Mastering Anxiety - Teaching Strategies for Building Student Confidence

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This presentation to learning support teachers and school principals provided a background understanding of anxiety in students. Strategies to support students experiencing test taking anxiety, school refusal and social avoidance are provided.

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  • There will be a quiz!
  • The Prevalence of Anxiety Among Middle and Secondary School Students in CanadaLucia Tramonte, PhD,1 Doug Willms, PhD2Can J Public Health 2010;101(Suppl. 3):S19-S22.ABSTRACTObjectives: Adolescents’ anxiety is associated with individual and contextual characteristics. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of anxiety among adolescent youth in grades 6 to 12 and determine whether it is related to socio-economic status and perceptions of learning skills and challenges.Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional data from the Tell Them From Me survey – Fall 2008 assessment – were used for this study. Item response theory estimates and a cut-off point for anxiety were developed from six Likert items pertaining to anxiety. Csikszentmihalyi’s theory of flow was applied to create four different combinations of learning processes and students’ skills.Results: Females had a higher prevalence of anxiety than males in both middle and secondary schools. The prevalence of anxiety did not varysubstantially among schools for either middle or secondary schools. Less than one half of Canadian students can be considered “in flow”, that is, feeling confident in their skills and challenged in their classes. Students who lacked confidence in their skills were nearly twice as likely to experience anxiety.Conclusion: The relation between students’ skills, the challenges presented to them at school and anxiety problems deserves attention by parents and school staff. Further research could examine the relationship between direct assessments of students’ skills and measures of teaching practices andschool policies.Key words: Anxiety; adolescents; skills; learning challenge; flow; TTFM survey; schoolsCan J Public Health 2010;101(Suppl. 3):S19-S22.
  • http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/1SOC_CHILD.shtml Merkingas KR, he, J, Burstein M, Swanson, SA et. Al. J Am Acad Child Adlesc Psychiatry. 2-1 Oct:49 (10):980-989. 5.5% of 13 to 18 year olds would have Social Anxiety during their teens.
  • “An epidemiologically selected sample of 776 young people living in upstate New York received DSM-based psychiatric assessments in 1983, 1985, and 1992 using structured interviews…In simple logistic models, adolescent anxiety or depressive disorders predicted an approximate 2- to 3-fold increased risk for adulthood anxiety or depressive disorders.”Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Jan;55(1):56-64.The risk for early-adulthood anxiety and depressive disorders in adolescents with anxiety and depressive disorders.Pine DS, Cohen P, Gurley D, Brook J, Ma Y.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9435761/ Extrapolating Canadian annual cost of anxiety disorders (direct and indirect) at $65 Billion from DuPont, R. L., DuPont, C. M. & Rice, D. P. (2002). Economic costs of anxiety disorders. In D. J. Stein & E. Hollander (Eds.). Textbook of Anxiety Disorders. AmericanPsychiatric Publishing: Washington, D.C. referenced in Invited Submission to the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology, prepared by the Anxiety Disorders Association of Canada/AssociationCanadienne des Troubles Anxieux, June 2003. http://www.anxietycanada.ca/english/pdf/kirby.pdf This submission also states that anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems among Canadians with a 12% one year prevalence and >25% lifetime prevalence.
  • Approximately 40% of most psychological characteristics (anxious/easygoing, optimistic/pessimistic) are genetically related. Makes sense when we think of heritability of height, set-point for body weight, propensity towards heart disease and towards alcohol misuse.Huge amount of variance left for modeling, socialization, and learning.
  • PsychiatrClin North Am. 2009 September; 32(3): 483–524. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2009.06.002Anxiety and Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents: Developmental Issues and Implications for DSM-VKatjaBeesdo, PhD,a,*Susanne Knappe, Dipl-Psych,a and Daniel S. Pine, MDbhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3018839/Prevalence was found to be 15 to 20%. Other studies have shown somewhat lower prevalence rates.
  • Serotonin, Glutamate, Dopamine, GABA, Aceytocholine http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1847471/ Neural Plast. 2007; 2007: 78171. Published online 2007 January 10. doi: 10.1155/2007/78171PMCID: PMC1847471Neurobiology of Memory and Anxiety: From Genes to BehaviorAllan V. Kalueff*Adrenaline and cortisol are also involved in motor and muscle responses to stress and anxiety, thus, to be simplistic, exercise helps “flush” these neurotransmitters out of the
  • Relaxed breathing exerciseOrProgressive muscle relaxation
  • Think of a discuss a student, using a pseudonym, in groups with your school colleagues.Who is one of the most visibly anxious students you’ve taught? How does this student view the world? What behaviors are evident?Who is on of the most quietly and unobtrusively anxious students you’ve taught? How does this student view the world? What behaviors are evident?
  • CryingMuscle tensionHeadachesStomach achesNail bitingPicking at skinFidgetinessIncreased heart rateSweatingShallow breathingDizzinessFatigueDisrupted sleepFeeling of chokingFeeling nauseasTightness in chestTremblingNumbness or tingling sensationsExtreme anxiety can lead to hair loss, trichotillomania, rashes
  • Difficulty concentratingFear of illness – “I must be having a heart attack”Fear of losing it – “I’m going crazy”Fear of abandonment – “My girlfriend might leave me”Fear of failure – “I’m going to flunk the exam”Fear of rejection – “Nobody will like me at Trafalgar”Fear of fear – “I know I’ll have a panic attack if I go the Bombers basketball game”Fear of criticism – “My teacher won’t like the story I wrote.” “My parents will think the money they spent on my new hockey equipment was a complete waste”Fear of success – “I don’t want to try out for choir because my friends think I have a good voice and if I made it, then I’d have to be on stage”Fear of death Fear of lossFear of catastrophy if something isn’t in the right order or sequence
  • AVOIDANCESchool refusalSkipping classDropping out of sportsAlcohol, pot, other drugs to avoid anxiety or other challenging emotions“Losing homework”Not wanting friends overRefusal of overnights at friends, relatives, school trips, summer campsTantrumsYellingSometimes even physical aggression – “had to drag him kicking and screaming”
  • Emotional Contagion (Studies in Emotion and Social Interaction) [Paperback] Elaine Hatfield , John T. CacioppoRichard L. Rapson 1993Popularized in Malcolm Gladwell’s 2002 Bestseller “The Tipping Point.”Examples: EMTs and ER nurses. Teachers who talk quieter and more calmly in order to “infect” their loud and boisterous students with their calm and quiet.
  • PMR
  • Practice in groups mixed of at least one elementary, one middle, one high school.
  • Role-play example, then groups of 3. Teacher, student, observer.
  • Learning, Social Competence, Lifelong Success (2 points if all three)True (1 point)C : 2 to 3 times more likely (1 point)3 points2 pointsTotal = 9 points
  • Mastering Anxiety - Teaching Strategies for Building Student Confidence

