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Playing to learn,
learning to think
Cathleen Galas
Squeakfest 2013
Rosario, Argentina
October 2013
The way it was
(19th-20th century)
John Dewey
American philosopher, psychologist, educational reformer
1859-1952

The teacher is not in the
school to impose ...
The way it still is?
(20th century education)
The way it could be?
What
is the message?
Should computer science
be part

of formal schooling?
 CS will be part of the EBacc
 http://www.education.gov.uk/get-into-teaching/subjects-agegroups/computer-science
April 3, 2012

Computer Science Transitions
From Elective to Requirement
…..so some colleges are
updating mandatory genera...
Australia
Learnable.com donates $10M of training to
teach Aussie kids to code
Melbourne, Monday 19 August 2013:
Australian...
Former US President
Bill Clinton
At a time when people are saying "I
want a good job - I got out of college
and I couldnt ...
US President Barack Obama
"I think it makes sense, I really
do," was his response to the
idea posed in a live Google+
Hang...
Mark Zuckerberg

There just aren't enough
people who are trained and
have these skills today.
Ashton Kutcher

If we want to spur job growth in the US
we have to educate ourselves in the
disciplines where jobs are ava...
Is this the

WRONG
Message?
Instead…
Bill Gates
Learning to write
programs stretches
your mind, and helps
you think better,
creates a way of
thinking about thi...
The skill of coding is no different from the
skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a

coding illiterate world where ...
Steve Jobs
I think everybody
in this country
should learn how
to program a
computer because
it teaches you how
to think.
Mark Guzdial
Elliot Soloway
Computer Science is more important
than Calculus:

The challenge of living up to our
potential
Calculus vs. Computer Science?
Calculus
 Generally considered part of a
liberal education program

 Study of rates
 Rat...
What revolutions
made us ask this
question?
Who started those
revolutions?
Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century

COMPUTER
TECHNOLOGIES
FOR EDUCATION

CHILD
DEVELOPMENT

ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENC...
Child Development
When you teach a
child something
you take away
forever his chance
of discovering it for
himself.”
-Jean ...
Piaget’s “Child”
A young scientist whose
purpose is to find stasis in an
ever changing world.
Like a Robinson Crusoe:
curi...
Piaget to Papert

Jean Piaget

Constructivism

Seyjmour
Papert

Constructionism
Seymour Papert
by growing up with a few
very powerful theorems one
comes to appreciate how
certain ideas can be used as
to...
Papert’s Child


Diving into
unknown situations
is a crucial part of
learning
Piaget
Stepping
back

Papert
Diving in
Piaget and Papert
“A cognitive dance”
Diving in

reengagement

Stepping back

Detachment
and reflection
Lev Vygotsky
1896-1934, Russian

Social Constructivist Theory
(1) Children construct knowledge
(2) Learning can lead devel...
Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century

COMPUTER
TECHNOLOGIES
FOR EDUCATION

CHILD
DEVELOPMENT

ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENC...
Artificial Intelligence
Perceptrons and
Society of the Mind
Minsky and Papert together
Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century
COMPUTER
TECHNOLOGIES
FOR
EDUCATION

CHILD
DEVELOPMENT

ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE...
Computer Technologies for
Education
Papert
1982

1994
Powerful Papert (contd.)
” …….a property of ideas and a
challenge to the School culture.
On the positive side, the insight...
Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century

COMPUTER
TECHNOLOGIES
FOR EDUCATION

CHILD
DEVELOPMENT

ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENC...
WHO
Is at the center of these three
revolutions?
WHO
Is at the center of these three
revolutions?
Programming
is

applied logic
Programming to Learn

LOGO

Etoys

Squeak

Scratch

BYOB
SNAP
Programming to Learn

LOGO

Etoys
Squeak

Scratch
BYOB
SNAP

"At Learning Labs, we've spent hours and hours discussing
how...
The way it could be?
 Teachers who give …..radically

different theory of knowledge. (p. 63)

