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The American Revolutionary
War (1775-1783)
By Meghan O’Farrel
Adapted by Reina López
The founding of the thirteen colonies began with
Virginia (1607) and ended with Georgia (1733).*
“Taxation without Representation”*
During the French and Indian War
(1754-1763), Great Britain fought
against the French to protect its
American colonies. Americans
prospered during this period while
Great Britain suffered severe
financial loss and high taxes. To
compensate, the British King and
Parliament imposed incredibly
high taxes on the colonists
while refusing to permit their
representation in the
government of Great Britain.
“Tarring and Feathering” (alquitrán) of
British collectors was common.
License Plate in Washington, DC
The Boston Tea Party*
It was a reaction to
the increase of the
taxes
The Intolerable Acts
(The British government enacted different acts in order to
control and punish the colonies because of their reactions)*
• The Boston Port Act: The first of these closed the port of Boston until the East India
Company was paid for the lost tea. This created a great hardship for the people of
Boston whose livelihood depended on trade.
• Massachusetts Government Act: The second modified the Massachusetts
government, taking away many of its rights. It was aimed at punishing Boston. Almost
all positions in the colonial government were to be appointment by the governor or
directly by the King. Activities of town meetings were limited.
• Administration of Justice Act: The third measure provided that British officials
accused of committing crimes in a colony be taken to England for trial. Because it
would mean witnesses would be forced to travel, the practical effect was thought to
be that the British officials would escape justice.
• The Quartering Act: The fourth measure allowed the British to house British soldiers
in colonial buildings at the expense of the colonists, including colonists' homes, if
there were insufficient space in other buildings.
• The Quebec Act: The fifth act extended the boundaries of the province of Quebec.
Because Quebec did not have representative assemblies, many colonists thought this
transfer of land from the colonies to unrepresented Quebec was another attempt to
punish the colonies and solidify British control.
The Intolerable Acts, continued *
• The Intolerable Acts mainly had to do with
(tienen que ver con) restricting self-government
• In response, the colonies elected their
own representatives to what were called
Provincial Congresses
• These representatives then met at the
Continental Congress in Philadelphia,
which served as a national government
The War Begins*
• In 1775 all royal officials had been expelled.
• In response, Britain sent over troops in order to
restore their rule over the colonies, officially
starting the American Revolutionary War
• The Continental Congress served as the
national government throughout the war.
• In July 1776 Congress renounces the rule of
King George III, and declares their
independence as a new nation-the United States
of America
The Founding Fathers presenting the Declaration
of Independence to Congress in 1776
“Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of
Happiness”
• “We hold these truths to be
self-evident, that all men are
created equal, that they are
endowed by their Creator with
certain unalienable Rights, that
among these are Life, Liberty
and the pursuit of Happiness.”-
Thomas Jefferson
• Americans believed it was their
basic right to be governed by a
fair government who would
protect their right to life, liberty
and the pursuit of happiness”
George Washington
General of the Continental
Army and America’s first,
and arguably greatest,
president. He is considered
to be the single most
important figure in American
History.
“Perseverance and spirit have
done wonders in all ages”
“The reflection upon my situation and that of this
army produces an uneasy hour when all around
me are wrapped in sleep. Few people know the
predicament we are in.”
-January 14th
, 1776 General George Washington
Because of the horrific winters, many roads were impassable which caused
near starvation for the Continental Army. Washington’s men were also ill,
unruly, untrained and lacked discipline, food and equipment that was essential
for a successful military.
The British Army was the most powerful in the
world, so how did they lose to the colonists?
Americans learned guerilla fighting
tactics from the Native Americans.
They hid behind trees and in the
countryside, attacked the British
then retreated back to the
countryside.
Americans wore ordinary clothing
which made it difficult to
distinguish between soldiers and
common citizens.
The British were unfamiliar with the
land and the wilderness and the
Americans had “home field”
advantage.
The French and Spanish soon
provided incredible help to the
colonists.
The British also wore bright red
uniforms responsible for the
nickname “the Red Coats” which
caused them to be excellent
targets for American bullets.
British soldiers also fought according
to old war-fare traditions- straight
lines, announcing attacks before
arrival, etc.
General Washington crossing the Delaware
River on Christmas Day, 1776
How Spain helped the American
colonies
After the French and Indian War, both the French and
the Spanish sought revenge on the British. In 1779,
Spain declared war on Great Britain due to their alliance
with France and, therefore, forced the British into
another military struggle on a second front and created a
large strain on the British military. The Spanish wanted
to reclaim Gibraltar and secure its borders in North
America. The Spanish also provided weapons,
ammunition and money to the colonists but were hesitant
to acknowledge the colonies as independent, thus
encouraging other similar colonial secessions.
Surrender at Yorktown, Virginia
Disease in the Colonies
Malaria was endemic in the marshlands of
eastern Virginia during the time, and
Cornwallis's army suffered greatly from the
disease; he estimated during the surrender that
half of his army was unable to fight as a result.
