Delightful Dudleyas 2012

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This lecture was given in March, 2012 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’.

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Delightful Dudleyas 2012

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND – 2012 (our 8th year) © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Delightful Dudleyas C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve March 3 & 6, 2012 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. We already know that California (andBaja California) plants are special…  Our Mediterranean climate requires that plants adapt to summer drought.  One common adaptations is succulence. Modified tissues store large amounts of water, making the plant part appear fleshy, succulent, or swollen.  Species in various plant families and genera have independently evolved succulence as a mechanism for conserving water and survival in arid environments.  There are an estimated 10,000 succulent plant species throughout the world © Project SOUND
  4. 4. The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya  Named for William Russel Dudley (1849- 1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford University  ~ 40 species; native to the arid western United States (in particular, Southwest/ Northern California and Oregon), Baja California.  Very similar in appearance to other Stonecrops (sempervivum; sedum; echeveria).http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:William_Russell_Dudley_(1849-1911).jpg  Often grow in stone crevasses or sand dunes with little or no organic soil.  Long-lived (to 100+ years for some species) hence the common name © Project SOUND
  5. 5. The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae  ~ 1500 species  Most genera exhibit some leaf succulence  Many species are used widely as garden and house plants Examples:  The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jadehttp://www.southampton.bcss.org.uk/images/image145.jpg Plants and other small sub-shrubs, choice minatures and mat-forming plants. Echeverias  Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers.  Echeverias are often used in rock gardens and indoor plants.  Kalanchoe includes plants with showy flowers.  Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming Stonecrops which provides useful flower color in the garden in late summer and early autumn. Kalanchoe http://www.ubcbotanicalgarden.org/potd/2006/02/sedum_spathulifolium.php © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)  Found in 3-4% of plant species; at least 26 angiosperm families  Nearly all are “succulents” (thick, fleshy leaves and stems)  Nearly all are from deserts or other hot-summer areas  Is an extremely important water-conservation strategy for plants in hot, dry climates
  7. 7. All plants have the ability to convert carbon dioxide to sugars, using energy from the sun The process of photosythesis © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Gases and water vapor enter and exit plants through stomata © Project SOUND
  9. 9. CAM - observations Stomates - open at night; closed during day (inverted stomatal cycle) CO2 uptake – high at night; low during day Acid content of cells – highest at dawn; lowest at dusk Conclusion: CAM plants store Carbon as an acid at night
  10. 10. CAM plants like Dudleyas are adapted to hot, dry climates  Dudleyas only open their stomata at night to take up carbon dioxide.  They keep their stomata closed during the hot days, allowing the plant to conserve tremendous amounts of water  The plant assimilates the carbon dioxide at night and converts it to a variety of organic acids.  In the morning when the stomata close, the organic acids break down and carbon dioxide is released.   With the energy of the new days sun light, the plant converts the carbon dioxide it has been accumulating all night into sugars.  Before being permanent CAM photosynthesizers, CAMs were probably started intermittently switching to CAM photosynthesis during times of drought and low rainfall.  Eventually those species evolved into species that solely depended on CAM photosynthesis © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Dudleyas can be used in several ways in the home gardenhttp://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/2318/ © Project SOUND
  12. 12. In terms of their garden potential, you can think of Dudleyas as belonging to one of three categories  The Dudleya divas  Often larger in size  Showy (exuberant) flowers  Very attractive foliage  The groundcover Dudleyas  Medium to small size  Readily spread, forming a mat  The ‘Pretty in a Pot’ Dudleyas  Medium to small size  Unique flowers or foliage © Project SOUND