 What would happen if chil...
Why Code
 Critical thinking skills

 Learn to break down and solve complex problems
 Programming Jobs
 Programming ubi...
“Programming is debugging. So being
wrong is not so much something to
be avoided at all costs, but should be
seen as a clu...
Hewlett Foundation 2010
 “In one survey after another, business leaders complain that the
majority of U.S. job applicants...
New Culture of Learning:
Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change
by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown...
EDUCATION
TECHNOLOGY
LEARNING TO
EMBRACE CHANGE
Culture of Learning

Teaching Based Approach
Learning Based Approach
“We are preparing students for jobs that do not
exist yet, that will use technologies that have
not been invented yet, in ...
EMBRACE
CHANGE
EMBRACE
CHANGE
CHANGE MOTIVATES AND CHALLENGES
CHANGE FORCES US TO LEARN DIFFERENTLY
How did kids learn about Harry
Potter?
Learning through play and
imagination
 PIAGET- young children learn through play

 Need for play is perceived as less as...
Learning through play and
imagination
 PIAGET- young children learn through play

 Need for play is perceived as less as...
Learning through play and
imagination
 PIAGET- young children learn through play

 Need for play is perceived as less as...
There is a generic set of skills and
dispositions that are characteristic of
good learners. If learners can be
taught a la...
21C Skills
 Critical thinking

 Problem solving
 Communication

 Collaboration
 Creativity
 innovation
Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power

www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power

www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
New ways of learning
 The old ways are UNABLE TO KEEP UP
with the changing world

 New media makes peer – to – peer
lear...
COMMUNITY—You learn in
order to belong

COLLECTIVE– You belong in
order to learn
The collective 
Produces INQUIRY 

Meaningful Learning
How do we
teach and learn
programming?
Mathematics was a study in which
we took order and analyzed it to
understand it.
With the computer revolution…
Mathematics ceased to be only
ANALYTIC
And became SYNTHETIC
Now…
We can take the
understandings we have
and
BUILD THINGS
Mathematics was a study in which we took
order and analyzed it to understand it.

With the computer revolution…
Mathematic...
Teach programming
IN CONTEXT
Learn powerful ideas learning by
creating
Powerful mathematics turns into
play
INQUIRYBASED
LEARNING

http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3377/3272923191_d6bdde2255_m.jpg
Learning as Inquiry
 Inquiry-based learning is
a constructivist approach, in which
students have ownership of their learn...
Questions
How
Knowledge is constructed
through the active
engagement of a learner
within an active community
of practice
What does it LOOK like?
 Constructed

 Active
 Reflective

 Collaborative
 Inquiry based

 Evolving
If you can use technology to
make things you can make a
lot more interesting things.
And you can learn a lot
more by makin...
“Making the invisible a little
more visible.”
Constructivism is the idea that
knowledge is something you build in
your head.
Constructionism reminds us that the
best wa...
To understand technology ….
there’s no better way to do that then to
build things. …..
as a programmer you learn to think ...
Constructionism is not a
spectator sport
Expand competencies
Challenge youth to participate as
PRODUCERS
As well as CONSUMERS of technology
(Peppler & Kafai 2007)
Topics in Squeak
•Cartesian coordinate geometry is employed to move the sprites
around the screen, and Squeak could be use...
Three challenges in participatory competencies
that need to be addressed in preparing youth
for full digital culture parti...
Teaching and learning
Piaget  Papert

“dwelling in” and “stepping back” are equally
important in getting such a cognitive...
INQUIRY/Learning by Design
 Prior knowledge (activate)

 Background information
 Define outcomes
 Model design, provid...
Number 1 science lesson:

The World is not really what it seems.
See with new eyes

The San Francisco Exploratorium
(Oppen...
Learning Dispositions

Ways of learning to learn
Strengths and weaknesses
Building stronger dispositions
Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of “Learning Power”
Expert interviews + factor analysis from literature meta-review: ident...
Learning Power: ELLI
ELLI: Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (Ruth Deakin Crick, U. Bristol)
A web questionnaire gener...
Gender Issues
One
 The question is how we react to this great prejudice against
women.

 The rule of law and social activism certainly...
 Women represent 12% of all computer
science graduates.

