“Advanced students and theirnot the communication in advanced Maybe, the problem is needs”students because they can do it very well, they have learnt all thebasic structures of the language; the main issue is the vocabularywhich is not enough to express clearly and appropiately in a rangewide situation. According to the text, Students have a receptive knowledge of awider range of vocabulary which is they can recognise both the itemand its meaning; nonetheless, their productive use of a extensiverange of vocabulary is limited. Hence, Students should able not onlyto understand the meaning of the words but also to use themappropiately.
“The teaching of vocabulary” Reality: The teaching of vocabulary about elementary levels is mostly incidental limited to presenting new items Issue: In common or real readings and listenings texts appear new items which is an indirected teaching of vocabulary assumes that vocabulary expansion will happen through the practice of other language skills; nonetheless, it has been proved not enough to ensure vocabulary expansion Possible solution: Lewis proposes that “vocabulary should be at the centre of language teaching”, because “language consists of grammaticalised lexis, not lexicalised grammar”.
W have to consider some eseveral aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teaching vocabulary. The following work was written by Gairns and Redman ( 1986)
Aspect of the lexis meaningBoundaries between conceptual meaning know what lexis refers and also where the boundaries are that separate it from words related meaning e.g cup, mug, bowlPolysemy Distinguish the various meaning of a single word form e. g: head- of a person, an organisation, a pin (closely related meanings)Homonymy Distinguish the various meaning of a single word e.g: a file- used to put papers in or a tool ( not closely related)Homophyny Understand words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings e.g : flour, flowerSynomymy Distinguish between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have e.g extend, increase, expand
Aspect of lexis meaningStyle, register, dialect Distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contexts and topics, as well as differences in geographical variationTranslation Concious of certain differences and similarities between teh native and the foreign language e.g false cognatesChunks of language Multi- word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.Grammar of vocabulary Learn the rules in order to build up different forms of the word e.g sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable, disabilityPronunciation Ability to recognise and reproduce items in speechAffective meaning Distinguish between the attiitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation) it depends on spearkers´attitude, situations, socio- cultural associations of lexical items
vocabulary m be m ust ore than sim covering a ply certain num of words on ber a word list, for that reason we m use teaching ust technniques and also we have to give to the learners the opportunities to use theitem learnt and help themto s
Gairns (1986)If we understand how our memoryworks more effective ways toteach vocabulary will be.Learning new items involve storingthem first in our short- termmemory, and afterwards in long-term memoryWe do not have control in thisprocess but there are some cluesto consider.
Understanding… Our mental lexicon is First, retention in highly organised and short- memory is efficient and that effective if it is less semantic related seven items are stored Our long- term together. memory can hold any Word frequency amount of could affect storage information as the most frequently used are easier to retrieve
Suggestions To group items of vocabulary in semantic fields, such as topics Oxford suggests memory strategies:- Creating mental linkages: grouping, associating, placing new words into a context- Applying images and sounds: using imagery, using key words and represent sounds- Reviewing well, in a structured way- Employing action: physical or sensation response, using mechanical techniques
Suggestions Diagnose learning style preferences such as visual, aural, kinaesthetic, tactile and make students aware of different memory strategies Meaningful tasks. It is related to students´ experiences and reality to facilitate learning (it requires that learners have to analyse and process language deeply which help them retain information in long- term memory). Do or create diagrams, word trees, topics, categories organisation, vocabulary box with cards among others.
Dealing with meaning According to the author´s point of view the most important aspect of vocabulary teaching for advance learners is that students accomplish independence. Students could deal this by guided discovery, contextual guesswork and using dictionaries in order to discover meaning.
Techniques ApplicationGuided discovery Asking questions, offering examples It helps learning and retentionContextual guesswork Making use of the context, guess from the word itself, word formation e.g prefixes and suffixesEFL dictionaries It provokes independence from the teacher, and also understanding meaning, checking pronunciation, grammar of the word, different spelling, style and register as illustrate usage.
The lexical approach Lewis (1993) claims that lexical approach is not simply a shift of emphasis from grammar to vocabulary teaching, as “language consists not of traditional grammar and vocabulary” but often of multi-word prefabricated chunks” (1997) Chunks include collocations, fixed and semi-fixed expressions and idioms and Lewis says that this occupies a crucial role in faciliting language productions which foster fluency.
According to Hill (1999) affirms that good vocabularies have problems with fluency because their “collocational competence” is very limited Lewis(1993) express that “being able to use a word involves mastering its collocational range and restrictions on that range” and also he extends the use of dictionaries to focus on word grammar and collocation range, although most dictionaries are rather limited in these. Lewis defends the use of real or authentic material from the early stages of learning because “acquisition is facilitated by material
Rationale of the lesson 1. Choice of material: authentic material is better because our students are exposed to rich, contextualised, naturally-occurring language. 2. Noticing collocations and dealing with meaning 3. Group work: it promotes learning independence. 4. Choice of task: students need the opportunity to use the language they are learning in realistic context.