  13. 13. Dudleya divas – showy accent plantshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_pulverulenta.htm © Project SOUND
  15. 15. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta  Coastal regions from San Luis Obispo south into Baja  Locally in Santa Monica Mtns., western San Gabriels  Rocky cliffs and canyons below 3000 feethttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3327,3329  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Chalk Dudleya is very Echeveria-like  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide (flower stalks wider)  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Becomes somewhat dry in summer  Foliage:  Leaves flat, end in sharp tips  completely covered with a mealy white powder - hence "pulverulenta" or "powdery."   Stem (caudex) becomes thickened with age – more so than other specieshttp://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=DUPU © Project SOUNDhttp://www.anniesannuals.com/plants/plant_display.asp?prodid=1536&account=none
  17. 17. Taxonomic confusion: is that an Echeveria or a Dudleya? http://www.collectorscorner.com.au/Cacti/Echeveri a%20main.htm Echeveria Dudleya Quite similar-looking; but with a few important differences Several local species were formerly included in Echeveria:  Canyon Live-forever – Dudleya cymosa  Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta  Ladyfinger Dudleya – Dudleya edulis © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Dudleya flowers are slightly different Dudleya flowers arise from somewhere near the bottom of the rosettes normally (rarely from the rosette center as most Echeveria flowers do).  Dudleyas & Echeverias do not form hybrids between the 2 genera; Dudleyas only interbreed with other Dudleyas © Project SOUND
  19. 19. But the real difference – and the most important for gardeners – relates to their history  Dudleyas  Native to the ‘Pacific Plate’  Adapted to rainy winters & hot, dry summers  Winter-growing; summer dormant  Can kill them with too much summer water  Echeverias  Native to the ‘North American Plate’  Adapted to rainy summers & dry winters  Summer growing; winter dormant  Can kill them with too much winter water The two genera have been separated for long enough that each is very well adapted to its own environment © Project SOUND
  20. 20. So…it’s recommended to NOT combine both in the same part of the garden  Summer watering of Dudleyas should be very occasional: they are very summer ‘water-wise’ compared to Echeverias  Most Dudleyas & Echeverias do best in well-drained soils; gravelly/sandy Dudleya virens ssp hassei  The roots of some Dudleya species do not absorb moisture well in the high heat; water simply rots the roots (susceptible to root rot fungi).   Treat as Zone 1-2 (water only several times a summer & not at summer’s end)  Dudleyas in very well-drained soils (sandy) or in pots should be treated ashttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.as Zone 2 © Project SOUNDp?plant_id=538
  21. 21.  Dudleyas can also rot from the crown or leaves, particularly if water is left sitting on the delicate leaves (some are more sensitive than others).  Dudleya virens ssp hassei  Either avoid getting water on the leaves, or plant them at an angle so the water runs off.  In nature, many species grow naturally on cliff faces and steep slopes so water cannot sit on these plants.  Excess water also attracts snails and slugs – which love Dudleyashttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=538 Bottom line: best to not combine Dudleyas with succulents that have very different water requirements (Echeverias; Sedums; etc.) SOUND © Project
  22. 22. Give them what they like…  Plant them in/near rockshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241664905/  Naturally occurring  Local boulders brought in to Dudleya pulverulenta add interest  Plant them on slopes – or plant the rosette at an angle rather than horizontal  Water only occasionally during summer – Zone 1-2 about right  No overhead water in summer http://www.flickr.com/photos/93452909@N00/191287029/ D. virens ssp. hassei © Project SOUND
