Simply succulent 2009


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This lecture was given in June, 2009 as part of the California native plant gardening series ‘Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden’

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Simply succulent 2009

  1. 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Gardening with Western L.A. County Native Plants Project SOUND - 2009 © Project SOUND
  2. 2. Simply Succulent C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH & Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve June 6 & 9, 2009 © Project SOUND
  3. 3. It’s easy to fall in love with cacti & succulents © Project SOUND
  4. 4. This may (or may not) be your idea of heaven on earth © Project SOUND
  5. 5. But most of us have at least one place in our yards where cacti/succulents might be the best solution © Project SOUND
  6. 6. Succulents complement contemporary architecture... © Project SOUND
  7. 7. …and add interesting color & texture to many types of gardens © Project SOUND
  8. 8. Cacti & succulents can be valuable additions to water-wise gardens © Project SOUND
  9. 9. And can be easy to grow, with minimal effort © Project SOUND
  10. 10. We already know that California (and Baja California) plants are special…  Our Mediterranean climate requires that plants adapt to summer drought.  One common adaptations is succulence. Modified tissues store large amounts of water, making the plant part appear fleshy, succulent, or swollen.  Species in various plant families and genera have independently evolved succulence as a mechanism for conserving water and survival in arid environments.  There are an estimated 10,000 succulent plant species throughout the world © Project SOUND
  11. 11. Several types of succulence:  Leaf Succulents: Leaves are almost entirely composed of water storage cells covered by a thin layer of green photosynthetic tissue. Examples: Stonecrop family - Aloe, Dudleya, Sedum, non-native Iceplants  Stem Succulents: Fleshy stems contain water storage cells overlaid by photosynthetic tissue. Leaves are almost or entirely absent, reducing surface area to prevent evaporative loss of water. Examples: most cacti, Euphorbias; Giant Coreopsis.  Root Succulents: Swollen fleshy roots store water underground away from the heat of the sun and hungry animals. Stems and leaves are often deciduous and shed during prolonged dry seasons. Examples: Manroot (Marah), Abronia, . Combinations of the above types may occur where more than one organ is used to store water. Examples: Agave, Heliotropium curassavicum (Seaside Heliotrope) © Project SOUND
  12. 12. Most, but not all, succulent plants are from hot dry climates Salty Susan - Jaumea carnosa Pickleweed - Salicornia virginica  Succulence developed for the same reason in saltmarsh plants – to allow the plant to conserve water © Project SOUND
  13. 13. What is a cactus (and how is it different from other succulents)?  Cacti are a distinct plant family (Cactaceae).  They are plants of hot environments  They are perennial succulent plants with thick stems usually covered with spines. Spines are not all over the surface but are borne in felty cushions called areoles.  Sometimes mistakenly called leaves, the joints of prickly pears are flattened stems. True leaves, if not completely absent, usually are very small and inconspicuous and soon fall away.  The more than 1500 different species of cacti are native to the Western Hemisphere, from Canada to Patagonia. © Project SOUND
  14. 14. Coastal S. CA has a unique plant community : Southern Cactus Scrub  Dominated by cacti and coastal sage scrub species.  Must be 20% or more cover of coastal prickly- pear (Opuntia littoralis) and/or Oracle cactus (Opuntia oricola).  In coastal areas, coastal cholla (Cylindropuntia/ Opuntia prolifera) may be a common  Other common species CA Encelia, California sagebrush, buckwheat, black sage (Salvia can use the Cactus mellifera), and Mexican elderberry (Sambucus mexicana).Scrub community asinspiration for your  The understory is frequently composed ofgarden foothill needlegrass, bent grass (Agrostis spp.), and a variety of herbaceous forb species.  Occurs primarily on south-facing slopes on low foothills away from the immediate coast. © Project SOUND
