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Apprentissage moteur

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Apprentissage moteur

  1. 1. PSYCHOLOGY OF MOTOR LEARNING MOTOR CONTROL
  2. 2. THE SENSORY SIDE <ul><li>DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SENSATION AND PERCEPTION </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY RECEPTOR </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY NEURON </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY LIMITS </li></ul><ul><li>SENSORY ADAPTATION </li></ul><ul><li>SPATIAL/TEMPORAL SUMMATION </li></ul>
  3. 3. SOURCES OF SENSORY INFORMATION <ul><li>PROPRIOCEPTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>VESTIBULAR </li></ul><ul><li>JOINT RECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE SPINDLES </li></ul><ul><li>CUTANEOUS RECEPTORS </li></ul><ul><li>GTOs </li></ul><ul><li>EXTEROCEPTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>VISION </li></ul><ul><li>AUDITION </li></ul>
  4. 4. MOTOR UNIT <ul><li>VARIATIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>INNERVATION RATIO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TYPES OF FIBERS INNERVATED </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. MOTOR UNIT <ul><li>AMOUNT OF TENSION DETERMINED BY: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMBER OF UNITS RECRUITED </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FREQUENCY </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SPINAL CORD <ul><li>INTERNEURONS </li></ul><ul><li>PATTERN GENERATORS </li></ul><ul><li>CENTRAL PROGRAMS IN CORD </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROPRIOCEPTION AND MOTOR CONTROL <ul><li>MUSCLE SPINDLE </li></ul><ul><li>GOLGI TENDON ORGAN </li></ul>
  8. 8. MUSCLE RECEPTORS <ul><li>GTO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In series with muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to tension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firing sends inhibitory message to muscle in which located (so stretch to active muscle would cause same muscle to decrease tension) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MUSCLE SPINDLE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In parallel with extrafusal muscle fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitive to length and rate of change of length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Firing sends excitatory message to muscle in which it is located (so stretch enhances contraction) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. GTO <ul><li>Each GTO connected to only small group (3 to 25) muscle fibers; thus, receptor positioned to sense tensions in limited number of motor units rather than whole muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Very LARGE stretch needed to cause firing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensor a protective device to prevent muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from contracting too forcefully </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. MUSCLE SPINDLES <ul><li>COMPONENTS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Receptors sensitive to length of equatorial region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ia Afferent Neuron - output related to length of equatorial region (position) and rate change of region (velocity) - basis of stretch reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intrafusal fibers - small muscle fibers innervated by gamma efferent (motor) neurons </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. You have now been exposed to all of the components of the stretch reflex. Get into your study groups and work on the following assignments. Draw the stretch reflex and include all of the components. Then, think about ways that the stretch reflex is used in order to enhance various movements . Come up with at least two examples.
  12. 12. STRETCH REFLEX
  13. 13. SPINAL REFLEXES <ul><li>STRETCH REFLEX </li></ul><ul><li>FLEXION REFLEX </li></ul><ul><li>CROSSED EXTENSOR REFLEX </li></ul>
  14. 14. BRAIN STEM AND MOTOR CONTROL <ul><li>RIGHTING REFLEXES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LABYRINTHINE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NECK RIGHTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BODY RIGHTING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPTIC RIGHTING </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. BRAIN STEM <ul><li>TONIC REFLEXES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic Labyrinthine Reflex (TLR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tonic Neck Reflex (TNR) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. HIGHER CORTICAL LEVELS INVOLVED IN MOTOR CONTROL <ul><li>RETICULAR FORMATION </li></ul><ul><li>CEREBELLUM </li></ul><ul><li>BASAL GANGLIA </li></ul><ul><li>MOTOR CORTEX </li></ul>

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