  23. 23. Flowers are like no others: dramatic!  Blooms: spring/early summer; typical for Dudleyas  Flowers:  On long flowering stalks – plan accordinglyhttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3003/2606066487_0aaaf1ed09.jpg?v=0  Note hummingbird-plant features:  Red color;  Shape;  Flowers held away from plant to allow access  Heavy duty, sweet nectar http://www.laspilitas.com/garden/Anna%27s_Hummingbird_on_chalk_dudlea.jpghttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyc5.htm © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Be creative with rocks & Dudleyas  Sometimes man-made stone structures are perfect places for Dudleyas http://img4.sunset.com/i/2009/04/dream-gardens-stone-seat-l.jpg http://www.marrsandersen.com/California-plants/California- plants-Pages/Image28.html © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/241665013/in/photostream/
  25. 25. * Silver Dollar Plant - Dudleya brittonii http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=1509 © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Silver Dollar Plant - Dudleya brittonii  Native coastal areas of the Pacific side of Baja California between Tijuana & Ensenada and on Isla Todos Santos  On cliffs and hilly areas in lava rock and other very porous soils.http://home.comcast.net/~ldecola/baja/ http://www.yacht-transport.com/page/autumn2009/Oregon.html © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Nathaniel Lord Britton  the specific epithet honors Nathaniel Lord Britton (1859-1934), botanist and first Director of the New York Botanical Garden. Dr. Britton is also famous for his collaboration with Joseph Nelson Rose of the Carnegie Institute on Thehttp://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/lefa/Britton.html Cactaceae, a four-volume work started in 1906 and published in 1924. http://sabrinacampagna.tumblr.com/post/2675832454/the-cactaceae-vol-4-descriptions-and © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Silver Dollar Dudleya – a larger dudleya  Size:  1+ ft tall  1-2 ft widehttp://www.bambooandmore.info/2011_10_02_archive.html  Growth form:  Basal rosette – stem (caudex) is very http://www.baynatives.com/plants/Dudleya-brittonii/ short, so leaves are bunched up  40 to 100 leaves, each up to 10 inches long  Often solitary – not spreading  Moderate lifespan – 30+ years  Foliage:  Green or (more commonly in trade) very blue-white  Leaves flattened © Project SOUND http://www.soenyun.com/Blog/2010/10/18/my-new-natives/
  29. 29. Why are some Dudleyas so white?  Why?  Protection against sun damage  Water conservation  How?  Leaves are covered with a dusty, http://www.arthurleej.com/p-o-m-Jan11.html chalky, mealy white epicuticular “wax”.  The wax in its mealy state on the leaves is attracted to water and coats drops on the leaves and prevents their evaporation.  The wax has the highest measured ultraviolet reflectivity of any plant.http://image54.webshots.com/154/5/90/28/539959028nsjBLY_fs.jpg © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Flowers are fantastic  Blooms: in spring – usually Apr-June in our area  Flowers:  Pale yellow  Stout flowering stem and bracts are pastel pink (worthy of a diva); beautiful contrast with foliage  Attract hummingbirds  Seeds:  Dry capsules split open when seeds are ripe  Seeds are tiny, manyhttp://www.xericworld.com/forums/members/kelly-griffin-albums-dudleya-picture1145-dudleya-brittonii-la-mission.html © Project SOUNDhttp://www.succulent-plant.com/families/crassulaceae/dudleya.html
  31. 31.  Soils: Plant Requirements  Texture: well-drained  pH: any local  Light:  Afternoon shade  Dappled shade  Water:  Winter: needs normal amount  Summer: best with infrequent summer water – Zone 1-2; no overhead water  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:http://www.scientificlib.com/en/Biology/Plants/Magnoliophyta/DudleyaBrittonii01.html  tolerates garden conditions better than the similar looking Dudleya pulverulenta © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Give the diva a proper stage!  In a Baja-themed garden, with it’s natural associates  In a rock or gravel garden – be sure to consider contrasts  Often grown as a specimen plant in a large containerhttp://www.flickriver.com/photos/amarguy/3949915856/ http://www.hotgardens.net/cactus%20and%20succulents%20at%20huntington%20desert %20garden.htm © Project SOUND http://www.faroutflora.com/2011/01/08/dudleyas-dudleyas-dudleyas/
  33. 33. Designing with diva dudleyashttp://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/gXhU4_V-Hhg78Lwpg9OOZQ  Accent plants whether alone or interplanted http://picasaweb.google.com/lh/photo/iiUK9e2RW16pM8msvsmB4g © Project SOUND
  34. 34. Use contrast to show divas in their best lighthttp://www.plantscomprehensive.com/dudleya-brittonii http://www.southcoastbotanicgarden.org/node/368 © Project SOUND http://www.hotgardens.net/succulent_cactus_gallery.htm
  35. 35. Many Dudleyas are long-livedhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/morabeza79/favorites/page38/?view=lg © Project SOUND
