Squeakfest2013 oct28 final for ss


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  • Thank you for inviting me today. I am honored to be here at this squeakfest in rosario.Today, I want to talk about:Changes in our society and how they will and ARE affecting education2. The push for programming NOW3..Great thinkers of the last century began the revolutions in learning and child development, artificial intelligence, Technology has caught up with the ideas hatched in the last century, coding is being tauted as the new literacyNew culture of learning—New skills and dispositions for learningIdeas, structures, for inquiry and design learning with Etoys
  • Free, public education was a revolutionary idea that changed our cultures.
  • education and learning are social and interactive processes, and thus the school itself is a social institution through which social reform can and should take place. students thrive in an environment where they are allowed to experience and interact with the curriculum, and all students should have the opportunity to take part in their own learning. hands-on learning or experiential education, which is related to, but not synonymous with experiential learning. Problem-Based Learning (PBL),teacher's role should be that of facilitator and guide. This philosophy has become an increasingly popular idea within present-day teacher preparatory programs.
  • LIFE CYCLE MODEL A MYTH?---through education of the young, for work during the middle years with, for the lucky few who survive, rest in oldage. …..model still dominates today. ls knowledge obtained in initial education no longer adequately prepare the youngfor the whole of their lives because changes in work and life generally mean many arerapidly outdated and new skills and updated knowledge needed. Confucius lived in asociety that changed little from generation to generation but we have moved fromworldcharacterised by Charles Dicken's novel "Dombey and Son", where childrenfollowed their parents into the same career, to the "Generation Gap" of the twentiethcentury, where children entered very different areas of work, to the sequential careerof the twenty-first, in which individuals move from job to job learning new skills asthey go. 20th Century - the technology, science, and inventions of the 10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80, and 90s.
  • Genuine life-long learning– 21C classrooms full offuturists have long argued the case for greater acknowledgement of the future inthe curriculum at all levels of education and at a number of occasions in the last halfcentury at least there seemed to be hope that a breakthrough might occur. A few exam-ples of Futures programmes have endured but many have come and gone with theindividual enthusiasts that developed them. At the time of writing there are againsome new initiatives including a Masters degree at the Free University in Berlin andgrowing interest in business as indicated by the developments on Shapingtomorrow.com. Is it too much to hope that recognition may come at last?
  • Computer science is going to become part of the English Baccalaureate (EBacc), THE APPROACH TO rigorous computer science teaching in schools is supported by The British Computing Society (BCS – The Chartered Institute for IT), along with Microsoft, Google and Facebook.
  • 1. At UC—Irvine, students choose three courses from computer science, public health, economics, physics, biology, chemistry, earth science, philosophy, or international studies to meet their general education requirement in science and technology. 2.Each of the nearly 2,000 freshmen entering Georgia Institute of Technologyeach year must take a computer science course regardless of their major, says Charles Isbell, associate dean for academic affairs at the school's College of Computing.3. every student at Montclair State University in New Jersey must complete a computer science in order to graduate.
  • The president suggested that with the high interest in digital technology among young people it makes sense to teach skills like programming and graphic design in high school so that students can go on to pursue a career, with or without a four-year college degree.
  • In 1961, Alan Perlis made the argument that computer science should be considered part of a liberal education, and that everyone should learn to program M. Mitchell Waldrop in his book The Dream Machine (Viking: 2001) says that he made the argument that programming was a fundamental intellectual skill, like mathematics. He argued that computers “will participate in almost every intellectual transaction that goes on in the university.” Calculus is generally considered part of a liberal education—truly educated people know something significant about calculus. Calculus is the study of rates, and rates are important to many fields. Perlis argued that computer science is about process: Its specification, its execution, its composition, and its limitations. And process is important to everybody.
  • The ultimate goal of his adventure is not the exploration as such, but the joy of stepping back and beingable to build maps and other useful tools in order to better master and control theterritory under exploration.His theory emphasizes all thosethings needed to maintain the internal structure and organization of the cognitivesystem.
  • TIMELINE directly from Piaget to Papert.What is the difference between Piaget's constructivism and Papert’s “constructionism”? Piaget and Papert are also both developmentalists in that they share an incremental view of knowledge construction. common objective is to highlight the processes by which people outgrow their current views of the world,and construct deeper understandings about themselves and their environmentBOTH STUDY– processes which learners are likely to maintain or change their theories of a givenphenomenon through interacting with it during a significant period of time.
  • Completely engaged--people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. --one needs to translate the experience into a description or a model.-------the model gains a life of its own, and can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialog gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectednessand understanding.
  • separateness can be seen as a provisory means of gainingcloser relatedness and understanding. It does not preclude the value of beingembedded in one's own experience.diving into unknown situations, at thecost of experiencing a momentary sense of loss, is also a crucial part of learning.Only when a learner has actually traveled through a world, by adopting differentperspectives, or putting on different “glasses,” can a dialogue begin between localand initially incompatible experiences.