  15. 15. The genus Optuntia Family: Cactaceae Opuntia genus has two branches  Prickly Pears "Platyopuntia" (flat joints)  Chollas "Cylindropuntia" (rounded joints) About three dozen species throughout the United States  Native to every state except Maine, Vermont and New Hampshire Natural hybridization common Lifespan <20 years (most short-lived of all cacti) Main food producing cacti - both pads and fruit. © Project SOUND
  16. 16. Coastal Prickly-pear - Opuntia littoralis© 2002 Lynn Watson © Project SOUND
  17. 17. Chaparral Pricklypear – Opuntia oricola © Project SOUND
  18. 18. Yum – Pricklypears can be used in so many ways!  I’ll send out a recipe sheet © Project SOUND
  19. 19. Cylindropuntia © Project SOUND
  20. 20. Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera© 2004 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  21. 21. Coastal Cholla – Cylindropuntia/Optuntia prolifera  Pacific coast from southern California (USA) to central Baja California (Mexico)  Ocean bluffs, inland coastal sage flats, arid slopes below 600 near the coast, coastal sage scrub,2726,2749  It’s name (prolifera) describes how it grows – with many offshoots © Project SOUND
  22. 22. Coastal cacti depend on summer fogsGary A. Monroe @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  23. 23. But they really are quite drought tolerant © Project SOUND
  24. 24. Coastal Cholla is a medium-sized cactus  Size:  4-8 ft tall  to 8 ft wide  Growth form:  Tree-like or shrubby cactus  Extensive branching; branches are cylindrical  Branches blue-green when young; covered with darker bark when older  Foliage:  None that is permanent  Spines and glochids typical of Opuntia-type cacti© 2004 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  25. 25. Flowers are fantastic  Blooms:  Spring-summer  Usually Apr-June or July  Flowers open over several weeks  Flowers:  Small (for cactus) – 1-2 inches  Magenta to dark (burgandy) red  Very bright & showy  Seeds:  Often sterile – we’ll learn why in a second  Vegetative reproduction:  Most common means of reproduction; segments break off easily © Project SOUND
  26. 26. Cactus flowers: unique and showy  Showy, colorful petals – attract insect pollinators;  many different insects visit the flowers  bees are most common pollinators  Sweet-scented (many)  Male (stamen) organs can move toward the center of the flowers when touched (thigmotropic).  Happens very quickly on a hot day  Explanation:  May force pollen onto the bodies of pollinators (bees) to assist in cross pollination  ? Role in getting flowers pollinated quickly so excess energy not spent in reproduction?  ? keeps non-pollinators from ‘stealing’ the pollen? © Project SOUND
  27. 27. Opuntia fruits are often fleshy, brightly colored  Adapted for hot, dry conditions  Keep seed/embryo moist & protected during seed development  Attract birds/animals once seed is ready to spread  Develop sweet flesh  Color becomes more dark- red/purple once seeds are fully developed  This cholla has sterile seeds  Sterile hybrid – probably between several species now found only in Mexico (C. alcahes X C. cholla )  Note: fruits are green – not red – and not particularly good to eat © Project SOUND
  28. 28. Growth requirements for  Soils:  Texture: well-drained soils;local Opuntia-type Cacti sandy or gravelly/rocky the best  pH: any local, including alkali  Light:  Full sun in most gardens  Some afternoon shade fine in very hot gardens  Water:  Winter: winter rains usually adequate  Summer: likes to be fairly dry (Zones 1 to 1-2; Zone 2 in pots)  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: use a rock mulch, if any © Project SOUND
