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Empower Your Child To Be A Successful Learner

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Empower Your Child To Be A Successful Learner

  1. 1. Empower Your Child to be a Successful Learner David Krasky, Psy.S. Kristen Cunningham, Psy.D.
  2. 2. Overview of Discussion <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>A. Cognitive (IQ) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Emotional (EQ) </li></ul><ul><li> - Enhancing EQ </li></ul><ul><li>School Success </li></ul><ul><li>A. Hallmarks </li></ul><ul><li>B. Predictors </li></ul><ul><li>Fostering Independence </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Amazing Brain <ul><li>The brain is modular; it is a collection of integrated learning systems </li></ul><ul><li>Brains are constantly adapting and physically changing in response to experience </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions play a crucial role in learning </li></ul><ul><li>The brain is a social brain </li></ul>
  4. 4. Intelligence <ul><li>Intelligence is an interaction between biological tendencies and opportunities for learning in a particular cultural context. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1944, p. 3).” </li></ul>
  5. 5. What Influences a Child’s IQ? <ul><li>Genetic Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Child’s genetic makeup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Familial Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father’s and mother’s IQ and education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of home environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Educational Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nonfamilial Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Best friend’s IQ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of community </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sattler, J. (2001). Assessment of children: Cognitive applications (4 th ed.). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>San Diego, CA: Jerome M. Sattler, Publisher, Inc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Intellectual Development <ul><li>Sattler (2001) summarizes the following based on research: </li></ul><ul><li>Various forces play different roles at different points in children’s intellectual development </li></ul><ul><li>The number of abilities and factors influencing behavior increases with age </li></ul><ul><li>The way in which genetic and environmental influences combine to affect intelligence changes over time </li></ul><ul><li>The structure of intelligence remains stable while the content that fills the structure changes </li></ul>
  7. 7. Intellectual Development <ul><li>The amount of information acquired-absolute level of intelligence-increases with age </li></ul><ul><li>Development is determined by interactions between environmental stimuli and children’s inherent predispositions </li></ul><ul><li>When children have equal opportunities to learn, individual differences in learning are likely to be associated with differences in opportunities to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s use of logical reasoning skills is influenced by factors other than understanding of the logic itself </li></ul>
  8. 8. IQ and School Achievement <ul><li>There is a well-known substantial correlation between intellectual functioning and school performance </li></ul><ul><li>IQ’s obtained for children between 3 and 18 years of age were significant predictors of educational and occupational status at age 26 years and older (McCall, 1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Language production and IQ at age three predict achievement in reading, language and math though the third grade (Walker, Greenwood, Hart, & Carta, 1994) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Multiple Intelligence According to Dr. Howard Gardner, professor of education at Harvard University, we learn, we communicate, and we solve problems in at least eight ways. <ul><li>Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical </li></ul><ul><li>Spatial </li></ul><ul><li>Musical </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily Kinesthetic </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapersonal </li></ul><ul><li>Naturalist </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Management and Self-Regulation of Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Self-motivation and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy and Perspective Taking </li></ul><ul><li>Managing Relationships and Social Skills </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why Do We Need Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>IQ represents that intellectual raw material of student success, whereas EQ consists of the social and emotional skills that enables intellect to become actions and accomplishments. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Why Do We Need Emotional Intelligence? <ul><li>Emotional health is fundamental to effective learning </li></ul><ul><li>The most critical elements for a student’s success in school is an understanding of how to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence - Self-control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Curiosity - Relatedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionality - Ability to cooperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity to communicate </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Enhancing a Child’s EQ <ul><li>“One major distinction between IQ and EQ is that EQ is much less genetically loaded, providing an opportunity for parents and educators to pick up where nature left off in determining a child’s chances of success (Shapiro, 1997, p. 10).” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Develop Affirmative Caring <ul><li>Give children emotional nurturance and support in a way that is active and clearly recognized by the child </li></ul><ul><li>Supports long-term effects of increased self-image, coping skills and overall health </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley (1995) recommends that parents spend 20 minutes of “special time” each day with child. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Affirmative Discipline <ul><li>Make rules clear and predictable </li></ul><ul><li>Actively dialogue with your child about your expectations for behavior, values and importance of rules </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to behavior with consistency </li></ul>
  16. 16. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Affirmative Discipline <ul><li>Provide warnings and cues to teach self-control </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce good behavior with labeled praise </li></ul><ul><li>When punishment is necessary, ensure that it is commensurate with the misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a repertoire of effective discipline techniques </li></ul>