  • How could people learn from theirexperience as long as they are totally immersed in it. There comes a time whenone needs to translate the experience into a description or a model. Once built, themodel gains a life of its own, and can be addressed as if it were “not me.” Fromthen on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialog gets started(between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectednessand understanding.
  • Theories introduced in the west in the 1930’s—remained unknown until the 1970’s— new paradigms of developmental and educational psychologyZPD--the acquisition of new knowledge is dependent on previous learning, as well as the availability of instruction.In computing education, we think a lot about students’ first experience programming, but we don’t think much about how a student first sees code and first sees programming. How can you even consider studying a domain whose main activity you have never even seen? What is the role of that coding generating music, with cultural and creative overtones? The social experience introducing computing is important, and that may be something that live code can offer.
  • AI Artificial intelligence
  • Marvin Minsky ---one of the Fathers of modern Artificial Intelligence. His inventions, writings, and theories have been a powerful voice in the development of AI from its early years to today.1951: Built the very first neural network simulator. 1955: Invented a confocal scanning microscope, which zooms in on objects to create high-contrast 3D images 1975: Invented the concept of “frames”, which help computers find data with which they can make basic intelligent decisions1985: Published The Society of Mind, which pioneers a theory that combines child psychology and Artificial Intelligence research. Basically, it states that intelligence does not come from any one source, but several forces interacting with each other. This allows an intelligent being to do different things. It also implies that there is no “key” to finding the source of intelligence, as there is no specific source.
  • Perceptrons: an introduction to computational geometry is a book written by Marvin Minsky and Seymour Papert and published in 1969.In the early 1970s at the MIT Artificial Intelligence Lab, Minsky and Seymour Papert started developing what came to be called The Society of Mind theory. The theory attempts to explain how what we call intelligence could be a product of the interaction of non-intelligent parts.
  • Seymour Papert-Probably no one would ever know this; it did not matter. In the 1980s, Minsky and Good had shown how neural networks could be generated automatically—self replicated—in accordance with any arbitrary learning program. Artificial brains could be grown by a process strikingly analogous to the development of a human brain. In any given case, the precise details would never be known, and even if they were, they would be millions of times too complex for human understanding.—Arthur C. Clarke, 2001: A Space Odyssey
  • Turtle graphicsLOGO computer prgramming languagePapert- kinesthetic feel for the programming language
  • Mindstorms (1983)--case for computers as a primary route to knowledge, revising and expanding earlier observations in view of disappointing school policies of the past dozen years. Papert (Mathematics and Education/MIT) divides the conservative education world into ``Schoolers'' (who acknowledge underlying problems but focus on short-term urgent ones) and ``Yearners'' (who create their own small-scale alternatives) WHYtechnology hasn't revolutionized school learning. COMPUTERS OFFER LEARNING that can be ``quick, immensely compelling, and rewarding,’’LOGO--a superior mode of learning for young children--their informal learning style -- schools have ignored computers' broad capacities, he finds,ISOLATING these tools from the learning process instead of INTEGRATING them into all areas of instruction. evidence of computers as powerful learning allies. He also understands the nature of learning--the importance of the personal element – (EG BYGOTSKY) the need to adapt a learning-environment design to its social and cultural milieu; the ``internal censors'' that students bring to required work; and the way that ordered ideas can emerge from an imprecise, undirected process.THE ABILITY TO LEARN NEW SKILLS- -and that computers have a unique, accelerating role to play in developing that ability
  • a historian were to draw a line connecting Jean Piaget’s work on developmental psychology to today’s trends in educational technology, the line would simply be labeled “Papert.” And perhaps the most remarkable thing about that line would be the other points it intersects along its course of more than fifty years
  • SEYMOUR PAPERTPapert extends Piaget to include diving into experiencesPapert in AI by designing neural nets with Minsky and assisting development of the Society of the MindPapert is key in developing LOGO, developing theory of constructionism…constructionism, …. its main feature the fact that it looks more closely than other educational -isms at the idea of mental construction….. and by asking questions about the methods…How can one become an expert at constructing knowledge? What skills are required? And are these skills the same for different kinds of knowledge?
  • Programming is probably the greatest, and most criminally untapped teaching tool we have developed in the last century. At its heart, programming is applied logic, a discipline that requires you:•to break a problem into its component parts•to construct those parts from a set of logical building-blocks•to combine those solved parts into a greater whole
  • EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES launched by Papert– LOGO, SQUEAK– a language, a tool, an environment to CHANGE the way learning happensalankay – history background- Smalltalk object oriented programming language– first developed in 1972, many iterations, then in 1996- Squeak programming language– and then the tile based Etoys Squeak was developedEvery summer, Alan hosted a Learning Lab at a music camp in New Hampshire– it was a wLater, Scratch in 2003
  • EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES launched by Papert– LOGO, SQUEAK– a language, a tool, an environment to CHANGE the way learning happensalankay – history background- Smalltalk object oriented programming language– first developed in 1972, many iterations, then in 1996- Squeak programming language– and then the tile based Etoys Squeak was developedEvery summer, Alan hosted a Learning Lab at a music camp in New Hampshire–(one or two a year-sometimes at UCLA) it was a camp for we adults.---- collection of people who cared about new ways of learning– timgallwey,(Inner Game of Tennis) betty edwards, (Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain) Group from the west coast– and MIT group- Mitchell Resnick and grad students– Mitch invited John to MIT—and they developed Scratch in 2003
  • Avron Barr --- exploration and engineering of knowledge -- learning how it is acquired by humans or machines, how it is represented in the mind or in software, how it is communicated between humans and computers and disseminated throughout a culture -- was a central problem in philosophy, psychology and artificial intelligence that might well be answered in surprising ways by the new discipline created by the builders of expert systems.