  29. 29. Garden uses for local Opuntia-type cacti  Good choice for coastal habitat gardens  Habitat for coastal cactus wren (rare)  Insects and hummingbirds drawn to flowers  Birds and mammals eat the fruits  Some mammals/lizards actually live in/near to cacti for protection  For their food value  In a cactus/desert style garden  In large planters/containers  As accent plants in dry areas of the garden – placement is key  Excellent choice for hillsides  As a barrier or hedge plant © Project SOUND
  30. 30. Some people use Opuntia-type cacti for hedges they work prettywell © Project SOUND
  31. 31. You may have heard of ‘Jumping Chollas’  Don’t not really jump.  The barbed spines allow them to seize the passer-by and "disarticulate readily" from the mother plant.  This allows the plant to spread widely by vegetative propagation  Bottom line: consider garden placement of cacti carefully © Project SOUND
  32. 32. Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  33. 33. Golden-spined Cereus – Bergerocactus emoryi  San Clemente Island, Santa Catalina Island, Coastal Orange Co., southern San Diego Co.  AKA ‘Goldensnake cactus’,2703,2704 © Project SOUND
  34. 34. In nature: Catalina Island© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  35. 35. Characteristics of Golden-spined Cereus  Size:  1-2 ft tall  3-5+ ft wide; spreading  Growth form:  Evergreen cactus  Many upright, cylindrical stems  Foliage:  No leaves  Fragile, glass-like spines - many © Project SOUND© 2007 John M. Taylor
  36. 36. Flowers are showy  Blooms:  Late spring – typical for coastal cacti  Usually Apr-Jul. in our area  Flowers:  Lovely lemon yellow  ~ 2” wide  Long bloom period – open over a period of time  Showy indeed!  Fruits: red, globular, sweet; loved by birds, animals  Vegetative reproduction: yes© 2005 Dieter Wilken © 2007 John M. Taylor © Project SOUND
  37. 37. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: any local; well- drained is better  pH: any local  Light: full sun to light shade  Water:  Winter: likes good winter rains; supplement if needed  Summer: like to be dry in summer: Zone 1-2 probably optimal  Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils  Other: inorganic mulch © Project SOUND
  38. 38. Garden uses for smaller native cacti  Attractive as pot plants  In a cactus/succulent garden  In a local coastal garden with it’s natural associates: Coyote Bush, Sticky Monkeyflower,© 2007 Halleh Paymard Lemonadeberry, local native grasses and annual wildflowers  Note: plant is rare in CA, still common in Baja  Fire-retardant plant © Project SOUND
  39. 39. Propagating cacti from cuttings – easy (at least in theory)  Carefully remove a pad or offset (cut or pull off)  Let the wound callus over (a week to up to a month)  Place pad (wounded side down) in potting mix (I use commercial mix with added perlite or sand)  Place in bright shade  Water when soil begins to dry out  Wait – may take a while © Project SOUND
  40. 40. Be careful of all the spiny structures when working with cacti  The glochids get into your skin and are very irritating. If you cannot get them out, you end up with something that resembles an infected mosquito bite.  Preferred method of removal: apply sticky tape to them and lift them out. Glochids are generally too fine to be grasped with tweezers. © Project SOUND
  41. 41. Purchasing native cacti & succulents  Many native species are rare or endangered  Never collect in nature without a permit  Buy only from reputable dealers © Project SOUND
  42. 42. Local cacti, Yucca & Agaves are great for those out-of-the way slopes © 2006 Vince Scheidt © 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  43. 43. *Our Lord’s Candle – Hesperoyucca (Yucca) whipplei © 2003 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  44. 44. Yuccas – the genus Yucca  There are at least 50 species of Yucca within the Agavaceae - numerous subspecies, varieties, forms, cultivars and hybrids.  Occur exclusively in the Americas, distributed over a wide area from Canada into Central America and the Carribean  There are species adapted to dry deserts, grasslands and tropical rainforests.  All but one species (Y. whipplei) can flower many times (polycarpic) and produce side-shoots to compensate for loss of the apical growing point by its conversion into a flower bud. © Project SOUND
