 39% 15% 8% 36% 43% 13% 14% 44% 33% 10% 31% 42% 21% 7% 10% 13% 40% 16% 20% 23% 15% 25% 11% 15% 11% 9% 14% 9% 4% 5% 4% 2%
  • 11. 11 Observations on the Gender Gap Women are significantly more likely to be influenced by information they learn regarding an organization’s positive impact on society. Specifically, women place more emphasis on the degree to which a company commits to operating with a conscience, what the media reports about a company, customer reviews and ratings, and advertisements. Twenty-five percent of women are more likely to make a purchase when they learn about an organization’s positive social impact actions compared to only 12% of men. When women discover information concerning the negative societal impact of a company’s practices they are 31% less likely to purchase from that company, compared to 21% of men. It is also interesting to note the sharing behaviors women use to promote a product or support an organization that is having a positive societal impact. Women are more likely than men post ratings or opinions when they have a positive experience; more likely to look for ratings or opinions online than men; are more likely share information about an organization online (solely or in concert with sharing with friends and family) than men (32% vs. 25%). It is clear women are generally more responsive to information about an organization’s impact on society and are quick to make their views known online and offline. How an organization’s societal contributions influence purchase preference also displays a gender gap. Women are more likely to place charitable donations as a top three influence trigger for likelihood to buy products and services from a company, and are more likely to avoid purchasing from companies reported to have underpaid employees or engaged in hiring discrimination. On the flip-side, men responded to reinvestment of profits for social good as consideration factor for purchase decisions, and are more likely to cite fraudulent claims as a deterrent to making purchases.
  • 12. 12 Distinguishing Features of the Social Media Activist Through the study, we sought to develop an understanding and profile of the social media consumer advocate/activist. Based on an analysis of responses related to online behavior and purchasing influence/incentives, women (regardless of age) are most likely to engage with – on behalf of or in opposition to -- a brand online . Here is the profile of a social media advocate/activists based on the study: • More likely to be Women Under 35 (32% vs. 25% who are not social media activists) • More likely to be Twitter users (51% vs. 37%) • Have seen an improvement on their financial situation over the past two years (61% vs. 52%) • More likely to access the Internet via a mobile device (35% vs. 28%) rather than a personal computer Passive social media consumers tend to be men (regardless of age) and more likely to not have had their financial situation improve in the past 2 years, and have the lowest rates of Mobile device use as their primary means to connect to the Internet. Social media Detractors, or those who’s online actions are driven by negative experiences tend toward higher percentages having a Twitter account, and greater numbers with improved financial situation (at least compared to and Passive). Methods There were 927 respondents to this study (858 through an online panel and 69 from social media sites). Results were examined both in aggregate, and across the following three categories: Age: 18-25 (9%; n=80) Young Millennials, 26-35 (36%; n=334) Older Millennials, 31 to 45 (19%; n=177), Over 45 (36%; n=327), Gender: 54% women (n=494), 46% men (n=426) and LinkedIn Users: High (Often or Frequent 48%; n=448) and Low (Never or Rarely 52%; n=477). About The Authors Don and Vanessa have been collaborators on multiple research studies for the past five years; The New Symbiosis of Professional Networks: Social Media’s Impact on Business and Decision-making by Donald Bulmer and Vanessa DiMauro (Feb 28, 2010) and The Social Mind by Vanessa DiMauro, Peter Auditore and Don Bulmer (Apr 1, 2012). The studies can be downloaded at http://www.slideshare.net/vdimauro Vanessa DiMauro is the founder and CEO of Leader Networks, a research and strategy consulting company that helps organizations succeed in social business and B2B online community building. DiMauro is a popular speaker, researcher and executive advisor. With over 15 years experience in social business leadership positions, she has founded and run numerous online communities, and has developed award winning social business strategies for some of the largest and most influential companies in the world. Many of her clients have won industry awards such as Forrester’s Groundswell and SNCR’s Excellence in Communications. Her work has been covered by leading publications such as the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and Forbes. DiMauro was recently named a one of 40 top social marketing masters worldwide by Forbes. Vanessa DiMauro sits on several
  • 13. 13 boards including The Society of New Communications Research (SNCR) and Social Media Today. She is former Executive-In-Residence at Babson College’s Olin School of Management, holds both a B.A. and M.A. from Boston College and blogs at http:// www.leadernetworks.com/blog/. Don Bulmer has 19 years of multi-national experience leading award winning marketing, communication and business development programs with measurable effect in accelerating the sales and competitive strength of energy enterprise technology, Internet start-up and professional service companies. Don’s expertise includes designing multi-faceted marketing and communication programs to support the launch of companies and the introduction of new products and services that have led to the creation and redefinition of several multi-million and multi-billion dollar, 3rd party validated market categories. At Royal Dutch Shell Don is responsible for social media and brand innovation strategy. He holds a B.A. degree from the University of the Pacific and a Certificate of Professional Development from The Wharton School at the University of Pennsylvania. Don is a member of the board of directors at The Churchill Club and is also a member of the board of directors and a fellow at the Society for New Communications Research (SNCR). He was inducted into the PR News Hall of Fame in 2009. Don is a frequent speaker at industry events and shares his experiences and insights on leadership, influencer marketing, social media and communications through his popular blog - Everyday Influence with articles that often appear on SocialMediaToday, CustomerThink and Social Business One. About SNCR The Society for New Communications Research is a global nonprofit 501(c)(3) research and education foundation and think tank founded in 2005 to focus on the advanced study of the latest developments in new media and communications, and their effect on traditional media and business models, communications, culture and society. SNCR is dedicated to creating a bridge between the academic and theoretical pursuit of these topics and the pragmatic implementation of new media and communications tools and methodologies. The Society’s Fellows include a leading group of futurists, scholars, business leaders, professional communicators, members of the media and technologists from around the globe. designed by AR | Design Lab