  • result is a new culture in which knowledge is fluid and evolving; the personal is both enhanced and refined in relation to the collective; and the ability to manage, negotiate, and participate in the world is governed by the play of the imagination.represents a CONVERGENCE of the revolutions of the past century with Piaget, Papert, Minsky, VygotskyWith the actual technological developments NOWEDUCATIONTECHNOLOGYLEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  • LEARNING is an invironment– school environment must blend, or it will fail to blend with the freedom and the wealth of the digital network learning is ORGANIC,
  • 1.Teaching based– culture is the environment, Learning based-culture EMERGES from the environment—it GROWS along with it— digital medias provide access to rich sources of information and PLAY2. Teaching based-teaches ABOUT the worldLearning based– focuses on learning through engagement WITHIN the world3. teaching- students PROVE they “GET IT”Learning– EMBRACE what we DON’T YET KNOW, ask questions, learn more and more—take the world and make it part of ourselves
  • Education—traditional– information is transferred from teacher to student-Existence of knowledge that is worth communicating and DOESN’T CHANGE OVER TIME give a man a fish---assumes an endless supply of fishSOME IDEAS< FACTS< CONCEPTS that this is true for BUT—tell story of new neurons in teaching Neuroscience— nature of science itself fewer and fewer things that are fish anymoreTECHNOLOGY- Bell Labs first color signal for tv in 1929– 70 years for widespread adoption (by 1999, 68% of US house had a tv—all you had to do is buy a tv Internet— 1997-18% home access, 2001—50%, 2006-65%, 2008– 73% 10 years—diff comp, OS, different email clients, infrastructure changes
  • Education—traditional– information is transferred from teacher to student-Existence of knowledge that is worth communicating and DOESN’T CHANGE OVER TIME give a man a fish---assumes an endless supply of fishSOME IDEAS< FACTS< CONCEPTS that this is true for BUT—tell story of new neurons in teaching Neuroscience— nature of science itself fewer and fewer things that are fish anymoreTECHNOLOGY- Bell Labs first color signal for tv in 1929– 70 years for widespread adoption (by 1999, 68% of US house had a tv—all you had to do is buy a tv Internet— 1997-18% home access, 2001—50%, 2006-65%, 2008– 73% 10 years—diff comp, OS, different email clients, infrastructure changes
  • 7 books over 10 yearsHarry Potter fans join an online community engaged in ongoing conversations to connect with like-minded enthusiasts and experts. Through contributions to wikis, blogs, and online forums, readers change the culture by participating in it. Readers learn the stories via the books and explore the meaning of the novels through active engagement with others online in rich, participatory cultural contexts.They organized meetings, conventions, formed discussion and reading groupsREAL LEARNING??– not WHAT but HOW– no teacher, yet engaged in deep, sustained learning from one another—Each new book—LEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  • PIAGET—play was the means children learned from
  • PIAGET—play was the means children learned from
  • Traditional approaches to learning can no longer cope with a constantly changing world.Balance between structure that edinstitutioons provide and freedom afforded by new mediaWITHOUT LOSING A SENSE OF PURPOSE AND DIRECTIONSIMPLY UNLEASHING STUDENTS ON THE INTERNET doesn’t solve the problem any more than lecturing and testing them more doesMarry the structure and freedoms to CREATE SOMETHING NEW
  • WANT TO TALK BRIEFLY ABOUT SOME OF THE SKILLS AND DISPOSITIONS FOR THIS NEW LEARNER, then well come back to the principles of learning
  • http://www.p21.org/Many different lists
  • New culture– people learn through INTERACTION AND PARTICIPATION in fluid relationships and shared interestsLearning from others NOT NEW—but often ignored in formal educational settingsCollege living– example– learning is governed by classroom, being in study groups, learning more from their environment 24/7COLLECTIVE—one can consume much informaiton, and able to add one’s own – the collective— teachers not always needing to scramble for latest infor– students active in creating and molding, esp. SOCIAL InformationCOLLECTIVE is a community—an ACTIVE not passive ONEYOU BELONG IN ORDER TO LEARN IN a communityCollective– YOU BELONG IN ORDER TO LEARN
  • Give a man a fish and feed him for a day.Teach a man to fish, and feed him as long as there are fish.Create a collective and every man and woman will learn how to feed him or herself for a LIFETIME.