  45. 45. Yuccas are pollinated by special ‘Yucca Moths’  Self pollination of Yucca flowers of many species is impossible, although a few are self-fertile.  Most Yuccas are pollinated exclusively by small Yucca moths with the plant and moth totally dependent on each other.  Recent research has shown that there are at least 16 different Yucca Moths (Tegeticula species) - all are specialized in pollinating their "own" Yucca species. We’ll be talking about Yucca another time G.A. Cooper @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database © Project SOUND
  46. 46. The Agaves – genus Agave  Closely related to the Yuccas – both in Agavaceae Family  Agaves are not cacti (or even closely related to cacti) - are closely related to the lily and amaryllis families  Primarily from Mexico, but also occur in the southern and western United States and central and tropical South America.  Have a large rosette of thick fleshy leaves, each ending generally in a sharp point and with a spiny margin;  The stout stem (caudex) is usually short - the leaves appear to arise from the root. © Project SOUND
  47. 47. The Agaves – genus Agave  Popular ornamental plants.  Each rosette grows slowly to flower only once. During flowering a tall stem or "mast" grows from the center of the leaf rosette and bears a large number of shortly tubular flowers.  After development of fruit the original plant dies, but suckers are frequently produced from the base of the stem which become new plants.  Agave species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) species © Project SOUND
  48. 48. *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii© 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  49. 49. *Coastal Agave – Agave shawii  Pacific coast from S. San Diego Co. to Baja  Grows immediate to the coast, often in sandy soils  coastal bluffs and slopes  coastal sage scrub community  maritime succulent scrub community  Grows with many of our local native plants, including Golden-,8350,8352 spine Cereus  Habitat is often quite low & open © Project SOUND
  50. 50. Shaw’s Agave in maritime shrub community © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  51. 51. Plant associates include many from our coastal shrub & prairie communities © 2005 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  52. 52. Shaw’s Agave – stunning in the right place  Size:  2-3 ft tall (rosette); flowering stalk much taller (15-40 ft. tall)  3-6 ft wide  Growth form:  Clumping evergreen succulent  Spreads by suckering from the caudex (produces ‘pups’)  Very showy & unusual  Foliage:  Leaf color: varies from dark blue-green to yellow-green  Stout sharp tip-spine as well as curved leaf margin spines – place away from walkways, etc. © 2006 Steve Matson © Project SOUND
  53. 53. © Project SOUND
  54. 54. What a show when Agaves bloom!!  Blooms:  Variable; almost any time of year in western L.A. Co.  Takes about 15 years to flower  Flowers:  On stout tall flowering stalk  Showy, bright yellow flowers  Attract a number of insects, including moths  Seeds:  Flat, black seeds in thick pod  Can grow agaves from seed – may have many infertile seeds  Vegetative reproduction: usually many ‘pups’ to replace the plant that just flowered. © Project SOUND
  55. 55. Growing Agaves  Soils:  Texture: any as long as- well-drained soil drainage is good; love sandy, rocky soils  pH: any local except low pH (<6)  Light:  Coastal – full sun  Hot, inland gardens – light (afternoon) shade  Water:  Winter: needs good drainage; plant on slopes, or other well- drained situations  Summer: Like to be fairly dry (Zone 1-2; water several times per summer); no overhead water  Fertilizer: none; like poor soils © Project SOUND
  56. 56. Agaves make great accent plants  In very large pots/planters – remember, these are large plants  Look wonderful in hillsides/slopes  Looks equally at home with other cacti & succulents – or with coastal prairie/shrubland plants  Good player in a rock garden  Excellent accent against gray-green foliage © Project SOUND