  17. 17. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Encouraging Empathy and Caring <ul><li>Expect considerate and responsible behavior in your child </li></ul><ul><li>Teach perspective sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Shapiro (1997) recommends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach child to practice random acts of kindness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involve child in community service </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Promoting Social Skills <ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to play socially </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Play with your child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss your values regarding the importance of social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take a problem-solving approach to social difficulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endorse positive social strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reflect a positive and resilient attitude toward social rejection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Promoting Social Skills <ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage child to join various social groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intervene only when necessary but generally permit your child to work out problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Try to prevent social skills problems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Promote positive attitude development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model appropriate social, conflict resolution, and problem solving skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Conversational Skills <ul><li>Shapiro (1997) recommends the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make statements that describe your feelings, basis for feelings, and wants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage child in active conversation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model active listening by expressing interest, reflecting and summarizing, and by providing positive feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Model empathy by mirror your child’s feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conversational skills can be taught and enhanced with practice </li></ul><ul><li>Teach child nonverbal communication skills </li></ul>
  21. 21. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Altering Thinking <ul><li>Teach problem identification skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teach child how to analyze problems and identify alternative ways of looking at problems and alternative and creative ways to solve problems </li></ul><ul><li>Teach positive self-talk </li></ul><ul><li>Model problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Teach child to use imagery to cope with distress </li></ul>
  22. 22. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Emotional Awareness and Control <ul><li>Increase your child’s emotional literacy by increasing their emotional vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Openly express and discuss feelings within the family </li></ul><ul><li>In order to help a child develop emotional control, you must help that child develop insight, planning, delay of gratification and an awareness of others </li></ul>
  23. 23. Enhancing a Child’s EQ: Emotional Awareness and Control <ul><li>The most common emotional problem has to do with anger control </li></ul><ul><li>Children should be taught conflict resolution skills </li></ul><ul><li>Children can be taught a repertoire of calming and relaxing activities to help them maintain self-control </li></ul>
  24. 24. School Success <ul><li>Children’s school and later life success depends not only on cognitive skills, but also on their physical and mental health, emotional well being, and ability to relate to others. </li></ul>
  25. 25. School Success <ul><li>A national survey of 1448 Kindergarten teachers carried out by the National Center for Education Statistics (1993) identified the following qualities to be most essential for school readiness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Being physically healthy, rested and well-nourished; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being able to communicate needs, wants and thoughts; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And being enthusiastic and curious in approaching new activities </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Hallmarks of Children who Succeed in School (Ramey & Ramey, 1999) <ul><li>They are eager to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage child to explore </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t overlook familiar settings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>They ask lots of questions and ask for help </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Respond positively to questioning and provide help when needed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>They work hard and know that their effort matters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notice and praise effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide many types of cause and effect learning experiences </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Hallmarks of Children who Succeed in School (Ramey & Ramey, 1999) <ul><li>4. They have well-developed social and emotional skills </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide positive, responsive and consistent parenting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain good behavior and reinforce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>5. They are good at assessing their skills </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have ongoing dialogue about your child’s self-appraisal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Praise your child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explain that differences among children are normal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>6. Their parents are role models for learning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Share new interests and hobbies with child </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Their parents promote learning by “natural” teaching at home </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring school subjects into home life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicate with child’s school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spend time with other families with children of the same age as yours. </li></ul></ul></ul>Hallmarks of Children who Succeed in School (Ramey & Ramey, 1999)
  29. 29. Hallmarks of Children who Succeed in School (Ramey & Ramey, 1999) <ul><li>8. Their family routines support doing well in school </li></ul><ul><li>9. Their parents are effective at setting and maintaining appropriate limits </li></ul><ul><li>10. Their schools have high expectations for student achievement, support teacher development, and communicate frequently with parents about their children </li></ul>
  30. 30. Predictors and Supporters of School Success <ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Resiliency </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>School-Family Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Social Skills </li></ul>
  31. 31. Play <ul><li>According to the National Association of School Psychology (NASP,2004) play serves various roles across different geographic, economic, cultural and social settings and enhances children’s intellectual, emotional, social, creative and physical development. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Play <ul><li>Ramey and Ramey (1999, P.31) state that “play provides natural and fun ways to explore and to have trial-and-error experiences in a safe, enjoyable setting. In fact, research shoes that children learn best when they are having fun. This is why young children learn more from interesting and creative play than from rote memory routines that are the staple of many accelerated learning programs.” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Play <ul><li>According to the Family Education Network, current popular toys of media figures or video game characters tend to overly structure children’s play. These toys may be fun, but they often leave little possibility for creative expression and social interaction. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Play <ul><li>The Family Education Network suggests that parents will help their children by selecting toys that offer valuable development opportunities such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Paints or art supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Empty boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Egg cartons </li></ul><ul><li>Puppets </li></ul>
  35. 35. Play <ul><li>“Remember, play is always teaching but teaching is not always play.” </li></ul><ul><li>Child Directed Play </li></ul><ul><li>1) Describe </li></ul><ul><li>2) Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>3) Imitate </li></ul><ul><li>4) Praise </li></ul>Bagner, D.M., Fernandez, M.A., & Eyberg, S.M. (2004). Parent-child interaction therapy and chronic illness: A case study. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 1-6.