  • No core or center in a collectiveDesign based learning, project based learning Collectives generally share BELIEFS and VALUES about the world, their placeValue PARTICIPATION over BELONGINGENGAGE in set of shared practicesDesign based learning– learning by design my background– many projects with LOGO and with SQUEAK ETOYS as basic TOOL for creating artifacts of inquiry
  • SpeedHeading- positive and negative numbersDegrees, angles, circlesCorrelations between numbers that have real life applicationSee and measure cars speed accelerationActual way of working—thinking, problem solving, figuring out, planningMay not take place when kids are not allowed to build—make connections
  • Inquiry-based learning approaches when correctly implemented can help develop higher-order, information literacy and critical thinking skills. They can also develop problem-solving abilities and develop skills for lifelong learningThe teacher's role in inquiry-based learning is one of 'Guide on the side' rather than 'Sage on the stage". The teacher scaffolds learning for students, gradually removing the scaffolding as students develop their skills. With young children or students new to inquiry it is usually necessary to use a form of guided inquiry.While disciplines should interrelate, inquiry learning includes the application of certain specific "ground rules" that insure the integrity of the various disciplines and their world views.
  • CONSTRUCTED– takes into account previous levels of learning, including misconceptionsACTIVE– student is constructor, teacher is guide on the side– gets students to experiment, ask questions, try things, fail, try again—relevant and real worldREFLECTIVE– learn how to learn- discuss what was learned, how it was learned, misconceptions?COLLABORATIVE– learn from each other, get new strategies from each other—eg math—wrong answers to get to the root of understandingINQUIRY—ask questions, investigate, use resourcesEVOLVING--Students have ideas that they may later see were invalid, incorrect, or insufficient to explain new experiences. These ideas are temporary steps in the integration of knowledge. new information matches previous ideas– consonant doesn’t match previous ideas—dissonant—hard– change one’s understanding ignored– may not match and student disgards it– later developmental cycle
  • Papert—knowledge is best constructed in a social context where the participatnts make something sharable.lConstructionism particularly applies to learning with digital technology.
  • This is NOT what a constructionist classroom looks like—it is noisy, people moving around, asking questions, talking to each other, working to solve problemsTHIS IS THIS SESSION__ A do what I say, not what I do moment—don’t do it like this—Students not engaged, not activeNoisy, asking questions, talking to each other, moving from group to group, brainstorming, researching, checking, writing I want to learn on the clipboard (the just in time clipboard)
  • MAKERS MOVEMENTS– amaking programs—learning to code quickly in a dayIMPORTANT- the recent direction in our culture toward consumption—producing products that are increasingly monolithic but also not transparent (like cars) soA really important thing to teach people is HOW THINGS WORKComplicated problems can be broken down and solvedThe maker movement is about an opportunity to build things from scratch and see how all the parts work together to make the whole.Eg. Relevant—why teaching CS is relevant
  • Give caution to the simulationsAlan in my room with roller coaster—gave his blessings after seeing that kids tested their theories on the board contraptions
  • Applied to systems you are buildingParticipation– collaborative software and applicationsTransparency– want users to be able to see what their software is doing and why—eg invoice mgmt pro. Asking for signature—want to be able to see the options that your boss can sign it, or secretary, but you need to know why—need to know the next stage—you can call someone and checkEthics—an analagous focus in software design is security– certain things you can guarantee and why and howSecurity—partly from outside threats-defensive—but, also involved in INTEGRITY—rigorousness of the design-with logic and with current computer systems we are starting to ap[roach that.game making is gaining popularity as a learning activity directly employed by schools [Salen, 2009
  • 1.2. Provide source material because student need to know something about the topic to be able to perceive and formulate meaningful inquiries, such us : WONDER QUESTIONS, QUSTIons HANGING OVER THEIR HEADS, articles, go to museum exhibits, listen to audio recording, or-primary source material-web site-photography3. Inquiry: define problem question; find and gather data; analyze, compare, organize, and synthesize data; create a proposition; support proposition (facts, stats, examples, expert authority, logic and reasoning); propose solutions and action stepsShow students a PowerPoint presentation, a web site, a proposition-support framework, a museum exhibit, a choreographed dance performance, etc.4.Students need to see models of what it is they are being asked to do. They must have a supporting structure which provides a grounding for their creations, but doesn't limit their creativity.5. A broad problem question or topic provides students with a general focus for selecting more specific inquiries.6. Without a knowledge base or some degree of familiarity with the topic, it will be difficult for students to develop relevant inquiries within the broad topic area. Students need to be provided with background material and/or guided to research their own background material. This base will enable them to begin to formulate a big picture understanding of the broad topic area, and then to select a specific inquiry interest which connects to the broader topic.7. a) state problem question b) develop proposition which can be arguedc) provide background information d) support proposition with: facts, statistics, examples, expert authority, logic and reasoninge) propose solutions and action ideas8. Refer students back to expected outcomes and inquiry framework to create alignment between their presentations and intended outcomes9. Continue to Ask students a lot of questions to help them refine their thinking and guide their research.10. Support the technology—find experts in classroom in programming tasks, research tasks, give talks empower students to train within and outside of teams11. Provide a forum for student presentations which includes students, teachers, parents, and community members.--or younger students- used apprentice learning a lot– create sims for younger learners– interviewed learners, showed them work in progressconnect their learning to specific action.Incorporate ongoing, meaningful peer and teacher assessment.Reflect on what worked and what didn't, and try it again.