  57. 57. Agave & Yucca as food and fiber  Flowers, leaves & stem are edible © Project SOUND
  58. 58. Agave attenuata: a Mexican species available in the U.S. © Project SOUND
  59. 59. Agave ‘Blue Flame’  Combines the features of its parent species: A. shawii X A. attenuata © Project SOUND
  60. 60. Cacti & succulents from Baja & other parts of Mexico, SW U.S. of wonderful species – but are they right for my yard? © Project SOUND
  61. 61. Using species from CA & SW desert regions  Contrary to popular belief, western L.A. county is not ‘a desert’  Challenges for using desert cacti/succulents:  Soil must be well-drained  Wet years and fog may kill the plants – fungal diseases  Some species (from Sonoran Desert – in south) need a ‘summer monsoon’ period – you’ll have to give them it  Advice:  Learn as much as you can about the requirements/ habitat of a species before you purchase it  Be really careful in planning your©Water Zones Project SOUND
  62. 62. The same advice goes for succulents from other places  Know as much as you can about their requirements  Be sure that you group compatible plants – just because they are succulent doesn’t mean they have the same requirements © Project SOUND
  63. 63. Our local climate allows us to grow special succulents– the Dudleyas Dudleyas thrive in our mild, coastal-influenced Mediterranean climate © Project SOUND
  64. 64. The Stonecrop Family: Crassulaceae  ~ 1500 species  Most genera exhibit some leaf succulence  Many species are used widely as garden and house plants Examples:  The genus Crassula includes the well-known Jade Plants and other small sub-shrubs, choice minatures and mat-forming plants. Echeverias  Cotyledon includes interesting shrubby species with succulent stems and leaves. Some species have showy tubular yellow, orange or red flowers.  Echeverias are often used in rock gardens and indoor plants.  Kalanchoe includes plants with showy flowers.  Sedums are well known for hardy mat-forming Stonecrops which provides useful flower color in the garden in late summer and early autumn. Kalanchoe © Project SOUND
  65. 65. The Live-forevers: genus Dudleya  Named for William Russel Dudley (1849- 1911), first professor of botany and head of the Botany Department at Stanford University  ~ 40 species; native to the arid western United States (in particular, Southwest/ Northern California and Oregon), Baja California.  Very similar in appearance to other Stonecrops (sempervivum; sedum; echeveria).sell_Dudley_(1849-1911).jpg  Often grow in stone crevasses or sand dunes with little or no organic soil.  Long-lived (to 100+ years for some species) hence the common name © Project SOUND
  66. 66. Many Dudleyas have small or threatened distribution: some are very rare Dudleya greenii – a Channel Islands endemic Like many California native plants, dudleyas are now considered rare, threatened or endangered, depending on the species. All are protected by law, making it illegal to remove any plants from their natural habitat. More are coming into cultivation – but many still are not available © Project SOUND
  67. 67. Taxonomic confusion: is that an Echeveria or a Dudleya? a%20main.htm Echeveria Dudleya Quite similar-looking; but with a few important differences Several local species were formerly included in Echeveria:  Canyon Live-forever – Dudleya cymosa  Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta  Ladyfinger Dudleya – Dudleya edulis © Project SOUND
  68. 68. Dudleya flowers are slightly different Dudleya flowers arise from somewhere near the bottom of the rosettes normally (rarely from the rosette center as most Echeveria flowers do). Dudleyas & Echeverias do not form hybrids between the 2 genera; Dudleyas only interbreed with other Dudleyas © Project SOUND
  69. 69. But the real difference – and the most important for gardeners – relates to their history  Dudleyas  Native to the ‘Pacific Plate’  Adapted to rainy winters & hot, dry summers  Winter-growing; summer dormant  Can kill them with too much summer water  Echeverias  Native to the ‘North American Plate’  Adapted to rainy summers & dry winters  Summer growing; winter dormant  Can kill them with too much winter water The two genera have been separated for long enough that each is very well adapted to its own environment © Project SOUND