  36. 36. Self-Esteem <ul><li>One of parents’ and educators’ main goals is to help children feel good about themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests that an individual’s self-esteem comes from early positive experiences with parents or other significant individuals. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Self-Esteem <ul><li>There are many ways that adults can help children develop healthy self-esteem such as valuing them, listening, setting appropriate boundaries, providing opportunities for success and teaching problem solving skills. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Problem Solving Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Rescuing children from their mistakes or failures tends to teach them that they are not capable of solving their problems and that they need adults to rescue them (NASP, 2005). </li></ul>
  39. 39. Self-Esteem <ul><li>Problem Solving Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Some activities or toys that may promote problem solving abilities are: </li></ul><ul><li>Jack-in-the-box or Busy Boxes </li></ul><ul><li>Clear plastic tubing </li></ul><ul><li>Inclines or ramps </li></ul><ul><li>Puzzles </li></ul>
  40. 40. Self-Esteem <ul><li>The natural consequences of everyday choices, good and bad, shape a child’s decision making abilities. A child who has to cope with the results of bad or impulsive choices learns that everyone makes mistakes, that mistakes are not the end of the world and that one can take action to correct a mistake or at least learn from them (Sears & Sears, 2002). </li></ul>
  41. 41. Self-Esteem <ul><li>“ Pretend Choice” – if child has a somewhat important decision to make, have them make a pretend decision one way or the other and imagine living with that decision for a while. If this decision continues to feel right to your child after a little while, they can make the decision for real or try a different one. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Resiliency <ul><li>Resiliency is the increased probability of school and life success despite adversities caused by early characteristics, conditions, and experiences. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Resiliency <ul><li>In order for children to become resilient, they must have positive attitudes and emotions and appropriate expression of all emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Attitude – “If I try, I can learn, achieve, succeed, etc.” </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Emotion – Feel loved and appreciated by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Expression of all emotions – positive and negative </li></ul>
  44. 44. Resiliency <ul><li>Feeling competent through: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic success </li></ul><ul><li>Regular school attendance </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Talents </li></ul><ul><li>Connecting with others </li></ul><ul><li>Structure and clear expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Peace-building skills </li></ul>
  45. 45. Motivation <ul><li>If a child starts out with a positive attitude toward learning, then that pattern can carry throughout life (NASP, 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Creating intrinsically motivated learners </li></ul>
  46. 46. Motivation <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivation can be fostered by: </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an environment that allows children to freely explore and to see the effect of their actions (e.g., toys that have visible or tangible changes when moved) </li></ul><ul><li>Allowing children plenty of time when working on an activity or game to finish what they have started (e.g., puzzle) </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to your child’s needs in a consistent and predictable manner, but allow them to be as independent as possible </li></ul>
  47. 47. Motivation <ul><li>Providing many opportunities for children and adults to explore together and interact directly </li></ul><ul><li>Provide situations that give the children an acceptable challenge (e.g., Hide and go seek, counting games, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Give the children opportunities to evaluate their own accomplishment (e.g., Ask them what they think of their work or how they did) </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use excessive rewards. Praise and rewards should be based upon the child’s effort and persistence, not the actual accomplishment </li></ul>
  48. 48. Predictors and Supporters of School Success <ul><li>Social Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who have positive peer relationships have an easier adjustment to school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children with more friends early in Kindergarten have a more favorable opinion of school at the end of the year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early peer rejection is associated with less favorable perceptions of school and higher levels of school avoidance </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>According to the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) (1997), parents’ role in fostering their children’s independence is to provide love and support, encourage exploration and curiosity, teach skills and allow the child to make appropriate choices. </li></ul>