  • Maybe one of those exhibits will speak to a particular kid
  • Finally, the ELLI approach has now developed a body of practitioner knowledge about the kinds of interventions that can be made to help stretch a learner in different dimensions. This includes knowledge of which dimensions tend to be most important or dependent. This know-how may be formalisable as patterns that can help an ELLI mentor advise, or help a learner to decide what to do next. These ELLI profiles can of course also be be embedded in learner profiles in order to match with other similar (or dissimilar) peers.
  • Girls Who Code works to educate, inspire, and equip young women with the skills and resources to pursue academic and career opportunities in computing fields.Girls Who Code aims to provide computer science education and exposure to 1 million young women by 2020.
  • Abbate describes the experiences of women who worked with the earliest electronic digital computers: Colossus, the wartime codebreaking computer at Bletchley Park outside London, and the American ENIAC,postwar methods for recruiting programmers1960s redefinition of programming as the more masculine “software engineering.” She describes the social and business innovations of two early software entrepreneurs, Elsie Shutt and Stephanie Shirley; and she examines the career paths of women in academic computer science.Abbate’s account of the bold and creative strategies of women who loved computing work, excelled at it, and forged successful careers will provide inspiration for those working to change gendered computing culture.
  • The EPA Chica Squad members, from left, Margarita Tenisi, Rosie Valencia, Ashley Davis and Vanessa Tostado created an app called "Tag It!" that not only records the location of graffiti but helps create an event to get it cleaned up. Their app placed in the top 20 worldwide in the Technovation competition.The girls competed in the third and largest Technovation Challenge competition against 114 applicants from Mountain View High School and Castilleja School in Palo Alto as well as China, Yemen, Jordan, Brazil, Indonesia, India, Nigeria, Ukraine and the United Kingdom. They placed in the top 20 worldwide and in the top five out of 36 entries in the San Francisco region.The four girls created their app in 12 weeks, working on two borrowed laptops for just four hours each week at Bayshore Christian Ministries in East Palo Alto. They were guided by two tech professionals: Selina Martinez, a Bayshore volunteer who used to work at a Facebook apps startup, and Sarah Clatterbuck, a LinkedIn web developer.
  • Digital Inclusion 2012
  • Descritpion of any programmer– and of the skill of tenacity that we want to nurture in our new generationsOver the 20 years that followed, I found that being a woman put me at one remove from the general society of programmers. I resented that distance, but I liked to think that it was in some way fortunate — that my standing back gave me a clearer view of our profession and its effects on society at large. I looked around and wondered, “Where are all the other women?” We women found ourselves nearly alone, outsiders in a culture that was sometimes boyishly puerile, sometimes rigorously hierarchical, occasionally friendly and welcoming. This strange illness meanwhile left the female survivors with an odd glow that made them too visible, scrutinized too closely, held to higher standards. It placed upon them the terrible burden of being not only good but the best.
  • October is breast cancer awareness month in the US.
  • Squeakfest2013 oct28 final for ss

    1. 1. Playing to learn, learning to think Cathleen Galas Squeakfest 2013 Rosario, Argentina October 2013
    2. 2. The way it was (19th-20th century)
    3. 3. John Dewey American philosopher, psychologist, educational reformer 1859-1952 The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas ……. Thus the teacher becomes a partner in the learning process, guiding students to independently discover meaning within the subject area. (Dewey, 1897)
    4. 4. The way it still is? (20th century education)
    5. 5. The way it could be?
    6. 6. What is the message?
    7. 7. Should computer science be part of formal schooling?
    8. 8.  CS will be part of the EBacc  http://www.education.gov.uk/get-into-teaching/subjects-agegroups/computer-science
    9. 9. April 3, 2012 Computer Science Transitions From Elective to Requirement …..so some colleges are updating mandatory general education courses. http://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/2012/04/03/computer-science-transitions-from-elective-to-requirement-computer-sciencetransitions-from-elective-to-requirement
    10. 10. Australia Learnable.com donates $10M of training to teach Aussie kids to code Melbourne, Monday 19 August 2013: Australian students are today being given $10 million of technical training free from Learnable.com, a global online learning company founded in Melbourne, which believes that every student should have the opportunity to learn to code.
    11. 11. Former US President Bill Clinton At a time when people are saying "I want a good job - I got out of college and I couldnt find one," every single year in America there is a standing demand for 120,000 people who are training in computer science.