  70. 70. So…it’s recommended to NOT combine both in the same part of the garden  Summer watering of Dudleyas should be very occasional: they are very summer ‘water-wise’ compared to Echeverias  Most Dudleyas & Echeverias do best in well-drained soils; gravelly/sandyDudleya virens ssp hassei  The roots of some Dudleya species do not absorb moisture well in the high heat; water simply rots the roots (susceptible to root rot fungi).  Treat as Zone 1-2 (water only several times a summer & not at summer’s end)  Dudleyas in very well-drained soils (sandy) or in pots should be treated as Zone 2 © Project SOUNDp?plant_id=538
  71. 71.  Dudleyas can also rot from the crown or leaves, particularly if water is left sitting on the delicate leaves (some are more sensitive than others). Dudleya virens ssp hassei  Either avoid getting water on the leaves, or plant them at angles so the water runs off.  In nature, many species grow naturally on cliff faces and steep slopes so water cannot sit on these plants.  Excess water also attracts snails and slugs – which love Dudleyas Bottom line: best to not combine Dudleyas with succulents that have very different water requirements (Echeverias; Sedums; etc.) SOUND © Project
  72. 72. Container gardens – allow you to provide just the right conditions © Project SOUND
  73. 73. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp hassei © Project SOUND
  74. 74. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens ssp insularis © Project SOUND
  75. 75. Bright Green Dudleya – Dudleya virens  Two local subspecies:  ssp. hassei – Catalina  ssp. insularis – Palos Verdes, S. Channel Islands  On steep slopes in chaparral, coastal bluff scrub, and coastal sage scrub habitats below 1000 ft. © Project SOUND
  76. 76. Characteristics of ssp. hassei  Size:  < 6 in. tall  1-2 ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green  Flowers: pale yellow on pale pink stalk © Project SOUND
  77. 77. Characteristics of ssp. insularis  Size: a bit bigger  ~ 1 ft tall  1-2+ ft wide  Growth form:  Spreading clump of succulent rosettes  Evergreen; dries in summer  Foliage:  Succulent, cylindrical leaves  Color: blue-green to more yellow-green; usually more glaucus (white farina) than ssp. hassei  Flowers: pale pink-yellow on© 2003 BonTerra Consulting brighter pink stalk © Project SOUND
  78. 78. Dudleya flowers are usually showy Blooms:  Generally are mid-late spring- bloomers  Usually Apr-June even July in S. Bay Flowers:  In general small; < ¾ inch  Many flowers on flowering stems held above or away from the foliage  Often yellow, orange, pink or red; may be pale or bright  Often light fragrance  Great hummingbird flowers! © Project SOUND
  79. 79. Plant Requirements  Soils:  Texture: best in light, well- for Dudleya virens drained soil, but can succeed in many gardens  pH: any local  Light:  Full sun only in coastal area  Light shade (afternoon shade) in hotter inland gardens; needs enough sun for good color, shape  Water:  Winter: needs good winter rains  Summer: keep fairly dry – Zone 1-2 best  Fertilizer: likes poor soils; can lightly fertilize (1/5 strength) in winter (esp. in pots)© 2005 BonTerra Consulting © Project SOUND
  80. 80. Dudleyas in the garden  Attractive pot plants  Good for succulent ground-covers (best in small areas; smaller varieties (spp. hassei) work best)  Excellent choice for rock gardens, dry-stone walls, retaining walls  Bordering paths or in fronts of dry beds  On hillsides, slopes © Project SOUND
  81. 81. Growing Dudleyas in containers  Dudleyas grow well in pots and make excellent outdoor specimens in Mediterranean climates.  Potting soil should be very well- draining; amend potting soils with sharp sand and pumice to insure good drainage.  Watering: treat as Zone 2; monitor carefully in hot weather  Light: afternoon shade or bright shade bestDudleya farinosa  Propagation: easiest by removing rooted offsets (pups), but can be from seed © Project SOUND