  36. 36. Dudleya ‘Palos Verdes’ – a lucky accident  Probably hybrid : D. pulverulenta X D. brittonii  Good characteristics of both parentshttp://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=3232 © Project SOUND
  37. 37. * Canyon Dudleya – Dudleya cymosahttp://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_d/dudcym.html © Project SOUND
  38. 38. * Canyon Dudleya – Dudleya cymosa  Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia = Santa Monica Mountains Dudleya Dudleya cymosa ssp. ovatifolia (threatened species)  Dudleya cymosa ssp. marcescens also endemic to SMM (endangered)http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3310 © Project SOUNDhttp://www.xericworld.com/forums/crassulaceae/2906-dudleya-cymosa.html
  39. 39. Many Dudleyas have small or threatened distribution: some are very rare Dudleya greenii – a Channel Islands endemic Like many California native plants, dudleyas are now considered rare, threatened or endangered, depending on the species. All are protected by law, making it illegal to remove any plants from their natural habitat. More are coming into cultivation – but many still are not available © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Canyon Dudleya: a diva, yes, but smaller  Size:  < 1 ft tall (6-8” commonly)  < 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Basal rosette; Echeveria-like habit  Foliage:  Leaves light green to blue- green; waxy  Shape varies with sub-species; flat and spoon-shaped to lance-shaped.  Leaves cup/hold waterhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Dudleya_cymosa_1.jpg © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594840898/
  41. 41. ssp. marescens  Endemic to Santa Monica Mtns  Grows on shaded, rocky slopes  Rare  Flowers yellow, sometimes w/ pink bractshttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_cymosa_marcescens.htm http://jay.timetotrack.com/dudlym3.htm © Project SOUND http://www.callutheran.edu/wf/chap/family/bjc-1781.htm
  42. 42. ssp. ovatifolia  Occur on sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the western Santa Monica Mountains  Also occurs in a fewGrows on shaded, rocky slopes isolated occurrences in the Santa Ana Mountains of Orange Co.  Rare  Flowers bright yellow with pink stalk © Project SOUND
  43. 43. ssp. pumila  CA endemic  San Gabriel Mtns; also found in Kern, Mojave and as far north as Monterey. Ssp. pumila  On Rocky outcrops, slopes, talus  Flowers yellow with conspicuous pink bracts  Likely the one available in the trade, as it is the most showy © Project SOUNDhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594840898/ http://www.siskiyourareplantnursery.com/index.asp?PageAction=VIEWPROD&ProdID=200
  44. 44. Flowers are showy  Blooms: in spring – usually Apr- May in western L.A. Co.  Flowers:  Flowers on relatively short ( ~ http://www.calfloranursery.com/pages_plants/pages_d/dudcym.html 1 ft) flowering stalks that may be more simple or many branched (ssp. pumila); arise among older leaves (base of rosette)  Flowers usually yellow but may be pink; bracts and stems usually pink to orange-pink; often showyhttp://www.cnps-sgm.org/gallery/G-Dudleya.html © Project SOUND
  45. 45.  Soils:Excellent drainage  Texture: well-drained; sandy or rocky best  pH: any local  Light:  Afternoon shade is best; will look best and survive better even in hot inland gardens  Full sun only on immediate coast  Water:  Winter: adequate; supplement in dry years  Summer: best with occasional (once a month) summer water – Water Zone 1-2http://www.flickr.com/photos/33818785@N00/2594841114/  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils. ¼ Use a rock mulch, like strength fertilizer in spring for container plants Mother Nature does © Project SOUND
  46. 46. Showcase a Diva  Makes an attractive pot plant; neat rosette & showy flowers  Recommended for rock crevices or growing out of the base of boulders in the rock garden  Pair with local ferns,http://www.wildgingerfarm.com/Dudleya.htm Monkeyflowers, Nightshades http://stevewolf.smugmug.com/keyword/crassulaceae/1/1264431629_VzWnxbD#! http://www.yerbabuenanursery.com/viewplant.php?pid=0284 i=1264431629&k=VzWnxbD © Project SOUND http://www.wrightmanalpines.com/plant/dudleya-cymosa
  47. 47. Be creative – Canyon Dudleya is a versatile addition to the gardenhttp://www.laspilitas.com/stores/escondidoPenstemon heterophyllus, Dudleya cymosa,Mock Heather, and Sulfur Buckwheat seem todo fine in hard, compacted soils © Project SOUND
  48. 48. http://www.cyndyandjohn.com/Holiday%20Letter%202004.htm http://www.merchantcircle.com/business/Earth.Transformations.303-554-1352/picture/view/1707601 http://designerblog.blogspot.com/2008_07_01_archive.htmlhttp://gardeninginaustin.blogspot.com/2012/01/project-front-flower-bed.html © Project SOUND
