Skills required for proficient reading -maricel m. ubaldo
Republic of the PhilippinesBULACAN AGRICULTURAL STATE COLLEGE San Ildefonso, Bulacan
Maricel M. Ubaldo Date reported: May 3-4, 2012BEEd IV – B Date submitted: May 16, 2012Eng 135 – Remedial Instruction in EnglishDr. Alicia S.P Gomez SKILLS REQUIRED FOR PROFICIENT READINGAccording to the National Reading Panel, the ability to read requires proficiency in a number oflanguage domains.To become a proficient reader, the student needs to master and integrate these skills:A. Phonemic awareness The ability to distinguish and manipulate the individual sounds of the language such as rhymes, syllables, etc. The ability to hear, identify and manipulate sounds in spoken words. It is literally “SOUND AWARENESS”. It is developing an “EAR FOR SOUNDS” which is critically important to reading and spelling success. Ex. Phonemic awareness is realizing, the word „puppy‟ is made up of the sound /p//u//p//ee/ or the word „shape‟ is formed by the sounds /sh//ay//p/B. Phonics The method that‟s stresses the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. This help[s beginning readers understand how letters are linked to sounds. The relationship between the spoken and written languages. Vowel Sound Patterns: Long Vowels Short Vowels Gate Bat Nice Bet Yoke BitC. Fluency The ability to read orally with speed, accuracy, and vocal expression. Does not take place when simply reading with speed rather it should be with appropriate rate, expression and phrasing.
It is the ability to see larger segment and phrases as a WHOLE.D. Vocabulary The critical aspect of reading comprehension that makes the reader understands the word if it is in his spoken vocabulary, if otherwise, the reader must derive the meaning of the word using another strategy, such as context. The ability to understand and to use words to acquire and convey meaning. In vocabulary, we could make use of the Word parts to get the meaning the words. Word parts: 1. Affixes (prefixes and suffixes) – the word parts that are fixed to either the beginning of words or the ending of words. Ex. Infinite, Misfortune, Disrespectful 2. Base words – the words from which many other words are formed. Ex. Many words can be formed from the base word “MIGRATE” Immigration Migration MIGRATE Immigrant Migrating Migrant Migratory 3. Word roots – the words from other languages that are the origin of many English words. Ex. Marriage – comes from the Latin word “Maritus” which means “a husband”.Types of Vocabulary: 1. Structural Analysis – a process of decoding unfamiliar words by visually examining the words to discover component parts which lead to pronunciation and meaning. Includes: Inflectional endings (-s, -ed, -ing) Affixes (prefixes and suffixes) Compound word (ex. pillbox, highway, killjoy) 2. Context Clues Includes: a. Semantic Clues – are clues derived from the meaning of words co-occuring with the unknown word. Kinds of Semantic Clues: 1. Definition Clue
Ex. The register is the book in which the manes of the people are kept. (unknown word is register) 2. Appositive Clue – may offer a synonym or description of the word. Ex. Euthanasia, mercy- killing in plain language, is a very controversial issue. (unknown word is Euthanasia) 3. Comparison and contrast Clue – may give away the word‟s meaning Ex. She is not lazy to study. On the contrary, she is very diligent. (unknown word is diligent) 4. Explanation Clue – succeeding sentences may provide explanations that may clarify the meaning of an unknown word in a previous sentence. Ex. Lucy‟s unusual timidity bothered her parents. They wondered why she would not even want to talk to any visitor. She would rather lock herself to her room. In school, her teachers were complaining too, why Lucy was too shy or withdrawn to join any class activity. (unknown word is timidity) b. Syntactic Clues – are clues contained in the grammar of our language. These help the reader discover that the word is a noun, verb, adverb, etc. Ex. The cook prepares the food for the visitors. (cook - noun) Mother cooked the food for her children. (cooked - verb) c. Presentation Clues – refer to the other aids that the author may use to make himself clear. Include: Use of footnotes Use of types of prints (ex. Boldface, Italics) Use of visuals (ex. diagrams, tables, graphs, pictures, etc.) Organizational devices (ex. indention, use of headings and sub- headings, etc.)Other aids that we could make used of to get the meaning the words: 1. Synonyms – words that have the same meaning. Ex. beautiful – pretty, gorgeous, pulchritudinous, ravishing, scenic, stunning 2. Antonyms – words that have different meanings. Ex. beautiful – ugly active – passive 3. Homonyns – words that sound alike but have different spellings and meanings. Ex. ate – eight tail – tale see - sea 4. Homographs – words that are spelled the same but have different meanings.