 In 1984, they represented 37% of all
computer science graduate...
Recoding Gender


Recoding Gender
Women’s Changing Participation in
Computing
By Janet Abbate

how gender has shaped
the ...
http://appinventor.mit.edu/

© 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
East Palo Alto girls create app to
clean up graffiti, trash

EPA CHICA SQUAD
http://appinventor.mit.edu/explore/stories/ea...
http://girlsinict.org/sites/default/files/resources/docs/exec.sum-e.pdf
How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman
The New York Times, May 18, 2013
The first requirement for programming is a p...
 It wasn't just about solving a problem. It
was about experiencing sophisticated
patterns that develop in mathematics,
us...
Every part of Etoys Squeak is
DECONSTRUCTIBLE

Every part can be taken apart
Ask questions—
do you think this part of the ...
Squeak Etoys
 direct pedagogical uses of the Squeak environment
 community of users that form a support network for the ...
References

 Hagood, M.C., Stevens, L. P. & Reinking, D. (2002) What do THEY Have to Teach
US? Talkin’ ‘Cross Generations...
 Ackerman, E. , “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s
Constructionism: What’s the difference?”, IDC, 2013, NYC.

 Fry, Spen...
 Kafai, Y., and Resnick, M., eds. (1996) Constructionism in Practice:
Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital Worl...
 Stager, Gary. (2001) "Computationally-Rich Constructionism
and At-Risk Learners." In Computers in Education 2001:
Austra...
Seymour Papert Tribute
at IDC 2013

High resolution video of the entire
session: http://vimeo.com/69471812
Contact Information
Cathleen Galas
cgalas@comcast.net
Cathleengalas.com