  49. 49. Many-stemmed Dudleya – Dudleya multicaulis © 2002 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Many-stemmed Dudleya – Dudleya multicaulis  Los Angeles Co. to western San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange and San Diego  Cos.  Most of its known occurrences are in Orange County, where it lives mostly along the coastal plain in heavy clay soils.  In dry, stony places below 2000 ft. in San Diegan Coastal Sage scrub, Valley Grassland & chaparral. © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Dudleya multicaulis is somewhat unusual  Size:  < 1 ft tall & wide  Growth form:  Stem/upper root corm-like (underground vertical stem); dies back in dry season  In wild is not readily identifiable except during the late spring and early summer when succulent leaves and flowers may be observed.  Foliage:  Leaves few, finger-like, blue-green with pink blush © Project SOUNDhttp://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/manystemmeddudleya.html
  52. 52. Flowers: almost bulb-like  Blooms: in spring - usually in April-June  Flowers:  dominated by its erect stems, which are topped with a branching inflorescence bearing up to 15 flowers on each long, thin branch.  The flowers have pointed yellow petals up to a centimeter long, and long stamens.  Flowers age to red  Seeds: many, small in dry capsule that splits open © 2010 Andrew Borcher © Project SOUNDhttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htm
  53. 53. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained; rockyDudleya multicaulis best  pH: any local  Light:  Afternoon shade or dappled sun  Can also take full sun – dies back in summer  Water:  Winter: adequate moisture  Summer: dry to occasional water – Water Zones 1 or 1-2; let dry out after blooming like a bulb  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch © Project SOUNDhttp://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htm
  54. 54. Bulb-like Diva  Grow where its small size will be appreciated:  Rock walls  Rock gardens  Containers  Works well in local native bulb/fern garden© 2003 Kristin Szaboshown with Isocoma menziesii, Hemizoniafasciculata © Project SOUND http://nathistoc.bio.uci.edu/plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya%20multicaulis.htm
  55. 55. San Gabriel Mtns. Dudleya – Dudleya densiflora © Project SOUND
  56. 56. © Project SOUNDhttp://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/01/cabernet-stone-terracing/
  57. 57. *Powdery Live-forever – Dudleya farinosa© Br. Alfred Brousseau, Saint Marys College © Project SOUND
  58. 58. *Powdery Live-forever – Dudleya farinosa  Most common along coast from San Francisco and north for about 800 miles to Oregon and some miles up its coast.  Typical coastal species – low-growing with very showy flowershttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3320 © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Powdery Dudleya: a spreading diva  Super succulent to fill a pot or rock crevice  Can also be used as a succulent groundcoverhttp://www.infojardin.com/foro/showthread.php?t=36822 Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences © 2002 Brad Kelley © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Dudleya groundcovers – the spreadershttp://www.faroutflora.com/2011/01/08/dudleyas-dudleyas-dudleyas/ © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Many Dudleyas work well in plantershttp://drystonegarden.com/index.php/2009/01/cabernet-stone-terracing/ © Project SOUND
  62. 62. Dudleyas are so versatile : formal or informal http://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.html  Dudleyas with strict rosettes look quite formalhttp://www.ecosalon.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/more-showcase-2009-023-341x455.jpg © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Dudleya Groundcovers  Dudleya farinosa  Dudleya virenshttp://marvistagreengardenshowcase.blogspot.com/2012/02/3041-midvale-avenue.html  Dudleya edulis  Dudleya anomala  Dudleya viscida  Dudleya caespitosa http://marvistagreengardenshowcase.blogspot.com/2012/02/12806-stanwood-drive.html © Project SOUND
  64. 64. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp hassei © Project SOUND