    1. 1. Mastery and ConfidenceKootenay Lake School District #8 Recognizing students’Nelson, British ColumbiaLearning Support Capacity Building Day anxiety and helping themDecember 7, 2012Todd Kettner, Ph.D. , Registered Psychologist overcome their fears
    2. 2. We want students to:Learn wellBe socially competentBe successful in lifeOther wishes for our students? Copyright 2012 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    3. 3. QUIZ AT END
    4. 4. Unfortunately,
    5. 5. Anxiety gets in the way of…
    6. 6. Learning
    7. 7. Social Competence
    8. 8. Lifelong Success
    9. 9. UNDERSTANDINGANXIETY
    10. 10. AnxietySome Examples
    11. 11. ThoughtsActions EmotionsManaging our anxiety and depression AND improving our physical health outcomes
    12. 12. Prevalence of anxiety disorders in children and adolescents 10% to 20%
    13. 13. Neuroanatomy of Anxiety
    14. 14. Main Types of Anxiety Disorders Panic Disorder Agoraphobia Specific Phobia Social Phobia (Social Anxiety) Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Copyright 2012 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    15. 15. RECOGNIZING WORRYAND ANXIETY INCHILDREN AND TEENS
    16. 16. Physical Symptoms
    17. 17. Cognitive Symptoms
    18. 18. Behavioural Symptoms
    19. 19. Emotional Contagion Laughter
    20. 20. Emotional Contagion Anxiety and Stress
    21. 21. peers
    22. 22. parents
    23. 23. educators
    24. 24. Classroom StrategiesHelping our students gain mastery
    25. 25. Yerkes Dodson Law
    26. 26. Classroom Strategies Teacher and peer modeling
    27. 27. Classroom Strategies Relaxation Exercises
    28. 28. Graduated MasteryClassroom Strategies
    29. 29. Classroom Strategies Structure and Predictability
    30. 30. Classroom Strategies Gentle Logic
    31. 31. Classroom Strategies Tests
    32. 32. Help Outside theClassroom
    33. 33. Parental SupportsSleep hygieneExerciseInformationResolve real issuesReferral for support Copyright 2012 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019
    34. 34. School SupportsLearning Support TeacherSchool CounselorPsychologist
    35. 35. Community SupportsNelson Community ServicesChild and Youth Mental HealthPrivate counselorsFamily physicianReferral from family physician topediatrician
    36. 36. Photos credits (mostly from Flickr)1. Anxious Teen by Holly2. Learning by woodleywonderworks3. Social Competence by Purhoor Photograpy4. Lifelong Success by Jorge Franganillo5. Amygdala - unknown6. Spider by Dincordero7. Spider on eye blog.ericlamb.net8. Beach by Zanzibar9. Yerkes Dodson – secretgeek.net10. Scared Child by Espon Faugstad11. Distressed Teen in Car by PLCjr12. Peers by teapics13. Parents by phub.com.au14. Educators – apa.org15. Classroom by horizontal.ingegration16. Counselor in chair by Parker Knight17. Staircase by Gwenael Piaser
    37. 37. Anxiety BC’s Excellent Website Resources. Results. Relief.Information for Children, Teens, Parents, and Adults http://www.anxietybc.com/
    38. 38. Resources for Teachers:Fostering Resilience in Students with Mental Health Issueshttp://keltymentalhealth.ca/education
    39. 39. Handouts for: Relaxed Breathing Building Social Confidence Overcoming FearsProgressive Muscle Relaxationhttp://youth.anxietybc.com/resources
    40. 40. Empirically Validated Quick Screening Measures for: Depression Anxiety Stress Alcohol Use Social Anxiety Drug Usehttp://www.mindcheck.ca/mood-stress
    41. 41. QUIZ1. What three main things did we discuss that anxiety gets in the way of for our students? (must name all 3 for 2 points)2. True or false. A recent student published in the Canadian Journal of Public Health showed anxiety is more prevalent among female than male students. (1 point)3. One studied showed adolescent anxiety or depressive disorders predicted a ____ risk of adult anxiety or depressive disorders. a) 50% b) 100% c) >200% (1 point)4. Explain emotional contagion and the role it plays in the maintenance of anxiety in students. (3 points)5. Which two of the classroom strategies discussed do you feel is most important or relevant to your students? Why? (2 points) Copyright 2012 Todd Kettner, Ph.D. 250-505-7019

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