    12. 12. US President Barack Obama "I think it makes sense, I really do," was his response to the idea posed in a live Google+ Hangout earlier today. "I want to make sure that (young people) know how to produce stuff using computers and not just consume stuff.” C/NET, February 14, 2013 http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-575695031/obama-endorses-required-high-school-coding- classes/
    13. 13. Mark Zuckerberg There just aren't enough people who are trained and have these skills today.
    14. 14. Ashton Kutcher If we want to spur job growth in the US we have to educate ourselves in the disciplines where jobs are available and where economic growth is feasible.
    15. 15. Is this the WRONG Message?
    16. 16. Instead…
    17. 17. Bill Gates Learning to write programs stretches your mind, and helps you think better, creates a way of thinking about things that I think is helpful in all domains.
    18. 18. The skill of coding is no different from the skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a coding illiterate world where the skill of programming computers belongs to a priesthood. John Pavley, The Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johnpavley/learning-to-code_b_3337098.html
    19. 19. Steve Jobs I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer because it teaches you how to think.
    20. 20. Mark Guzdial Elliot Soloway Computer Science is more important than Calculus: The challenge of living up to our potential
    21. 21. Calculus vs. Computer Science? Calculus  Generally considered part of a liberal education program  Study of rates  Rates are important to many fields Computer Science  Generally considered an “extra” course or skill  Study of process     Specification Execution Compositions limitations  Process is important to EVERYBODY
    22. 22. What revolutions made us ask this question? Who started those revolutions?
    24. 24. Child Development When you teach a child something you take away forever his chance of discovering it for himself.” -Jean Piaget www.LifeLearningMagazine.com
    25. 25. Piaget’s “Child” A young scientist whose purpose is to find stasis in an ever changing world. Like a Robinson Crusoe: curious, inner-driven, independent, solitary conquest. Edith Ackerman, “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference?”
    26. 26. Piaget to Papert Jean Piaget Constructivism Seyjmour Papert Constructionism
    27. 27. Seymour Papert by growing up with a few very powerful theorems one comes to appreciate how certain ideas can be used as tools to think with over a lifetime. One learns to enjoy and to respect the power of powerful ideas. …the most powerful idea of all is the idea of powerful ideas..
    28. 28. Papert’s Child  Diving into unknown situations is a crucial part of learning
    29. 29. Piaget Stepping back Papert Diving in
    30. 30. Piaget and Papert “A cognitive dance” Diving in reengagement Stepping back Detachment and reflection
    31. 31. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934, Russian Social Constructivist Theory (1) Children construct knowledge (2) Learning can lead development (3) Development cannot be separated from its social context (4) Language plays a central role in mental development. (ZPD) Zone of Proximal Development
    33. 33. Artificial Intelligence
    34. 34. Perceptrons and Society of the Mind Minsky and Papert together
    36. 36. Computer Technologies for Education
    37. 37. Papert 1982 1994
    38. 38. Powerful Papert (contd.) ” …….a property of ideas and a challenge to the School culture. On the positive side, the insight also leads to a new vision of what technology can offer education.
    40. 40. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
    41. 41. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
    42. 42. Programming is applied logic
    43. 43. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP
    44. 44. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP "At Learning Labs, we've spent hours and hours discussing how we can help students follow their interests and passions, and also help students learn powerful ideas and develop as systematic thinkers.” – Mitchell Resnick
    45. 45. The way it could be?  Teachers who give …..radically different theory of knowledge. (p. 63)  What would happen if children who can't do math grew up in Mathland, a place that is to math what France is to French? (p. 64)  ...they [the children] become producers instead of consumers of educational software. (p. 107)
    46. 46. Why Code  Critical thinking skills  Learn to break down and solve complex problems  Programming Jobs  Programming ubiquitous—basic literacy  Programming is a language like any other (will it become the world’s language?)  The semantic web  Programming is Fun! (PAPERT-”HARD FUN!”)
    47. 47. “Programming is debugging. So being wrong is not so much something to be avoided at all costs, but should be seen as a clue to the right way of doing it. That's why it was actually an environment rather than just an instructional program. “
    48. 48. Hewlett Foundation 2010  “In one survey after another, business leaders complain that the majority of U.S. job applicants are ill-equipped to solve complex problems, work in teams, or communicate effectively.”  “Hewlett envisions a new generation of schools and community colleges…harness the deeper learning skills of critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication, collaboration, and learning to learn to help students develop a strong foundation in traditional academic subjects.”  http://www.hewlett.org/2010-annual-report
    49. 49. New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, 2011  exploring play, innovation, and cultivation of the imagination as cornerstones of learning  create a vision of learning for the future that is achievable, scalable, and grows along with the technology that fosters it and the people who engage with it.
    51. 51. Culture of Learning Teaching Based Approach Learning Based Approach
    52. 52. “We are preparing students for jobs that do not exist yet, that will use technologies that have not been invented yet, in order to solve problems that are not even problems yet.”  “Shift Happens”  www.shifthappens.wikispaces.com
    53. 53. EMBRACE CHANGE
    55. 55. How did kids learn about Harry Potter?