  65. 65. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp insularis © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens  Two local subspecies:  ssp. hassei – Catalina  ssp. insularis – Palos Verdes, S. Channel Islands  On steep slopes in chaparral, coastal bluff scrub, and coastal sage scrub habitats below 1000 ft.http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?Dudleya+virens © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Characteristics of ssp. hassei  Size:  < 6 in. tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green  Flowers: pale yellow on pale pink stalk © Project SOUNDhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_virens
  68. 68. Dudleya virens ssp. hasseiihttp://www.faroutflora.com/2011/01/08/dudleyas-dudleyas-dudleyas/ http://crassulaceae.net/dudleyamenu/72-speciesdudleya/224-dudleya- part-5-list-of-species © Project SOUND
  69. 69. Characteristics of ssp. insularis  Size: a bit bigger  ~ 1 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green; usually more glaucus (white farina) than ssp. hassei  Flowers: pale pink-yellow on© 2003 BonTerra Consulting brighter pink stalk © Project SOUND
  70. 70. Dudleya virens ssp. insularishttp://crassulaceae.net/dudleyamenu/72-speciesdudleya/224-dudleya-part-5-list-of-species © Project SOUND
  71. 71. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: best in light, well- for Dudleya virens drained soil, but can succeed in many gardens  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun only in coastal area  Light shade (afternoon shade) in hotter inland gardens; needs enough sun for good color, shape  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: keep fairly dry – Zone 1-2 best  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; can lightly fertilize (1/5 strength) in winter (esp. in pots)© 2005 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  72. 72. Groundcover Dudleyas in the garden  Attractive pot plants  Good for succulent ground-covers (best in small areas; smaller varieties (spp. hassei)http://www.smgrowers.com/products/plants/plantdisplay.asp?plant_id=2987 work best)  Excellent choice for rock gardens, dry-stone walls, retaining walls  On hillsides, slopes © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Keeping Dudleyas healthy: summary Plant in well-drained soils, at an angle Water properly; depends on soils Promote good air circulation Don’t stress the plants: heat, cold Prevent & treat common problems:  Aphids & Mealy bugs: prevent Argentine ants from introducing mealybugs or aphids to your dudleyas - Mealybugs particularly attack roots  Snails & slugs: don’t over-water; remove  Rabbits & deer: exclude from garden area For greatest success in cultivation, choose species from your local area. © Project SOUND
  74. 74. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis© 2000 Salvatore Zimmitti © Project SOUND
  75. 75. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis  Orange, Riverside and San Diego Counties south to Baja  Rocky/sandy slopes, hillsides, ledges below 4000’  coastal sage scrub, chaparralhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3319  edulis : edible http://www.miriameaglemon.com/photogallery/Plants.htm © Project SOUND http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm http://www.plantscomprehensive.com/sandiegonatives-blog
  76. 76. Ladyfinger Dudleya: small and upright  Size:  to 1 ft tall  1+ ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Spreads by forming new rosettes; may become mat- like in right setting  Foliage:  Blue-green to light green with white cast; may be pink tinged  Leaves finger-like, upright© 2009 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Ladyfinger flowers are delicate & pretty  Flowers:  Pale color- range from © 2005 Jasmine J. Watts white to light yellow or light peach  Open star shape – quaint appearing  Showy red or orange anthers – really distinctivehttp://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Lady-fingers stars in pots or as a ground cover  Nice in a large pot – fills the pot or plant with other species; place it where you can enjoy the flowers  Great groundcover on slopes or in small areas; will fill in around rockshttp://www.flickr.com/photos/eastbaywilds/3526601427/  You can even use it as a house plant © Project SOUND http://www.kenbowles.net/sdwildflowers/FamilyIndexes/Crassulaceae/FotoIndex.htm
  79. 79. Garden hardy - even inland © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Maintaining Dudleyas: fairly easy  No pruning is necessary, although dudleya will benefit from a beheading (stem cutting) if the plant becomes old or tall and spindly.  You may want to remove any leaves which have died. This will help to avoid rot and bugs.  Avoid touching the healthy leaves - your body oils will leave marks or remove farina. © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Sticky Dudleya – Dudleya viscida© 2002 Dean Wm. Taylor © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Sticky Dudleya – Dudleya viscida  Southern coastal S. CA – primarily Orange & San Diego Co.  Rocky bluffs and hillsides in CSS and Chaparral – often a literal ‘cliff-hanger’  Rare/threatened in the wild – CNPS 1B.2 http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3339 http://crassulaceae.net/dudleyamenu/72-speciesdudleya/224-dudleya-part-5-list-of-species © Project SOUND© Roxanne Bittman and CNPS