LinkedIn: Cathleen Galas
Squeakfest2013 oct28 final for ss
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  1. 1. Playing to learn, learning to think Cathleen Galas Squeakfest 2013 Rosario, Argentina October 2013
  2. 2. The way it was (19th-20th century)
  3. 3. John Dewey American philosopher, psychologist, educational reformer 1859-1952 The teacher is not in the school to impose certain ideas ……. Thus the teacher becomes a partner in the learning process, guiding students to independently discover meaning within the subject area. (Dewey, 1897)
  4. 4. The way it still is? (20th century education)
  5. 5. The way it could be?
  6. 6. What is the message?
  7. 7. Should computer science be part of formal schooling?
  8. 8.  CS will be part of the EBacc  http://www.education.gov.uk/get-into-teaching/subjects-agegroups/computer-science
  9. 9. April 3, 2012 Computer Science Transitions From Elective to Requirement …..so some colleges are updating mandatory general education courses. http://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/2012/04/03/computer-science-transitions-from-elective-to-requirement-computer-sciencetransitions-from-elective-to-requirement
  10. 10. Australia Learnable.com donates $10M of training to teach Aussie kids to code Melbourne, Monday 19 August 2013: Australian students are today being given $10 million of technical training free from Learnable.com, a global online learning company founded in Melbourne, which believes that every student should have the opportunity to learn to code.
  11. 11. Former US President Bill Clinton At a time when people are saying "I want a good job - I got out of college and I couldnt find one," every single year in America there is a standing demand for 120,000 people who are training in computer science.
  12. 12. US President Barack Obama "I think it makes sense, I really do," was his response to the idea posed in a live Google+ Hangout earlier today. "I want to make sure that (young people) know how to produce stuff using computers and not just consume stuff.” C/NET, February 14, 2013 http://news.cnet.com/8301-17938_105-575695031/obama-endorses-required-high-school-coding- classes/
  13. 13. Mark Zuckerberg There just aren't enough people who are trained and have these skills today.
  14. 14. Ashton Kutcher If we want to spur job growth in the US we have to educate ourselves in the disciplines where jobs are available and where economic growth is feasible.
  15. 15. Is this the WRONG Message?
  16. 16. Instead…
  17. 17. Bill Gates Learning to write programs stretches your mind, and helps you think better, creates a way of thinking about things that I think is helpful in all domains.
  18. 18. The skill of coding is no different from the skill of reading and writing ….. we live in a coding illiterate world where the skill of programming computers belongs to a priesthood. John Pavley, The Huffington Post http://www.huffingtonpost.com/johnpavley/learning-to-code_b_3337098.html
  19. 19. Steve Jobs I think everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer because it teaches you how to think.
  20. 20. Mark Guzdial Elliot Soloway Computer Science is more important than Calculus: The challenge of living up to our potential
  21. 21. Calculus vs. Computer Science? Calculus  Generally considered part of a liberal education program  Study of rates  Rates are important to many fields Computer Science  Generally considered an “extra” course or skill  Study of process     Specification Execution Compositions limitations  Process is important to EVERYBODY
  22. 22. What revolutions made us ask this question? Who started those revolutions?
  23. 23. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  24. 24. Child Development When you teach a child something you take away forever his chance of discovering it for himself.” -Jean Piaget www.LifeLearningMagazine.com
  25. 25. Piaget’s “Child” A young scientist whose purpose is to find stasis in an ever changing world. Like a Robinson Crusoe: curious, inner-driven, independent, solitary conquest. Edith Ackerman, “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the Difference?”
  26. 26. Piaget to Papert Jean Piaget Constructivism Seyjmour Papert Constructionism
  27. 27. Seymour Papert by growing up with a few very powerful theorems one comes to appreciate how certain ideas can be used as tools to think with over a lifetime. One learns to enjoy and to respect the power of powerful ideas. …the most powerful idea of all is the idea of powerful ideas..
  28. 28. Papert’s Child  Diving into unknown situations is a crucial part of learning
  29. 29. Piaget Stepping back Papert Diving in
  30. 30. Piaget and Papert “A cognitive dance” Diving in reengagement Stepping back Detachment and reflection
  31. 31. Lev Vygotsky 1896-1934, Russian Social Constructivist Theory (1) Children construct knowledge (2) Learning can lead development (3) Development cannot be separated from its social context (4) Language plays a central role in mental development. (ZPD) Zone of Proximal Development
  32. 32. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  33. 33. Artificial Intelligence
  34. 34. Perceptrons and Society of the Mind Minsky and Papert together
  35. 35. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  36. 36. Computer Technologies for Education
  37. 37. Papert 1982 1994