  82. 82. Other considerations for growing Dudleyas  Bright light is integral to the proper growth of this genus.  Plants grown in low-light will lose their color, grow tall and spindly and will eventually die.  Most Dudleyas make poor houseplants  Most Dudleyas do best with moderate temperatures - protect from blistering afternoon heat, frosts (particularly if in pots)  Potting soil should be very well- draining; use a cactus mix or amend available soils with sharp sand and pumice to insure good drainage. © Project SOUND
  83. 83. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta © Project SOUND
  84. 84. Chalk Dudleya – Dudleya pulverulenta ssp. pulverulenta  Coastal regions from San Luis Obispo south into Baja  Locally in Santa Monica Mtns., western San Gabriels  Rocky cliffs and canyons below 3000 feet,3295,3327,3329  Coastal sage scrub, chaparral © Project SOUND
  85. 85. Striking, large plant in the Santa Monica Mtns © Project SOUND
  86. 86. Chalk Dudleya is very Echeveria-like  Size:  1-2 ft tall  1-2 ft wide (flower stalks wider)  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Becomes somewhat dry in summer  Foliage:  Leaves flat, end in sharp tips  completely covered with a mealy white powder - hence "pulverulenta" or "powdery."  Stem (caudex) becomes thickened with age – more so than other species © Project SOUND
  87. 87. Flowers are like no others: dramatic!  Blooms: spring/early summer; typical for Dudleyas  Flowers:  On long flowering stalks – plan accordingly  Note hummingbird-plant features:  Red color;  Shape;  Flowers held away from plant to allow access  Heavy duty, sweet nectar © Project SOUND
  88. 88. Why Crassulaceae are called ‘Stonecrops’ © Project SOUND
  89. 89. Give them what they like…  Plant them in/near rocks  Naturally occurring  Local boulders brought in to Dudleya pulverulenta add interest  Plant them on slopes – or plant the rosette at an angle rather than horizontal  Water only occasionally during summer – Zone 1-2 about right  No overhead water in summer D. virens ssp. hassei © Project SOUND
  90. 90. Be creative with rocks & Dudleyas  Sometimes man-made stone structures are perfect places for Dudleyas plants-Pages/Image28.html © Project SOUND
  91. 91. Silver Dollar Plant Dudleya brittonii  Baja native; widely available in native plant nurseries  Large rosette - > 1 ft. diameter  Brilliant white color; extremely showy  Requires excellent drainage:  Sandy or rocky soil  Niches in rock walls  Clay pots with well- drained soil © Project SOUND
  92. 92. Dudleya ‘Palos Verdes’ – a lucky accident  Probably hybrid : D. pulverulenta X D. brittonii  Good characteristics of both parents © Project SOUND
  93. 93. Maintaining Dudleyas: fairly easy  No pruning is necessary, although dudleya will benefit from a beheading (stem cutting) if the plant becomes old or tall and spindly.  You may want to remove any leaves which have died. This will help to avoid rot and bugs.  Avoid touching the healthy leaves - your body oils will leave marks or remove farina. © Project SOUND
  94. 94. Keeping Dudleyas healthy: summary Plant in well-drained soils, at an angle Water properly; depends on soils Promote good air circulation Don’t stress the plants: heat, cold Prevent & treat common problems:  Aphids & Mealy bugs: prevent Argentine ants from introducing mealybugs or aphids to your dudleyas - Mealybugs particularly attack roots  Snails & slugs: don’t over-water; remove  Rabbits & deer: exclude from garden area For greatest success in cultivation, choose species from your local area. © Project SOUND
  95. 95. Designing with succulents  Accent plants whether alone or interplanted © Project SOUND
  96. 96. Designing with succulents: use shape &color contrasts to createinterest Dudleya pulverulenta (l) & D. edulis (r) © Project SOUND
  97. 97. Containers, plants & mulch should complement Native succulents Dudleya pulverulenta (chalk dudleya) Dudleya edulis (San Diego dudleya) and a small Sedum spathulifolium (stonecrop) © Project SOUND