  50. 50. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>The National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) notes that dependency is normal at some developmental stages, however; it becomes a concern when the child becomes reliant on others for making decision, completing personal responsibilities, or for self-help skills, such as reading or personal care. </li></ul>
  51. 51. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>While it is appropriate to allow for small doses of frustration, caregivers should be prepared to step in to prevent overwhelming frustration, and also to expect mistakes (NAEYC, 1997). </li></ul>
  52. 52. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>When a child has a temper tantrum, try to get behind the eyes of the child and understand the reason behind the behavior. Effective parents don’t ignore the behavior nor do they step in and solve their problem. They listen, help the child understand what’s going on inside them and teach them how to manage those emotions. </li></ul>
  53. 53. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>Example: Child trying to put a square peg into a round hole and becomes mildly frustrated. Instead of ignoring the child or giving them the right answer, parent can suggest they try a different hole. </li></ul>
  54. 54. How to Foster Independence <ul><li>Strategies that promote independence and allow the parent to remain in control: </li></ul><ul><li>Forced choice </li></ul><ul><li>Chores </li></ul><ul><li>Natural consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Navigate their own social situations </li></ul><ul><li>Time away from parents </li></ul>
  55. 55. When looking at growth and development and its impact on a young child’s school success, it is critical to consider the “whole child.”
  56. 56. Research has shown that all of these areas are interrelated and contribute to school success. These areas are typically assessed in preschool children.
  57. 57. <ul><li>Cognitive or Intellectual Development Involves </li></ul><ul><li>children’s ability to think, reason, and solve problems. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Give children real life, hands-on, multi-sensory experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in order to construct knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I HEAR AND I FORGET , I SEE AND I REMEMBER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I DO AND I UNDERSTAND </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Development – Refers to children’s ability to </li></ul><ul><li>listen, understand, speak, and eventually to read and write. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children naturally absorb language by listening and imitating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is a social skill that enables children to connect with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>Fine and Gross Motor Skills – This involves the way </li></ul><ul><li>children use their large and small muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Large muscles are used for activities such as walking, running, throwing, and sitting during group activities. (bucket babies) </li></ul><ul><li>Small muscles are used for activities such as drawing, writing, feeding and dressing. Fosters independence and confidence in a child. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: Puzzles, play dough, stringing, hole punch, cutting, construction with legos and blocks, using clothespins. </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Emotional Development - How children </li></ul><ul><li>interact socially with other children and adults. Sharing, </li></ul><ul><li>cooperating, and following rules. How children emotionally feel </li></ul><ul><li>about themselves, their self-esteem, and their ability to </li></ul><ul><li>express their feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>Model behavior and set the tone. Establish rules, routines, and rituals. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Self-Help Skills - Ability to cope independently </li></ul><ul><li>with the environment, for example, to eat, dress, </li></ul><ul><li>and take care of self and others. </li></ul><ul><li>Foster independence so the child feels competent and confident in his approach to tasks and with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Give the Gift of Time. </li></ul><ul><li>All of these developmental domains </li></ul><ul><li>interrelate to form a solid foundation for </li></ul><ul><li>future academic and societal success. </li></ul>
  60. 60. References <ul><li>Bagner, D.M., Fernandez, M.A., & Eyberg, S.M. (2004). Parent-child interaction therapy and chronic illness: A case study. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 1-6. </li></ul><ul><li>Barkley, R. (1995). Taking Charge of ADHD. New York: Guilford Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Caine, R., & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Elias, M., Arnold, H., & Hussey, C. (2003). EQ + IQ = Best leadership practices for caring and successful schools. London: Sage Publications. </li></ul>