  83. 83. Sticky Dudleya – slowly spreading  Size:  1 ft tall (flower stalks taller)  1-2 ft wide – spreads slightly  Growth form:  Starts as rather dense basal rosettehttp://www.soenyun.com/Blog/2010/10/18/my-new-natives/ – caudex short  Succulent – frost sensitive  Foliage:  Bright green to red-tipped or yellow green – depends on heat, sun, drought  Cylindrical, upright leaves – pointed tips  Sticky with slightly resinous exudate – more so in hot-dry – unusual for Dudleya http://davesgarden.com/guides/articles/view/2318/ © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Flowers are pink!!!  Blooms: in spring - usually April- May in our area  Flowers:  Pale pink (nearly white) to medium pink with darker pink stripes  Small size – like all Dudleyas  Flowering stem is much- divided – so many more flowers than most Dudleyas – literally ‘covered with flowers’  Seeds: tiny; birds will eat  Vegetative reproduction:© 2006 Jasmine J. Watts naturally produces offsets (pups) © 2009 Robert Steers © Project SOUND
  85. 85. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_viscida © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: well-drained rocky soils are best – but more adaptable than most  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun to part-shade  Water:http://crassulaceae.net/dudleyamenu/72-speciesdudleya/224-dudleya-part-5-list-  Winter: needs good drainage  Summer: best with occasionalof-species summer water – Water Zone 1- 2; very drought tolerant but won’t look as nice  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other:  Use an inorganic mulch  Cut old flower stalks in fall © Project SOUND© 2009 Robert Steers
  87. 87. Good for slopes & walls  On dry slopes  As an attractive pot plant – a real beauty in bloom  In a rock garden  In a dry-stone wall  Along a sidewalk or block wall © 2009 Robert Steers http://crassulaceae.net/dudleyamenu/72-speciesdudleya/224-dudleya-part-5-list-of-species © Project SOUND© 2009 Robert Steers
  88. 88. Dudleya Garden - Santa Barbara Botanic Garden A fairly informal gardenhttp://www.gardentourist.org/Santa_Barbara_Botanic_Garden/Santa_Barbara_Botanic_Garden.html http://www.xericworld.com/forums/members/sarmis-luters-albums-dudleyas-santa- barbara-botanical-garden-picture4779-sticky-live-forever-dudleya-viscida-july-2- © Project SOUND 2011.html http://www.gardentourist.org/Santa_Barbara_Botanic_Garden/Santa_Barbara_Botanic_Garden.h tml
  89. 89. * No Name Dudleya – Dudleya anomala © Project SOUND
  90. 90. * No Name Dudleya – Dudleya anomala  Range: Baja Norte, Mexico on Coronado and Todos los Santos Islands (off coast near Ensanada), and rarely at Pico Banda  Always growing on north facing cliffs © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Garden uses for No Name Dudleya  Nice smaller groundcover Dudleya – especialy in bright shade to afternoon shade  As an attractive pot plant © Project SOUNDhttp://davesgarden.com/guides/pf/showimage/330302/
  92. 92. Sea Lettuce – Dudleya caespitosa © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Sea Lettuce – Dudleya caespitosa  Coastal California, from Monterrey county to Los Angeles county – locally at Point Mugu, N. Santa Monica Mtns  Commonly found on coastal bluffs  AKA ‘Sand Lettuce’http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3307 © 2006 Steven Thorsted Point Mugu Ft. Funston bluffs © Project SOUND http://www.faroutflora.com/2010/04/27/im-a-dudleya-dork/
  94. 94. Characteristics of Dudleya caespitosa  Size: medium  ~ 1 ft tall  ~ 1 ft wide  Growth form:  Slightly different in N & S part of range  N coast – echeveria-like  S coast – more sparse, more finger-like leaves  Spreading - groundcover  Foliage:  Pale green to blue-green; sometimes pinkish tipped  Nice looking with just a little water http://www.desert-tropicals.com/Plants/Crassulaceae/Dudleya_caespitosa.html © Project SOUNDhttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_caespitosa.htm