  98. 98. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis© 2000 Salvatore Zimmitti © Project SOUND
  99. 99. *Ladyfinger Live-forever – Dudleya edulis  Orange, Riverside and San Diego Counties south to Baja  Rocky slopes, hillsides, ledges below 4000’  coastal sage scrub, chaparral  edulis : edible,3295,3319 © Project SOUND
  100. 100. In the wild, grows on slopes or rock faces © Project SOUND
  101. 101. Ladyfinger Dudleya: small and upright  Size:  to 1 ft tall  1+ ft wide  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Spreads by forming new rosettes; may become mat- like in right setting  Foliage:  Blue-green to light green with white cast; may be pink tinged  Leaves finger-like, upright© 2009 Aaron Schusteff © Project SOUND
  102. 102. Ladyfinger flowers are delicate & pretty  Flowers:  Pale color- range from © 2005 Jasmine J. Watts white to light yellow or light peach  Open star shape – quaint appearing  Showy red or orange anthers – really distinctive © Project SOUND
  103. 103. Lady-fingers stars in pots or as a ground cover  Nice in a large pot – fills the pot or plant with other species; place it where you can enjoy the flowers  Great groundcover on slopes or in small areas; will fill in around rocks  You can even use it as a house plant © Project SOUND
  104. 104. Or you can increase the drainage by creating small berms © Project SOUND
  105. 105. Who knows, we may be talking about rock gardens in 2010… © Project SOUND
  106. 106. From lawn tosucculent garden… © Project SOUND
  107. 107. Hillsides work well for cacti & succulents  Promote plant health by providing good drainage  Allow the viewer to see/appreciate each species  A fire-wise alternative  Decrease challenges of watering steep slopes © Project SOUND
  108. 108. Sometimes a small succulent is needed Ladyfinger Dudleya would work well – but there are others garden-050680 © Project SOUND
  109. 109. ‘White Sprite’ – Dudleya gnoma  Native to Santa Rosa Island – rare in nature  Small and charming  Readily available © Project SOUND
  110. 110. More small-sized Dudleyas from S. CA Dudleya attenuata ssp. orcuttii Dudleya cymosa ssp. pumila© 2006 Steve Matson © 2006 Steve Matson© 2006 Vince Scheidt © Project SOUND
  111. 111. Dudleyas are so versatile : formal or informal © Project SOUND
  112. 112. Lance-leaf Dudleya Dudleya lanceolata  Local mountain ranges including both coastal & desert ranges; also Palos Verdes peninsula  Interesting foliage color & shape  Flowers very showy – hot pink © Project SOUND
  113. 113. Have a sunny spot, clay soil? Consider aSedum  The genus Sedum is composed of around 400 species native mainly to rocky, mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere  Sedum belongs to the plant family Crassulaceae  Many sedums are easygoing, adaptable, and hardy  Generally they prefer full sun or light shade and moderately fertile, well-drained soil.  Most need some summer water We have a cute little Sedum from the San© 2008 Matt Below Gabriel Mtns © Project SOUND
  114. 114. *Broadleaf Stonecrop – Sedum spathulifolium© 2003 Tim Sullivan © Project SOUND
  115. 115. *Broadleaf Stonecrop – Sedum spathulifolium  From the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains to British Columbia  Coastal cliffs, rocky outcroppings and north and east facing slopes, often in somewhat shaded places, to about 7500’  Spring fed seeps or rainfall moist much of our winter and spring. In summer they are bone dry.,3347,3366  Common companion plants are mosses and liverworts. © Project SOUND
  116. 116. A pleasant surprise in San Gabriels © Project SOUND
  117. 117. Broadleaf Stonecrop looks like a garden succulent  Size:  < 1ft tall  1-3 ft wide; spreading  Growth form:  Evergreen succulent  Spreads quickly; mat-forming  Stems are fragile; don’t walk on© 2007 Neal Kramer  Foliage:  Leaves of coastal forms may be chalky white, or even white edged with red-purple.  Mountain/inland forms have vivid-green to blue-green leaves.  Leaves are succulent, in tight rosettes; ‘spoon-shaped’ hence the name.. © Project SOUND