  61. 61. References <ul><li>Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York: Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam. </li></ul><ul><li>Goleman, D. (1996). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. London: Bloomsbury. </li></ul><ul><li>Hair, E., Halle, T., Terry-Humen, E., Lavelle, B., & Calkins, J. (2006). Children’s school readiness in the ECLS-K: Predictions to academic, health, and social outcomes in first grade. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 431-454. </li></ul>
  62. 62. References <ul><li>Hembree-Kigin, T., & McNeil, C. (1995). Parent-child interaction therapy. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Johnson, D. & Demanchick, S.P. (2005). Play: Key to learning . The Children’s Institute. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from </li></ul><ul><li>McCall, R. B. (1977). Childhood IQ’s as predictors of adult educational and occupational status. Science, 197, 482-483. </li></ul><ul><li>National Association for the Education of Young Children (1997). I can do it myself: Encouraging independence in young children. Retrieved November 15, 2006, from /ece/1997/27.asp </li></ul>
  63. 63. References <ul><li>National Center for Education Statistics. (1993). Public school kindergarten teachers’ views on children’s readiness for school. Washington, DC: US Department of Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Ramey, S.L. & Ramey, C.T. (1999). Going to school: How to help your child succeed . New York, NY: Goddard Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Sears, W. & Sears, M. (2002). The Successful child: What parents can do to help kids turn out well . Little, Brown and Company. </li></ul>
  64. 64. References <ul><li>Segatti, L., Brown-DuPaul, J. & Keyes, T.L. (2003). Using everyday materials to promote problem solving in toddlers. Young Children, 58, 12-16. </li></ul><ul><li>Shapiro, L. (1997). How to raise a child with a high EQ: A parent’s guide to emotional intelligence. New York: Harper Collins. </li></ul><ul><li>Walker, D., Greenwood, C., Hart, B., & Carta, J. (1994). Prediction of school outcomes based on early language production and socioeconomic factors. Child Development, 65 , 606-621. </li></ul><ul><li>Wechsler, D. (1944).  The measurement of adult intelligence (3rd ed.).  Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. </li></ul>
  65. 65. Helpful Websites <ul><li>National Association for the Education of Young Children </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of School Psychologists </li></ul><ul><li>The Division for Early Childhood </li></ul>
  66. 66. Helpful Websites <ul><li>Pre-K Now </li></ul><ul><li>Zero to Three </li></ul><ul><li>American Academy of Pediatrics </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  67. 67. Helpful Websites <ul><li>Family Education </li></ul><ul><li>Institute for Play </li></ul><ul><li>Kids Health </li></ul>
  68. 68. Helpful Books <ul><li>Additional References and Sources of Information for Parents </li></ul><ul><li>How to Raise a Child with a High EQ: A Parent’s Guide to Emotional Intelligence, Lawrence E. Shapiro, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Going to School, How to Help your Child Succeed: A Handbook for Parents of Children Ages 3-8, Sharon L. Ramey, Ph.D. and Craig T. Ramey, Ph.D. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Helpful Books <ul><li>The Successful Child: What Parents Can Do to Help Kids Turn out Well, William Sears, M.D. and Martha Sears, R.N. </li></ul><ul><li>Raising A Thinking Child: Help Your Young Child to Resolve Everyday Conflicts and Get Along with Others, Myrna Shore </li></ul><ul><li>How to Talk to Your Kids about Really Important Things, Schaefer and DiGeronimo </li></ul><ul><li>How to Talk so Kids Can Learn, A.Faber and E. Mazlish </li></ul><ul><li>How to Talk so Kids Will Listen and Listen so Kids Will Talk, A. Faber and E. Mazlish </li></ul>
  70. 70. Helpful Books <ul><li>Raise Your Child’s Social IQ, Cathi Cohen, L.C.S.W. </li></ul><ul><li>SOS! Help for Parents: A Practical Guide for Handling Common Everyday Behavior Problems, Lynn Clark, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Sense Parenting, Ray Burke, Ph.D., Ron Herron and Bridget A. Barnes </li></ul><ul><li>1-2-3 Magic: Effective Discipline for Children 2-12, T. Phelan, Ph.D. </li></ul>
  71. 71. Helpful Books <ul><li>The Resilient Child: Preparing Today’s Youth for Tomorrow’s World, Joanne M. Joseph </li></ul><ul><li>Too Much of a Good Thing: Raising Children of Character in an Indulgent Age, Dan Kindlon, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>The Family Contract, Howard Leftin, M.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Right from Birth: Building Your Child’s Foundation for Life, Craig T. Ramey, Ph.D. and Sharon L. Ramey, Ph.D. </li></ul><ul><li>Me, Myself and I: How Children Build Their Sense of Self, Kyle D. Pruett, M.D. </li></ul>