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The American Revolutionary
     War (1775-1783)




               By Meghan O’Farrell
The founding of the thirteen colonies began with
Virginia (1607) and ended with Georgia (1733).
“Taxation without Representation”
During the French and Indian War
   (1754-1763), Great Britain fought
   against the French to protect its
   American colonies. Americans
   prospered during this period while
   Great Britain suffered severe
   financial loss and high taxes. To
   compensate, the British King and
   Parliament imposed incredibly
   high taxes on the colonists while
   refusing to permit their
   representation in the government
   of Great Britain.

“Tarring and Feathering” (alquitrán) of
   British collectors was common.
License Plate in Washington, DC
The Boston Tea Party
The Intolerable Acts
                   (consequences of the Boston tea party)


•   The Boston Port Act: The first of these closed the port of Boston until the East India
    Company was paid for the lost tea. This created a great hardship for the people of
    Boston whose livelihood depended on trade.
•   Massachusetts Government Act: The second modified the Massachusetts
    government, taking away many of its rights. It was aimed at punishing Boston. Almost
    all positions in the colonial government were to be appointment by the governor or
    directly by the King. Activities of town meetings were limited.

•   Administration of Justice Act: The third measure provided that British officials
    accused of committing crimes in a colony be taken to England for trial. Because it
    would mean witnesses would be forced to travel, the practical effect was thought to
    be that the British officials would escape justice.
•   The Quartering Act: The fourth measure allowed the British to house British soldiers
    in colonial buildings at the expense of the colonists, including colonists' homes, if
    there were insufficient space in other buildings.
•   The Quebec Act: The fifth act extended the boundaries of the province of Quebec.
    Because Quebec did not have representative assemblies, many colonists thought this
    transfer of land from the colonies to unrepresented Quebec was another attempt to
    punish the colonies and solidify British control.
“Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of
                 Happiness”
The American Revolution was fueled by
   the reaction of these laws and a
   series of social, political and
   intellectual transformations in the
   colonies in opposition to the
   aristocracies and oligarchies
   common in Europe.
   Of course, the Enlightened ideas
   were a great influence
The American colonies instead fought for
   a democratically-elected
   representative government. The
   Declaration of Independence was
   ratified in July 1776 which proclaimed
   that the colonies were the independent
   United States of America and no
   longer part of the British Empire.
The Founding Fathers presenting the Declaration
     of Independence to Congress in 1776
Thomas Jefferson
        • “We hold these truths
          to be self-evident, that
          all men are created
          equal, that they are
          endowed by their
          Creator with certain
          unalienable Rights,
          that among these are
          Life, Liberty and the
          pursuit of Happiness.”
George Washington
  General of the Continental
  Army and America’s first,
  and arguably greatest,
  president. He is considered
  to be the single most
  important figure in American
  History.

“Perseverance and spirit have
  done wonders in all ages”
“The reflection upon my situation and that of this
  army produces an uneasy hour when all around
 me are wrapped in sleep. Few people know the
              predicament we are in.”
 -January 14th, 1776 General George Washington

 Because of the horrific winters, many roads were impassable which caused
  near starvation for the Continental Army. Washington’s men were also ill,
unruly, untrained and lacked discipline, food and equipment that was essential
                           for a successful military.
The British Army was the most powerful in the
    world, so how did they lose to the colonists?
Americans learned guerilla fighting     The British also wore bright red
   tactics from the Native Americans.       uniforms responsible for the
    They hid behind trees and in the        nickname “the Red Coats” which
   countryside, attacked the British        caused them to be excellent
   then retreated back to the               targets for American bullets.
   countryside.                         British soldiers also fought according
Americans wore ordinary clothing            to old war-fare traditions- straight
   which made it difficult to               lines, announcing attacks before
   distinguish between soldiers and         arrival, etc.
   common citizens.
The British were unfamiliar with the
   land and the wilderness and the
   Americans had “home field”
   advantage.
The French and Spanish soon
   provided incredible help to the
   colonists.
General Washington crossing the Delaware
     River on Christmas Day, 1776
How Spain helped the American
          colonies
After the French and Indian War, both the French and
the Spanish sought revenge on the British. In 1779,
Spain declared war on Great Britain due to their alliance
with France and, therefore, forced the British into
another military struggle on a second front and created a
large strain on the British military. The Spanish wanted
to reclaim Gibraltar and secure its borders in North
America. The Spanish also provided weapons,
ammunition and money to the colonists but were hesitant
to acknowledge the colonies as independent, thus
encouraging other similar colonial secessions.
Surrender at Yorktown, Virginia
                 It was in October 19th, 1781,
                 although the independence was
                 recognized later in the Treaty of
                 Paris (1783)
Disease in the Colonies
Malaria was endemic in the marshlands of
eastern Virginia during the time, and
Cornwallis's army suffered greatly from the
disease; he estimated during the surrender that
half of his army was unable to fight as a result.
The Continental Army enjoyed an advantage, in
that most of their members had grown up with
malaria, and had acquired resistance to the
disease. As malaria has a month-long incubation
period, most of the French soldiers had not
begun to exhibit symptoms before the surrender.
George Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the
Continental Army. The action was significant for establishing civilian authority
      over the military, a fundamental principle of American democracy
George Washington in London
              In 1921, the “Commonwealth of
                 Virginia” gave a statue of
                 George Washington as a gift to
                 Great Britain. It can be found
                 in London.
              George Washington famously
                 proclaimed “I will never set foot
                 in London again!” so dirt was
                 brought from Virginia to
                 surround the statue to ensure
                 Washington’s wishes were
                 carried out.