    56. 56. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…
    57. 57. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding
    58. 58. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding  PLAY IS A STRATEGY FOR EMBRACING CHANGE, rather than growing out of it.
    59. 59. There is a generic set of skills and dispositions that are characteristic of good learners. If learners can be taught a language for these, they can get better at “learning to learn” across different contexts.
    60. 60. 21C Skills  Critical thinking  Problem solving  Communication  Collaboration  Creativity  innovation
    61. 61. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    62. 62. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    63. 63. New ways of learning  The old ways are UNABLE TO KEEP UP with the changing world  New media makes peer – to – peer learning easier and more natural  Peer to peer is amplified: the new media purports a COLLECTIVE nature of participation
    64. 64. COMMUNITY—You learn in order to belong COLLECTIVE– You belong in order to learn
    65. 65. The collective  Produces INQUIRY  Meaningful Learning
    66. 66. How do we teach and learn programming?
    67. 67. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it.
    68. 68. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC
    69. 69. Now…
    70. 70. We can take the understandings we have and BUILD THINGS
    71. 71. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC Now… We can take the understandings we have And BUILD THINGS (points often made by Dan Ingalls!)
    72. 72. Teach programming IN CONTEXT Learn powerful ideas learning by creating Powerful mathematics turns into play
    73. 73. INQUIRYBASED LEARNING http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3377/3272923191_d6bdde2255_m.jpg
    74. 74. Learning as Inquiry  Inquiry-based learning is a constructivist approach, in which students have ownership of their learning.  Inquiry and Design based example:  exploration and questioning  investigation into a worthy question, issue, problem or idea.  asking questions, gathering and analyzing information, generating solutions, making decisions, justifying conclusions and taking action www.galileo.org/inquiry-what.html http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3608/3423867025_0 6ec0511fd_m.jpg
    75. 75. Questions
    76. 76. How Knowledge is constructed through the active engagement of a learner within an active community of practice
    77. 77. What does it LOOK like?  Constructed  Active  Reflective  Collaborative  Inquiry based  Evolving
    78. 78. If you can use technology to make things you can make a lot more interesting things. And you can learn a lot more by making them. (Papert, 1999)
    79. 79. “Making the invisible a little more visible.”
    80. 80. Constructivism is the idea that knowledge is something you build in your head. Constructionism reminds us that the best way to do that is to build something tangible—outside of your head—that is personally meaningful. (Papert, 1990)
    81. 81. To understand technology …. there’s no better way to do that then to build things. ….. as a programmer you learn to think about problems both objectively and by taking into account all outcomes. There are only positive outcomes that can come from learning a new skill, and programming is the skill of our future.
    82. 82. Constructionism is not a spectator sport
    83. 83. Expand competencies Challenge youth to participate as PRODUCERS As well as CONSUMERS of technology (Peppler & Kafai 2007)
    84. 84. Topics in Squeak •Cartesian coordinate geometry is employed to move the sprites around the screen, and Squeak could be used to enhance math lessons on the topic. •Basic grammar could be taught using the sprites to represent nouns, and the commands to represent verbs, etc.. •Constructivist lessons in literature might include learners creating animations describing how they believe characters would behave if something different were to occur in a story they are reading. •Simulations could be developed to test hypotheses or demonstrate understanding of scientific principles. (after hands on verification)
    85. 85. Three challenges in participatory competencies that need to be addressed in preparing youth for full digital culture participation (Jenkins et. al. 2006)  Participation  Transparency  Ethics
    86. 86. Teaching and learning Piaget  Papert “dwelling in” and “stepping back” are equally important in getting such a cognitive dance going. How could people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. ….. translate the experience into a …… model gains a life of its own, and description or a model can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialogue gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectedness and understanding. Edith Ackerman
    87. 87. INQUIRY/Learning by Design  Prior knowledge (activate)  Background information  Define outcomes  Model design, provide frameworks  Establish general topic  Student teams, cooperative groups  Establish and communicate framework for inquiry
    88. 88. Number 1 science lesson: The World is not really what it seems. See with new eyes The San Francisco Exploratorium (Oppenheimer-get out of your head) 500 exhibits
    89. 89. Learning Dispositions Ways of learning to learn Strengths and weaknesses Building stronger dispositions
    90. 90. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of “Learning Power” Expert interviews + factor analysis from literature meta-review: identified seven dimensions of effective “learning power”, since validated empirically with learners at many stages, ages and cultures (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004) Being Stuck & Static Changing & Learning Data Accumulation Meaning Making Passivity Critical Curiosity Being Rule Bound Isolation & Dependence Being Robotic Fragility & Dependence Creativity Learning Relationships Strategic Awareness Resilience www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
    91. 91. Learning Power: ELLI ELLI: Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (Ruth Deakin Crick, U. Bristol) A web questionnaire generates a spider diagram summarising the learner’s selfperception: the basis for a mentored discussion and interventions Changing and learning Critical Curiosity Meaning Making Learning relationships Strategic Awareness Creativity Resilience 100 Professional development in schools, colleges and business: ViTaL: http://www.vitalhub.net/vp_research-elli.htm
    92. 92. Gender Issues
    93. 93. One  The question is how we react to this great prejudice against women.  The rule of law and social activism certainly are crucial. But no matter how strong the social structure, there is always that cheek-slapped moment when you are alone with the anti-woman prejudice: the joke, the leer, the disregard, the invisibility, the inescapable fact that the moment you walk through the door you are seen as lesser, no matter what your credentials.
