Providing a cultural context for cr, cp.p1


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Providing a cultural context for cr, cp.p1

  2. 2. Traditional Family Units External family Extended Family Community
  3. 3. Traditional Support systems for child protection Nucleus family External family - Immediate social networks and support links Community Extended Family - Social rights - Recognised kinship rights - Clan/ Kinship positions Traditional Maxim: - Children are born by parents, -They are owned by the family -But, belongs to the community - Access to family assets - Social networks and support links -
  4. 4. External Family - Maternal/Paternal Grandparents - Siblings of parents and their children Extended Family - Relations of both grandparents that link the extended and immediate families the child belongs to Child Community - Traditional leaders - Institutional bodies - FBOs/CBOs and private Immediate Family -Parents -Siblings - Other care givers
  5. 5. Rippling Effects of cross cultural exposures and globlisation Urbanisation / Rural deprivation Population explosion and impact on available resourceslands, etc Monetary-based economy and demand on domestic income sources Associated challenges that negatively impact on children Family migration to urban centers / impact of movement due to economic pressures
  6. 6. Effect 1: Fragmentation Nucleus Movement of families to urban areas has led to:  Fragmentation in kinship relations  Changes in family values due to exposure to other cultures/ practices  Dysfunctions in family committed support system as these are now limited to funerals, traditional marriage rites, etc  More promotion of nucleus family systems instead of of a communal social network support. Family Extended Family External Family Community
  7. 7. Effects #1 - Providing a regional context Children in countries within the West African Region from UNICEF and other reports, are experiencing various crises that have placed much stress and trauma on them: - political and ethnic conflicts, - rise in poverty status, - countries experiencing the highest form of voluntary child migration as children move to the cities to seek for non-existing jobs as means of survival  Children living with parents, guardians or other caregivers migrating to live on the street leading to streetism  Child trafficking leading to child prostitution and child pornography,  Increase in children’s crime and coming in contact with the law  Children in armed conflicts due to wars and intrachieftaincy tensions and conflicts. 
  8. 8. Effects #2- Impact on Children   Age registered children from six (6) years including those 10-17 years do not have any committed adult supervision as most were born by teenage mothers without any parenting skills and so fall within the most vulnerable children’s net. An estimated 49.9% of children below 15 years living with both parents in extreme or moderate poverty, whilst the 50.1% live with foster and single parents under condition that gives a high vulnerability risk signal Source: Ghana National Commission on Children; Save the Children: Ghana’s Children - A Country Report, 1997:7
  9. 9.  Effects #3 - Child Vulnerability 1. Children become easy prey for abusers and violators 2. Open to risk but ignorant of impact on their future and well-being – health, education, etc 3. Have little or no knowledge of rights, abuse and protection needs 4. No socio-cultural support systems for exercising rights and demand for protection 5. Lack of institutional supervision and support systems and structures and existing ones not functioning well.
  10. 10. Effect 4# - Results of Children Vulnerability? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Break down in law and order Specific risks in life-cycle occurs – voluntary and involuntary child labour, high school dropout, early marriages or pregnancies, etc. Children assuming adult tasks such as care for siblings by engaging in income generating activities Created inter-generational poverty trap cycles HIV & AIDS prevalence Children vulnerable due to breakdown in support systems – kinship and community care as well as intra/inter family social networks (external/extended)
  11. 11. Ghana as a case study    57% of Ghanaian children aged 5-14 years are involved in some form of child labour – selling on the streets, etc On the average, 25% girls are forced into some domestic servitude or early marriage annually; An estimated total of 1,273,294 that form 20% of Ghanaian children, are engaged in moderate or worse forms of child labour and other economic activities – - mining, fishing, street hawking, stone quarrying, sand winning, working in shallow or deep sea fishing, - working as shepherds and engaged in farming or processing agricultural products, including hunting, petty trading, etc.
  12. 12. Children in Ghana It is estimated that 42% of Ghana’s population are under 15years  Out of this 22% are out of school Major Problems facing children - Streetism due to voluntary migration of children of varied ages from rural to urban areas; - Adult trafficking of children; - Increase in child prostitution; - Child labourers/workers in mines, fishing, petty trading and agriculture production and processing, etc instead of being in school; - Parental irresponsibility and neglect causing children to engage in economic activities for survival or use money gained to meet needs they have. 
  13. 13. What must be done?     Link up and network to stop child abuse by not just talking about the issues. Build a strong synergy regionally and set targets to be achieved in addressing factors that drive child vulnerability and influence them to make choices that later affect their own future – dropping out of school to earn a living because that is more attractive or running away with friends to seek for adventure instead of focusing in education and setting career targets. Revisiting indigenous approaches to child protection by strengthening the family systems and restoring kinship cohesion. Learn from Western mistakes in methods and approaches to interpreting what constitutes child rights and protection by building their good practices without compromising internal morals and values.
  14. 14. Protecting Children? It is everybody’s business – children, parents, family links/community, state and para-state institutions, government and the international community. BE THAT CANDLE OF HOPE FOR A CHILD. THANK YOU