Mass communication & media literacy 05


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Slides for media and narrative

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Mass communication & media literacy 05

  1. 1. Mass Communication & Media Literacy 05
  2. 2. Narrative Boy meets girl Girl meets boy ... Girl loses boyBoy meets girl ... Loses girl ... Re-finds girl and finds love etc.
  3. 3. NarrativeNarrative refers to the organisation of "Story is the irreducibletextual elements into a pattern in substance of a story (A meetsterms of space, time and perspective. B, something happens, orderIt is the narrative that encourages us returns), while narrative is theto read specific parts of the text as way the story is related (Once‘events’ which are ordered through upon a time there was atime (temporal succession) and which princess...)" (Key Concepts inwe conceive as the cause of the other Communication - Fiske et alevents (causation). (1983))
  4. 4. Origins and Interest  Literary theory  Psychology  Anthropology  Film studies  Roman Jacobson  Vladimir Propp  Gerard Genette  Tzvetan Todorov 
  5. 5. Narrative as Structure: Propp Functions of characters  Narrative units descriptive of particular action  Villain, the donor, the  (31 units) dispatcher, the hero, the The villain appears and (either villain tries to find the false hero, the princess, the  children/jewels etc; or intended victim encounters the villain); King   The villain gains information about the victim; The villain attempts to deceive the victim to take possession of victim or victims belongings (trickery;  A single character can fulfil more  villain disguised, tries to win confidence of victim); than one function (characters are  The victim is fooled by the villain, unwittingly helps the enemy; more like character masks)  Villain causes harm/injury to family/tribe member (by abduction, theft of magical agent, spoiling crops, plunders in other forms, causes a disappearance, expels someone, casts spell on someone, substitutes child etc, commits murder, imprisons/detains someone, threatens forced marriage, provides nightly torments);  Alternatively, a member of family lacks something or desires something (magical potion etc);  Misfortune or lack is made known, (hero is dispatched, hears call for help etc/ alternative is that victimised hero is sent away, freed from imprisonment);  Proppian Fairytale Generator
  6. 6. Eco uses Propp  M moves and gives task to Bond  The villain moves and appears to Bond  Woman moves and shows herself to Bond  Bond consumes woman:‘In Casino Royale there are already possesses her or begins herall the elements for the building of amachine that functions basically on a seductionset of precise units governed byrigorous combinational rules.’  The villain captures BondUmberto Eco (1969) The Bond Affair  Bond conquers the villain
  7. 7. Todorov Cinematic Narrative  Exploring the narrative structure of classic realist films  In media res Stable world  DeigesisDisruption (usually cause by human action)  Non-deigetic Chain of cause and effect (human action) Resolution Stable world restored!
  8. 8. Plot and Story  We construct the story in our heads from information narrated to us through the plot Fabula (story)  Syuzhet (plot)  The fabula is a pattern  The syuzhet is the actual that film spectators create arrangement and through assumptions and presentation of the fabula inferences: we do not see in the film. The syuzhet is or hear the fabula on the a system because it screen or hear it in the arranges elements – the soundtrack. story events – according to specific principles.
  9. 9. Narrative Narrative logic  The syuzhet of a film is often far more complex than the fabula that we construct as spectators. Time  The organisation of time by the syuzhet can be used to assist or block our fabula construction.  Shouldn’t films have a beginning, middle and end?  Yes, but not in that order.  Pulp Fiction, Memento, Lost,  The Matrix  Groundhog Day Space  In order to construct our fabula we need a sense of the space in which events ocurr.
  10. 10. Memento
  11. 11. Babel
  12. 12. Using the tools Rhetorical + Semiotic + syuzhet/fabula help us understand how films are constructed and how we make meaning from them. How does the syuzhet present story information? And why does it do so in the way it does?
  13. 13. Using the tools What point-of-view (POV) are we presented with? Who is telling the story or looking explicitly or implicitly? What kind of position are we, as consumers of the text, being asked to take or being placed in?
  14. 14. Saving Private Ryan
  15. 15. Photography as Narrative
  16. 16. Photography as Narrative