  38. 38. Powerful Papert (contd.) ” …….a property of ideas and a challenge to the School culture. On the positive side, the insight also leads to a new vision of what technology can offer education.
  39. 39. Three Revolutions of the Twentieth Century COMPUTER TECHNOLOGIES FOR EDUCATION CHILD DEVELOPMENT ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI)
  40. 40. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
  41. 41. WHO Is at the center of these three revolutions?
  42. 42. Programming is applied logic
  43. 43. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP
  44. 44. Programming to Learn LOGO Etoys Squeak Scratch BYOB SNAP "At Learning Labs, we've spent hours and hours discussing how we can help students follow their interests and passions, and also help students learn powerful ideas and develop as systematic thinkers.” – Mitchell Resnick
  45. 45. The way it could be?  Teachers who give …..radically different theory of knowledge. (p. 63)  What would happen if children who can't do math grew up in Mathland, a place that is to math what France is to French? (p. 64)  ...they [the children] become producers instead of consumers of educational software. (p. 107)
  46. 46. Why Code  Critical thinking skills  Learn to break down and solve complex problems  Programming Jobs  Programming ubiquitous—basic literacy  Programming is a language like any other (will it become the world’s language?)  The semantic web  Programming is Fun! (PAPERT-”HARD FUN!”)
  47. 47. “Programming is debugging. So being wrong is not so much something to be avoided at all costs, but should be seen as a clue to the right way of doing it. That's why it was actually an environment rather than just an instructional program. “
  48. 48. Hewlett Foundation 2010  “In one survey after another, business leaders complain that the majority of U.S. job applicants are ill-equipped to solve complex problems, work in teams, or communicate effectively.”  “Hewlett envisions a new generation of schools and community colleges…harness the deeper learning skills of critical thinking, problem solving, effective communication, collaboration, and learning to learn to help students develop a strong foundation in traditional academic subjects.”  http://www.hewlett.org/2010-annual-report
  49. 49. New Culture of Learning: Cultivating the Imagination for a World of Constant Change by Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown, 2011  exploring play, innovation, and cultivation of the imagination as cornerstones of learning  create a vision of learning for the future that is achievable, scalable, and grows along with the technology that fosters it and the people who engage with it.
  50. 50. EDUCATION TECHNOLOGY LEARNING TO EMBRACE CHANGE
  51. 51. Culture of Learning Teaching Based Approach Learning Based Approach
  52. 52. “We are preparing students for jobs that do not exist yet, that will use technologies that have not been invented yet, in order to solve problems that are not even problems yet.”  “Shift Happens”  www.shifthappens.wikispaces.com
  53. 53. EMBRACE CHANGE
  54. 54. EMBRACE CHANGE CHANGE MOTIVATES AND CHALLENGES CHANGE FORCES US TO LEARN DIFFERENTLY
  55. 55. How did kids learn about Harry Potter?
  56. 56. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…
  57. 57. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding
  58. 58. Learning through play and imagination  PIAGET- young children learn through play  Need for play is perceived as less as they grow older and world is more stable  HOWEVER…  Today’s world is ever-changing, expanding  PLAY IS A STRATEGY FOR EMBRACING CHANGE, rather than growing out of it.
  59. 59. There is a generic set of skills and dispositions that are characteristic of good learners. If learners can be taught a language for these, they can get better at “learning to learn” across different contexts.
  60. 60. 21C Skills  Critical thinking  Problem solving  Communication  Collaboration  Creativity  innovation
  61. 61. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  62. 62. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of Learning Power www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  63. 63. New ways of learning  The old ways are UNABLE TO KEEP UP with the changing world  New media makes peer – to – peer learning easier and more natural  Peer to peer is amplified: the new media purports a COLLECTIVE nature of participation
  64. 64. COMMUNITY—You learn in order to belong COLLECTIVE– You belong in order to learn
  65. 65. The collective  Produces INQUIRY  Meaningful Learning
  66. 66. How do we teach and learn programming?
  67. 67. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it.
  68. 68. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC
  69. 69. Now…
  70. 70. We can take the understandings we have and BUILD THINGS
  71. 71. Mathematics was a study in which we took order and analyzed it to understand it. With the computer revolution… Mathematics ceased to be only ANALYTIC And became SYNTHETIC Now… We can take the understandings we have And BUILD THINGS (points often made by Dan Ingalls!)
  72. 72. Teach programming IN CONTEXT Learn powerful ideas learning by creating Powerful mathematics turns into play
  73. 73. INQUIRYBASED LEARNING http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3377/3272923191_d6bdde2255_m.jpg