Ex. cook – cook blue – blue right - right 5. Heteronyms – words that are spelled the same but have different pronunciations and meanings. Ex. resume – resume read – readVOCABULARY ACTIVITYSpelling Quiz Bee 1. Beau – (bəʊ) A lover or suitor of a girl or woman. 2. Bologna – (buh-loh-nee) A highly seasoned sausage of mixed meats. 3. Chateau – (sha-toh) A French castle or manor house. 4. Connoisseur – (kon-uh-sur, -soor) A competent critical judge, especially in matters of art and taste. 5. Coup d’ etat – (koo dey-tah) A forceful, unexpected political move of government and seizure of power. 6. Gourmet – (goor-mey) A person who has a considerable knowledge and appreciation of fine foods and wines. 7. Lieutenant – (loo-ten-uhnt) A person who fills the place of a superior, as during his absence. 8. Pneumonia – (n -mōnyə) Acute inflammation of the lungs characterized by accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and difficult – breathing. 9. Triumph – (trahy-uhmf) The joy or exultation of victory or success. 10. Voluptuous – (vuh-luhp-choo-uhs) A satisfaction of sensual desire.E. Reading Comprehension A complex cognitive process in which a reader intentionally and interactively engages with the text. Reading comprehension is heavily dependent on skilled word recognition and decoding, oral reading fluency, a well-developed vocabulary and active engagement with the text. It involves the intentional interaction between reader and text to convey meaning. 4 Main factors that affect a reader’s comprehension: 1. Prior Knowledge – is the knowledge or experience the reader already has. 2. Interest in the subject – when a reader is interested in a subject, he will give his undivided attention to it while reading.
3. Purpose in reading – a reader who must study a certain chapter or unit in his textbook will exert extra effort because he wants to pass a test. 4. Ability to decode – a reader who can attack new words with facility will be able to concentrate on getting the meaning of the reading selection.LEVELS OF COMPREHENSION 1. Reading The Lines The meanings of the words are explicitly found in the text. You can derive meaning from sequential words and their grammatical relation to each other in sentences, paragraphs, and chapters. Enables you to recognize the main thought of a paragraph 2. Reading Between the Lines Expects you to be more mature in your reading habits. This is achieved when you can recognize the author‟s purposes, interprets his thoughts and pass judgments on his/her statements. Requires the ability to recognize and interpret literacy devices such as metaphor, simile, irony, etc. 3. Reading Beyond the Lines This is considered the most difficult task in comprehension because it involves critical and creative reading techniques. The reader evaluates and makes judgments about certain aspects of the story. On this level, you are expected to recognize implications, anticipate consequences, and draw conclusions not stated by the author.Other types of Levels of Comprehension: 1. Literal Understanding Understanding facts or ideas extracted from the explicit or stated information given in the text. It is determining what the writer is saying. Also referred to as Reading the Lines which means getting the information drift. Knowing what is actually stated which includes facts and details, rote learning and memorization. It involves surface understanding only. The understanding of surface meanings or ideas that are explicitly printed in reading material. The readers are at the most basic of levels wherein they are building their knowledge but they do not necessarily have command of it. Consists of the simplest forms of questions that ask about the details of the story.
Common questions used to illicit this type of thinking are who, what, where, when questions. These are the easiest to answer because the answer is expressed directly.2. Interpretation Understanding ideas extracted from implicit information in the text. Understanding is inferential because the facts are not stated; instead the reader has to read between the lines. Involves determining relationships and drawing from these the writer‟s intended meanings which are implied in the reading material. The types of questions asked are open-ended, thought-provoking questions. Like why, what if and how. The answers to these questions are not directly stated. One is asked to analyzed and think about what he has read and to use his background knowledge about the subject to answer the question. The reader gleans what is implied or meant, rather than what is actually stated. Readers tap into prior knowledge/ experience and attack new learning to old information. Readers make logical leaps and educated guesses. At this level, readers are attempting to understand what the author meant by what he/she said in the story, paragraph or textbook. It is presumed that they have already memorized certain facts at the literal level and now they are attempting to see the implications of the author‟s words. At this level, readers are attempting to understand that which they memorized at the literal level of comprehension.3. Critical Evaluation Synthesizing and creating something new out of what you have read. This is applied when comprehension of a reading material involves not only the ideas directly stated and the inferences made on these stated facts but also judgments or conclusions. Examples of such judgments are the analyses of the characters in a selection or of the author‟s style. Thus, experiences or ideas the reader already possesses plus his attitudes and standards are involved in comprehension.4. Application Often called Reading Beyond the Lines. Using information to express opinions, and form ideas. Common questions may include: In what ways…If these are…If you were…these questions ask one to go beyond literal and interpretative reading by applying the information one has just read to another similar or familiar situation. This involves taking what was said and then what was meant by what was said and then extends the concepts or ideas beyond the situation.
The readers are attempting to evaluate or raise their thinking one more “notch” or level to a more critical, analyzing level. This presumes that they have already reached the previous levels. The reader puts together what he has learned from the selection (integration) and then uses this knowledge in a related situation (application). An imaginative reader may find inspiration in the selection ha has read and use it as his “germ of thought” that grows into a story or poem of his own (creation). Or, he may want to share his experiences with others by reading the selection using his voice and face to aid in interpreting the story. He may even enact it on stage. Thus, a selection can be the springboard for something new.COMPREHENSION ACTIVITY: Title of the story: The Brothers by Bjornstjerne Bjornson p. 186-191 Reference: English CV for High Schools (2001) A provided copy of the said story is attached in this written report.References: Alejandro S. Bernardo – Developmental Reading 1 (2003) Flordeliza C. Buendicho, Ph.D – Developmental Reading 2 (2003) Arceli M. Villamin, et. al – Developmental Reading (2004) Arceli M. Villamin, et. al – Gateways and Skyways to Developmental Reading (2001) Dr. Erlinda Galero-Tejero – Teaching Reading in the Elementary Grades (2001) English Macro Skills – Marlyn G. Nielo Ph. D et. Al (2001) www.righttrackreading.com