    94. 94.  Women represent 12% of all computer science graduates.  In 1984, they represented 37% of all computer science graduates.  http://www.girlswhocode.com/
    95. 95. Recoding Gender  Recoding Gender Women’s Changing Participation in Computing By Janet Abbate how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today’s concerns over women’s underrepresentation in the field.
    96. 96. http://appinventor.mit.edu/ © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    97. 97. East Palo Alto girls create app to clean up graffiti, trash EPA CHICA SQUAD http://appinventor.mit.edu/explore/stories/east-palo-alto-girls-create-app-clean-graffiti-trash.html
    98. 98. http://girlsinict.org/sites/default/files/resources/docs/exec.sum-e.pdf
    99. 99. How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013 The first requirement for programming is a passion for the work, a deep need to probe the mysterious space between human thoughts and what a machine can understand; between human desires and how machines might satisfy them. The second requirement is a high tolerance for failure. Programming is the art of algorithm design and the craft of debugging errant code. In the words of the great John Backus, inventor of the Fortran programming language: “You need the willingness to fail all the time. You have to generate many ideas and then you have to work very hard only to discover that they don’t work. And you keep doing that over and over until you find one that does work.” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/how-to-be-a-womanprogrammer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
    100. 100.  It wasn't just about solving a problem. It was about experiencing sophisticated patterns that develop in mathematics, using a scheme that children can relate to (shapes). In the "car" example on the computer, the point was that the same phenomenon can be experienced by using "paint" and a little programming, but using concepts of velocity & acceleration, 1st- & 2nd-order diff eq.'s.”
    101. 101. Every part of Etoys Squeak is DECONSTRUCTIBLE Every part can be taken apart Ask questions— do you think this part of the environment could be just like the objects you are manipulating? the halos, the folders—even if you can’t get it back together, doesn’t matter I can take it apart!
    102. 102. Squeak Etoys  direct pedagogical uses of the Squeak environment  community of users that form a support network for the tool  Squeakland showcase (a collective)  Squeak is open-source, all the source code for the projects is available for use to help understand develop one's own programs.  uploaded projects include tutorials explaining how to accomplish various tasks in the programming language.
    103. 103. References  Hagood, M.C., Stevens, L. P. & Reinking, D. (2002) What do THEY Have to Teach US? Talkin’ ‘Cross Generations! In D. E. Alvermann (Ed.) Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.  Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotm, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006) “confronting the challenges of participation culture: Media eduation for the 21st century.” White paper. Chicago, IL: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Peppler, K.A. & Kafai, Y.B. “What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory culture,” in Akira Bab (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association. (DiGRA) (Tokyo, Japan, September 2007) The University of Tokyo, pp. 369-376.  Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. Rules of Play: Game design Fundamentals. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004. MIT  John Hagel III, John Seely Brown: Lang Davison, The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things In Motion, Basic Books 2010.
    104. 104.  Ackerman, E. , “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?”, IDC, 2013, NYC.  Fry, Spencer, Should You Learn to Program?, accessed October 21, 2013, http://blog.teamtreehouse.com/shouldyou-learn-to-program, May 25, 2013.  How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013, accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/howto-be-a-woman-programmer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&.
    105. 105.  Kafai, Y., and Resnick, M., eds. (1996) Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Papert, Seymour. (1990) “A Critique of Technocentrism in Thinking About the School of the Future,” MIT Epistemology and Learning Memo No. 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory.  Papert, Seymour (1981) Mindstorms: Computers, Children and Powerful Ideas. NY: Basic Books.  Papert, Seymour (1993) The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York:Basic Books.
    106. 106.  Stager, Gary. (2001) "Computationally-Rich Constructionism and At-Risk Learners." In Computers in Education 2001: Australian Topics – Selected Papers from the Seventh World Conference on Computers in Education. McDougall, Murnane & Chambers editors. Volume 8. Sydney: Australian Computer Society.  Stager, Gary. (2002) “Papertian Constructionism and At-Risk Learners” In the Proceedings of the 2002 National Educational Computing Conference. Eugene, OR: ISTE
    107. 107. Seymour Papert Tribute at IDC 2013 High resolution video of the entire session: http://vimeo.com/69471812
    108. 108. Contact Information Cathleen Galas cgalas@comcast.net Cathleengalas.com LinkedIn: Cathleen Galas