  74. 74. Learning as Inquiry  Inquiry-based learning is a constructivist approach, in which students have ownership of their learning.  Inquiry and Design based example:  exploration and questioning  investigation into a worthy question, issue, problem or idea.  asking questions, gathering and analyzing information, generating solutions, making decisions, justifying conclusions and taking action www.galileo.org/inquiry-what.html http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3608/3423867025_0 6ec0511fd_m.jpg
  75. 75. Questions
  76. 76. How Knowledge is constructed through the active engagement of a learner within an active community of practice
  77. 77. What does it LOOK like?  Constructed  Active  Reflective  Collaborative  Inquiry based  Evolving
  78. 78. If you can use technology to make things you can make a lot more interesting things. And you can learn a lot more by making them. (Papert, 1999)
  79. 79. “Making the invisible a little more visible.”
  80. 80. Constructivism is the idea that knowledge is something you build in your head. Constructionism reminds us that the best way to do that is to build something tangible—outside of your head—that is personally meaningful. (Papert, 1990)
  81. 81. To understand technology …. there’s no better way to do that then to build things. ….. as a programmer you learn to think about problems both objectively and by taking into account all outcomes. There are only positive outcomes that can come from learning a new skill, and programming is the skill of our future.
  82. 82. Constructionism is not a spectator sport
  83. 83. Expand competencies Challenge youth to participate as PRODUCERS As well as CONSUMERS of technology (Peppler & Kafai 2007)
  84. 84. Topics in Squeak •Cartesian coordinate geometry is employed to move the sprites around the screen, and Squeak could be used to enhance math lessons on the topic. •Basic grammar could be taught using the sprites to represent nouns, and the commands to represent verbs, etc.. •Constructivist lessons in literature might include learners creating animations describing how they believe characters would behave if something different were to occur in a story they are reading. •Simulations could be developed to test hypotheses or demonstrate understanding of scientific principles. (after hands on verification)
  85. 85. Three challenges in participatory competencies that need to be addressed in preparing youth for full digital culture participation (Jenkins et. al. 2006)  Participation  Transparency  Ethics
  86. 86. Teaching and learning Piaget  Papert “dwelling in” and “stepping back” are equally important in getting such a cognitive dance going. How could people learn from their experience as long as they are totally immersed in it. ….. translate the experience into a …… model gains a life of its own, and description or a model can be addressed as if it were “not me.” From then on, a new cycle can begin, because as soon as the dialogue gets started (between me and my artifact), the stage is set for new and deeper connectedness and understanding. Edith Ackerman
  87. 87. INQUIRY/Learning by Design  Prior knowledge (activate)  Background information  Define outcomes  Model design, provide frameworks  Establish general topic  Student teams, cooperative groups  Establish and communicate framework for inquiry
  88. 88. Number 1 science lesson: The World is not really what it seems. See with new eyes The San Francisco Exploratorium (Oppenheimer-get out of your head) 500 exhibits
  89. 89. Learning Dispositions Ways of learning to learn Strengths and weaknesses Building stronger dispositions
  90. 90. Learning to Learn: 7 Dimensions of “Learning Power” Expert interviews + factor analysis from literature meta-review: identified seven dimensions of effective “learning power”, since validated empirically with learners at many stages, ages and cultures (Deakin Crick, Broadfoot and Claxton, 2004) Being Stuck & Static Changing & Learning Data Accumulation Meaning Making Passivity Critical Curiosity Being Rule Bound Isolation & Dependence Being Robotic Fragility & Dependence Creativity Learning Relationships Strategic Awareness Resilience www.vitalhub.net/index.php?id=8
  91. 91. Learning Power: ELLI ELLI: Effective Lifelong Learning Inventory (Ruth Deakin Crick, U. Bristol) A web questionnaire generates a spider diagram summarising the learner’s selfperception: the basis for a mentored discussion and interventions Changing and learning Critical Curiosity Meaning Making Learning relationships Strategic Awareness Creativity Resilience 100 Professional development in schools, colleges and business: ViTaL: http://www.vitalhub.net/vp_research-elli.htm
  92. 92. Gender Issues
  93. 93. One  The question is how we react to this great prejudice against women.  The rule of law and social activism certainly are crucial. But no matter how strong the social structure, there is always that cheek-slapped moment when you are alone with the anti-woman prejudice: the joke, the leer, the disregard, the invisibility, the inescapable fact that the moment you walk through the door you are seen as lesser, no matter what your credentials.
  94. 94.  Women represent 12% of all computer science graduates.  In 1984, they represented 37% of all computer science graduates.  http://www.girlswhocode.com/
  95. 95. Recoding Gender  Recoding Gender Women’s Changing Participation in Computing By Janet Abbate how gender has shaped the culture of computing, she offers a valuable historical perspective on today’s concerns over women’s underrepresentation in the field.