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The American revolutionary war (1775 1783)

  • 1. The American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) By Meghan O’Farrell
  • 2. The founding of the thirteen colonies began with Virginia (1607) and ended with Georgia (1733).
  • 3. “Taxation without Representation” During the French and Indian War (1754-1763), Great Britain fought against the French to protect its American colonies. Americans prospered during this period while Great Britain suffered severe financial loss and high taxes. To compensate, the British King and Parliament imposed incredibly high taxes on the colonists while refusing to permit their representation in the government of Great Britain. “Tarring and Feathering” (alquitrán) of British collectors was common.
  • 4. License Plate in Washington, DC
  • 6. The Intolerable Acts (consequences of the Boston tea party) • The Boston Port Act: The first of these closed the port of Boston until the East India Company was paid for the lost tea. This created a great hardship for the people of Boston whose livelihood depended on trade. • Massachusetts Government Act: The second modified the Massachusetts government, taking away many of its rights. It was aimed at punishing Boston. Almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointment by the governor or directly by the King. Activities of town meetings were limited. • Administration of Justice Act: The third measure provided that British officials accused of committing crimes in a colony be taken to England for trial. Because it would mean witnesses would be forced to travel, the practical effect was thought to be that the British officials would escape justice. • The Quartering Act: The fourth measure allowed the British to house British soldiers in colonial buildings at the expense of the colonists, including colonists' homes, if there were insufficient space in other buildings. • The Quebec Act: The fifth act extended the boundaries of the province of Quebec. Because Quebec did not have representative assemblies, many colonists thought this transfer of land from the colonies to unrepresented Quebec was another attempt to punish the colonies and solidify British control.
  • 7. “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” The American Revolution was fueled by the reaction of these laws and a series of social, political and intellectual transformations in the colonies in opposition to the aristocracies and oligarchies common in Europe. Of course, the Enlightened ideas were a great influence The American colonies instead fought for a democratically-elected representative government. The Declaration of Independence was ratified in July 1776 which proclaimed that the colonies were the independent United States of America and no longer part of the British Empire.
  • 8. The Founding Fathers presenting the Declaration of Independence to Congress in 1776
  • 9. Thomas Jefferson • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
  • 10. George Washington General of the Continental Army and America’s first, and arguably greatest, president. He is considered to be the single most important figure in American History. “Perseverance and spirit have done wonders in all ages”
  • 11. “The reflection upon my situation and that of this army produces an uneasy hour when all around me are wrapped in sleep. Few people know the predicament we are in.” -January 14th, 1776 General George Washington Because of the horrific winters, many roads were impassable which caused near starvation for the Continental Army. Washington’s men were also ill, unruly, untrained and lacked discipline, food and equipment that was essential for a successful military.
  • 12. The British Army was the most powerful in the world, so how did they lose to the colonists? Americans learned guerilla fighting The British also wore bright red tactics from the Native Americans. uniforms responsible for the They hid behind trees and in the nickname “the Red Coats” which countryside, attacked the British caused them to be excellent then retreated back to the targets for American bullets. countryside. British soldiers also fought according Americans wore ordinary clothing to old war-fare traditions- straight which made it difficult to lines, announcing attacks before distinguish between soldiers and arrival, etc. common citizens. The British were unfamiliar with the land and the wilderness and the Americans had “home field” advantage. The French and Spanish soon provided incredible help to the colonists.
  • 13. General Washington crossing the Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1776
  • 14. How Spain helped the American colonies After the French and Indian War, both the French and the Spanish sought revenge on the British. In 1779, Spain declared war on Great Britain due to their alliance with France and, therefore, forced the British into another military struggle on a second front and created a large strain on the British military. The Spanish wanted to reclaim Gibraltar and secure its borders in North America. The Spanish also provided weapons, ammunition and money to the colonists but were hesitant to acknowledge the colonies as independent, thus encouraging other similar colonial secessions.
  • 15. Surrender at Yorktown, Virginia It was in October 19th, 1781, although the independence was recognized later in the Treaty of Paris (1783)
  • 16. Disease in the Colonies Malaria was endemic in the marshlands of eastern Virginia during the time, and Cornwallis's army suffered greatly from the disease; he estimated during the surrender that half of his army was unable to fight as a result. The Continental Army enjoyed an advantage, in that most of their members had grown up with malaria, and had acquired resistance to the disease. As malaria has a month-long incubation period, most of the French soldiers had not begun to exhibit symptoms before the surrender.
  • 17. George Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. The action was significant for establishing civilian authority over the military, a fundamental principle of American democracy
  • 18. George Washington in London In 1921, the “Commonwealth of Virginia” gave a statue of George Washington as a gift to Great Britain. It can be found in London. George Washington famously proclaimed “I will never set foot in London again!” so dirt was brought from Virginia to surround the statue to ensure Washington’s wishes were carried out.