Primary sectors
<ul><li>1. FARMING. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1. Physical factors: climate, relief, soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2. So...
Farming is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals 1. Farming
1.1 Physical factors: climate <ul><li>Temperature : crops need a minimum of 6°C to grow. (Look over climates in the world)...
Climatic regions in the world
1.1 Physical factors: relief <ul><li>Flat land is easier to grow crops on, there is less soil erosion and machinery can be...
1.1 Physical factors: soil <ul><li>Soil needs to be fertile, deep and well drained. </li></ul>
 
1.2  Social, economic, technological and politic factors <ul><li>Social : </li></ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul><ul><li>Pos...
Social Factors
Social Factors
Economic Factors
Politic Factors
Rural development Policies Politic Factors <ul><li>Quotas  are limits on the amount of some produce set by the governments...
Technological Factors
<ul><li>Farms can be categorised according to  what  is being grown or reared, the  size  of the operation, and the  agric...
Sedentary or nomadic?
Sedentary or nomadic?
Subsistence or commercial?
Subsistence or commercial?
Arable, pastoral or mixed?
Arable, pastoral or mixed?
Extensive or intensive?
Extensive or intensive?
3. Traditional Agrarian Landscapes
<ul><li>It occurs in equatorial forests in South-East Asia, Central and South America and Africa  </li></ul><ul><li>It is ...
<ul><li>They use manual labour and simple tools. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers grow crops from themselves and their famili...
b)  Intensive subsistence farming :  Wet rice farming
<ul><li>It occurs in many Asian countries (tropical and monsoon climate) </li></ul><ul><li>It requires 1000 mm to 2500 mm ...
4. Modern agrarian landscapes
Intensive commercial farming: market gardening <ul><li>It produces the vegetables, fruit and flowers that are found in sup...
3.3.Market gardening <ul><li>Market gardens have high inputs, especially labour, and high yields (intensive). </li></ul><u...
Extensive commercial farming <ul><li>It occurs in “new countries”, e.g. US, Australia or Argentina, especially in continen...
<ul><li>It can be arable, e.g. crops of wheat, maize, barley...  </li></ul><ul><li>It can be also  pastoral, e.g. cows and...
Plantation agriculture <ul><li>It takes place in large farms or estates (40 to 1000 Ha)  existing in South EastAsia and th...
<ul><li>They employ many workers and use high levels of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>They produce coffee, cocoa, sugar or...
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Primary Sector