  95. 95. Flowers: yellow with pink accents  Blooms: in spring – usually Mar-May in our area  Flowers:  On rather slender, branchinghttp://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_caespitosa.htm pink stalks - wand-like  Flowers bright yellow – flower bracts may be orange or even pink  Lovely massed ; and hummingbirds will love this groundcover!  Vegetative reproduction:  Readily forms offsets (pups) © Project SOUND http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_caespitosa
  96. 96. Coastal plant: coastal  Soils: requirements  Texture: well-drained – rocky or sandy best  pH: any local – 6.00-8.00  Light:  Full sun to light shade along coast  Afternoon shade in most gardens  Water:  Winter: adequate moisture  Summer: best with a little summer water – Zone 1-2 (even 2 in sandy soils); don’t let water sit on leaves  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soilshttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_caespitosa  Other: inorganic mulch © Project SOUNDhttp://www.laspilitas.com/nature-of-california/plants/dudleya-caespitosa
  97. 97. Dudleya caespitosa  A versatile Dudleya that can be used in many attractive ways in the garden Point Loboshttp://geogdata.csun.edu/~voltaire/ann/plant/pointlobos.html http://www.flickr.com/photos/exuberance/3251771669/ http://www.anniesannuals.com/plt_lst/lists/general/lst.gen.asp?prodid=3942 © Project SOUND
  98. 98. Dudleya ?caespitosa hybrid Frank Reinelt  Beautiful native succulent with silver leaves that blush rose-purple with winter chill.  form dense mounds 6 - 8 inches tall  Recommended in rock gardens and as groundcover esp. on slopes w/ other N CA species. Great inhttp://www.calfloranursery.com/plants/dudleya-frank-reinelt containers!http://www.theodorepayne.org/mediawiki/index.php?title=Dudleya_Frank_Reinelt&printable=yes  Sometimes mistakenly sold as Dudleya Anacapa in the nursery trade. © Project SOUND
  99. 99. Smaller Dudleyas – the container species © Project SOUND http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610656.pdf
  100. 100. Container gardens – allow you to provide just the right conditions http://slosson.ucdavis.edu/documents/2005-200610656.pdf © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Containers also allow you to design with plants and containers, creating unique garden accentshttp://marvistagreengardenshowcase.blogspot.com/2011/02/3922-albright-avenue.html http://www.flickriver.com/photos/eastbaywilds/sets/72157594276050096/ © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Designing with succulents: use shape &color contrasts to createinterest Dudleya pulverulenta (l) & D. edulis (r) http://www.flickr.com/photos/72544341@N00/2310150657 © Project SOUND
  103. 103. Containers, plants & mulch should complement Native succulents Dudleya pulverulenta (chalk dudleya) Dudleya edulis (San Diego dudleya) and a small Sedum spathulifolium (stonecrop)http://lasmmcnps.org/images/Dudleya%20pulverulenta%202.JPG © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Lance-leaf Dudleya (Live-forever) – Dudleya lanceolatahttp://www.timetotrack.com/jay/dudleyl2.htm © Project SOUND
  105. 105. Lance-leaf Dudleya (Live-forever) – Dudleya lanceolata  Santa Barbara and Kern Cos. to northern Baja  Local mountain ranges including both coastal & desert ranges; also Palos Verdes peninsula  common on dry and rocky slopes to 3500 in coastal sage scrub and chaparral  Most often on less harsh and moister north-facing slopeshttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3323 © Project SOUND
  106. 106. Lance-leaf Dudleya Dudleya lanceolata  Local mountain ranges including both coastal & desert ranges; also Palos Verdes peninsula  Interesting foliage color & shape  Flowers very showy – hot pinkhttp://kristamaxwell.com/garden/photos2.html http://www.calflora.net/bloomingplants/lanceleafdudleya.html © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Palmer’s Live-forever – Dudleya palmeriGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  108. 108. Palmer’s Live-forever – Dudleya palmeri  Endemic to the central & s. coast from Monterey to Los Angeles Co. – locally in Santa Monica Mtns.  Coastal areas in natural rock gardens, rock crevices, slopes, hillsides under 500 ft elevationhttp://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?3284,3295,3326 http://www.researchlearningcenter.com/bloom/species/Dudleya_palmeri.htm © 2004 Brent Miller © Project SOUND
  109. 109. Characteristics of Palmer’s  Size: moderate  1 ft tall  1 ft wide  Growth form:  Basal rosette typical of Dudleya  15-25 leaves  Foliage:  Medium to blue-green  Leaves flat, broad, lance- shaped  Leaves can be short or quitehttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Dudleya_palmeri long depending on light & other conditions © Project SOUND

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