  96. 96. http://appinventor.mit.edu/ © 2012 Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  97. 97. East Palo Alto girls create app to clean up graffiti, trash EPA CHICA SQUAD http://appinventor.mit.edu/explore/stories/east-palo-alto-girls-create-app-clean-graffiti-trash.html
  98. 98. http://girlsinict.org/sites/default/files/resources/docs/exec.sum-e.pdf
  99. 99. How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013 The first requirement for programming is a passion for the work, a deep need to probe the mysterious space between human thoughts and what a machine can understand; between human desires and how machines might satisfy them. The second requirement is a high tolerance for failure. Programming is the art of algorithm design and the craft of debugging errant code. In the words of the great John Backus, inventor of the Fortran programming language: “You need the willingness to fail all the time. You have to generate many ideas and then you have to work very hard only to discover that they don’t work. And you keep doing that over and over until you find one that does work.” http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/how-to-be-a-womanprogrammer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&
  100. 100.  It wasn't just about solving a problem. It was about experiencing sophisticated patterns that develop in mathematics, using a scheme that children can relate to (shapes). In the "car" example on the computer, the point was that the same phenomenon can be experienced by using "paint" and a little programming, but using concepts of velocity & acceleration, 1st- & 2nd-order diff eq.'s.”
  101. 101. Every part of Etoys Squeak is DECONSTRUCTIBLE Every part can be taken apart Ask questions— do you think this part of the environment could be just like the objects you are manipulating? the halos, the folders—even if you can’t get it back together, doesn’t matter I can take it apart!
  102. 102. Squeak Etoys  direct pedagogical uses of the Squeak environment  community of users that form a support network for the tool  Squeakland showcase (a collective)  Squeak is open-source, all the source code for the projects is available for use to help understand develop one's own programs.  uploaded projects include tutorials explaining how to accomplish various tasks in the programming language.
  103. 103. References  Hagood, M.C., Stevens, L. P. & Reinking, D. (2002) What do THEY Have to Teach US? Talkin’ ‘Cross Generations! In D. E. Alvermann (Ed.) Adolescents and Literacies in a Digital World. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.  Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotm, R., Robison, A., & Weigel, M. (2006) “confronting the challenges of participation culture: Media eduation for the 21st century.” White paper. Chicago, IL: The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation.  Peppler, K.A. & Kafai, Y.B. “What video game making can teach us about learning and literacy: Alternative pathways into participatory culture,” in Akira Bab (Ed.), Situated Play: Proceedings of the Third International Conference of the Digital Games Research Association. (DiGRA) (Tokyo, Japan, September 2007) The University of Tokyo, pp. 369-376.  Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. Rules of Play: Game design Fundamentals. The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2004. MIT  John Hagel III, John Seely Brown: Lang Davison, The Power of Pull: How Small Moves, Smartly Made, Can Set Big Things In Motion, Basic Books 2010.
  104. 104.  Ackerman, E. , “Piaget’s Constructivism, Papert’s Constructionism: What’s the difference?”, IDC, 2013, NYC.  Fry, Spencer, Should You Learn to Program?, accessed October 21, 2013, http://blog.teamtreehouse.com/shouldyou-learn-to-program, May 25, 2013.  How to be a woman programmer by Ellen Ullman The New York Times, May 18, 2013, accessed October 21, 2013, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/19/opinion/sunday/howto-be-a-woman-programmer.html?pagewanted=all&_r=1&.
  105. 105.  Kafai, Y., and Resnick, M., eds. (1996) Constructionism in Practice: Designing, Thinking, and Learning in a Digital World. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.  Papert, Seymour. (1990) “A Critique of Technocentrism in Thinking About the School of the Future,” MIT Epistemology and Learning Memo No. 2. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Laboratory.  Papert, Seymour (1981) Mindstorms: Computers, Children and Powerful Ideas. NY: Basic Books.  Papert, Seymour (1993) The Children's Machine: Rethinking School in the Age of the Computer. New York:Basic Books.
  106. 106.  Stager, Gary. (2001) "Computationally-Rich Constructionism and At-Risk Learners." In Computers in Education 2001: Australian Topics – Selected Papers from the Seventh World Conference on Computers in Education. McDougall, Murnane & Chambers editors. Volume 8. Sydney: Australian Computer Society.  Stager, Gary. (2002) “Papertian Constructionism and At-Risk Learners” In the Proceedings of the 2002 National Educational Computing Conference. Eugene, OR: ISTE
  107. 107. Seymour Papert Tribute at IDC 2013 High resolution video of the entire session: http://vimeo.com/69471812
  108. 108. Contact Information Cathleen Galas cgalas@comcast.net Cathleengalas.com LinkedIn: Cathleen Galas

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