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Primary Sector

  1. 1. Primary sectors
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. FARMING. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.1. Physical factors: climate, relief, soil. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.2. Social and economic factors: labour, market, government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. CLASSIFICATION. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arable, pastoral, mixed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive, extensive. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial, subsistence. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomadic, sedentary. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. DIFFERENT TYPES OF AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITY IN THE WORLD. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.1. Shifting cultivation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.2. Wet rice farming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.3. Intensive commercial farming: market gardening. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.4. Extensive commercial farming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.5. Plantation agriculture. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Farming is the growing of crops and the rearing of animals 1. Farming
  4. 4. 1.1 Physical factors: climate <ul><li>Temperature : crops need a minimum of 6°C to grow. (Look over climates in the world) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall : crops need between 250 mm and 500 mm a year. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Climatic regions in the world
  6. 6. 1.1 Physical factors: relief <ul><li>Flat land is easier to grow crops on, there is less soil erosion and machinery can be used safely. </li></ul><ul><li>Some places are too high to grow crops because they are too cold. Temperature decreases 6°C each 1000 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Only south facing slopes are warmer because they face the sun </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1.1 Physical factors: soil <ul><li>Soil needs to be fertile, deep and well drained. </li></ul>
  8. 9. 1.2 Social, economic, technological and politic factors <ul><li>Social : </li></ul><ul><li>Property </li></ul><ul><li>Possession </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Economic : </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence </li></ul><ul><li>Market </li></ul><ul><li>Politic : </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Rural development Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Technological : </li></ul><ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul><ul><li>Changing landscape </li></ul>
  9. 10. Social Factors
  10. 11. Social Factors
  11. 12. Economic Factors
  12. 13. Politic Factors
  13. 14. Rural development Policies Politic Factors <ul><li>Quotas are limits on the amount of some produce set by the governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidies are money paid by the government to encourage some types of produce. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Technological Factors
  15. 16. <ul><li>Farms can be categorised according to what is being grown or reared, the size of the operation, and the agricultural techniques being used. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming can be: </li></ul><ul><li>sedentary or nomadic; </li></ul><ul><li>subsistence or commercial; </li></ul><ul><li>arable, pastoral or mixed; </li></ul><ul><li>extensive or intensive. </li></ul>2. Classification
  16. 17. Sedentary or nomadic?
  17. 18. Sedentary or nomadic?
  18. 19. Subsistence or commercial?
  19. 20. Subsistence or commercial?
  20. 21. Arable, pastoral or mixed?
  21. 22. Arable, pastoral or mixed?
  22. 23. Extensive or intensive?
  23. 24. Extensive or intensive?
  24. 25. 3. Traditional Agrarian Landscapes
  25. 26. <ul><li>It occurs in equatorial forests in South-East Asia, Central and South America and Africa </li></ul><ul><li>It is extensive: when soil loses its fertility the land is abandoned. </li></ul>a) Shifting cultivation
  26. 27. <ul><li>They use manual labour and simple tools. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmers grow crops from themselves and their families (subsistence). </li></ul><ul><li>The main crops are rice, maiza, tapioca, sweet potatoes, bananas and vegetables . </li></ul>a) Shifting cultivation
  27. 28. b) Intensive subsistence farming : Wet rice farming
  28. 29. <ul><li>It occurs in many Asian countries (tropical and monsoon climate) </li></ul><ul><li>It requires 1000 mm to 2500 mm of rainfall a year and an average temperature of 20°C. </li></ul><ul><li>It is intensive: irrigation allows 2 or 3 crops per year in very small farms. </li></ul><ul><li>The level of technology varies (low in India or China, high in Japan or Taiwan). Planting and transplanting are usually done by hand. </li></ul>b) Intensive subsistence farming : Wet rice farming
  29. 30. 4. Modern agrarian landscapes
  30. 31. Intensive commercial farming: market gardening <ul><li>It produces the vegetables, fruit and flowers that are found in supermarkets. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses limited land and it is often near urban markets. </li></ul><ul><li>Although they are perishable products, refrigeration and faster transport allow more distant markets to be served. </li></ul>
  31. 32. 3.3.Market gardening <ul><li>Market gardens have high inputs, especially labour, and high yields (intensive). </li></ul><ul><li>A wide range of technology is available, from hand hoes to computer-controlled robots. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers usually specialise in a few crops, e.g. salads or flowers. </li></ul><ul><li>Some vegetables are grown into greenhouses or using hydroponics (plants grow without soil) </li></ul>Intensive commercial farming: market gardening
  32. 33. Extensive commercial farming <ul><li>It occurs in “new countries”, e.g. US, Australia or Argentina, especially in continental climate. </li></ul><ul><li>Farms are large and highly mechanised. </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>It can be arable, e.g. crops of wheat, maize, barley... </li></ul><ul><li>It can be also pastoral, e.g. cows and sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Farms are very big, more than 200 Ha. </li></ul>Extensive commercial farming
  34. 35. Plantation agriculture <ul><li>It takes place in large farms or estates (40 to 1000 Ha) existing in South EastAsia and the Caribbean. </li></ul><ul><li>Crops are grown for export </li></ul><ul><li>It needs a lot of money for building, planting and making processing factories. </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>They employ many workers and use high levels of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>They produce coffee, cocoa, sugar or trees like tea, rubber and oil palm. </li></ul>Plantation agriculture

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