The Continental Army enjoyed an advantage, in
that most of their members had grown up with
malaria, and had acquired resistance to the
disease. As malaria has a month-long incubation
period, most of the French soldiers had not
begun to exhibit symptoms before the surrender.
George Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the
Continental Army. The action was significant for establishing civilian authority
over the military, a fundamental principle of American democracy
U.S. Constitution and the
Influence of the Enlightenment*
The United States was having trouble as a
new nation in the world of 1787, and
so it was decided that a more
organized central government with a
constitution was necessary.
The constitution was adopted on
September 17, 1787.
It was heavily influenced by Enlightenment
philosophers Thomas Hobbes, John
Locke, Montesquieu and Edward
Cooke:
• Separation of powers:John Locke,
Montesquieu
• Separate and Sovereign:Thomas
Hobbes and Rousseau
• Civil Liberties: Edward Cooke
George Washington in London
In 1921, the “Commonwealth of
Virginia” gave a statue of
George Washington as a gift to
Great Britain. It can be found
in London.
George Washington famously
proclaimed “I will never set foot
in London again!” so dirt was
brought from Virginia to
surround the statue to ensure
Washington’s wishes were
carried out.

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The American revolutionary war (1775 1783) (II)

  • 1. The American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) By Meghan O’Farrel Adapted by Reina López
  • 2. The founding of the thirteen colonies began with Virginia (1607) and ended with Georgia (1733).*
  • 3. “Taxation without Representation”* During the French and Indian War (1754-1763), Great Britain fought against the French to protect its American colonies. Americans prospered during this period while Great Britain suffered severe financial loss and high taxes. To compensate, the British King and Parliament imposed incredibly high taxes on the colonists while refusing to permit their representation in the government of Great Britain. “Tarring and Feathering” (alquitrán) of British collectors was common.
  • 4. License Plate in Washington, DC
  • 5. The Boston Tea Party* It was a reaction to the increase of the taxes
  • 6. The Intolerable Acts (The British government enacted different acts in order to control and punish the colonies because of their reactions)* • The Boston Port Act: The first of these closed the port of Boston until the East India Company was paid for the lost tea. This created a great hardship for the people of Boston whose livelihood depended on trade. • Massachusetts Government Act: The second modified the Massachusetts government, taking away many of its rights. It was aimed at punishing Boston. Almost all positions in the colonial government were to be appointment by the governor or directly by the King. Activities of town meetings were limited. • Administration of Justice Act: The third measure provided that British officials accused of committing crimes in a colony be taken to England for trial. Because it would mean witnesses would be forced to travel, the practical effect was thought to be that the British officials would escape justice. • The Quartering Act: The fourth measure allowed the British to house British soldiers in colonial buildings at the expense of the colonists, including colonists' homes, if there were insufficient space in other buildings. • The Quebec Act: The fifth act extended the boundaries of the province of Quebec. Because Quebec did not have representative assemblies, many colonists thought this transfer of land from the colonies to unrepresented Quebec was another attempt to punish the colonies and solidify British control.
  • 7. The Intolerable Acts, continued * • The Intolerable Acts mainly had to do with (tienen que ver con) restricting self-government • In response, the colonies elected their own representatives to what were called Provincial Congresses • These representatives then met at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, which served as a national government
  • 8. The War Begins* • In 1775 all royal officials had been expelled. • In response, Britain sent over troops in order to restore their rule over the colonies, officially starting the American Revolutionary War • The Continental Congress served as the national government throughout the war. • In July 1776 Congress renounces the rule of King George III, and declares their independence as a new nation-the United States of America
  • 9. The Founding Fathers presenting the Declaration of Independence to Congress in 1776
  • 10. “Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness” • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”- Thomas Jefferson • Americans believed it was their basic right to be governed by a fair government who would protect their right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”
  • 11. George Washington General of the Continental Army and America’s first, and arguably greatest, president. He is considered to be the single most important figure in American History. “Perseverance and spirit have done wonders in all ages”
  • 12. “The reflection upon my situation and that of this army produces an uneasy hour when all around me are wrapped in sleep. Few people know the predicament we are in.” -January 14th , 1776 General George Washington Because of the horrific winters, many roads were impassable which caused near starvation for the Continental Army. Washington’s men were also ill, unruly, untrained and lacked discipline, food and equipment that was essential for a successful military.
  • 13. The British Army was the most powerful in the world, so how did they lose to the colonists? Americans learned guerilla fighting tactics from the Native Americans. They hid behind trees and in the countryside, attacked the British then retreated back to the countryside. Americans wore ordinary clothing which made it difficult to distinguish between soldiers and common citizens. The British were unfamiliar with the land and the wilderness and the Americans had “home field” advantage. The French and Spanish soon provided incredible help to the colonists. The British also wore bright red uniforms responsible for the nickname “the Red Coats” which caused them to be excellent targets for American bullets. British soldiers also fought according to old war-fare traditions- straight lines, announcing attacks before arrival, etc.
  • 14. General Washington crossing the Delaware River on Christmas Day, 1776
  • 15. How Spain helped the American colonies After the French and Indian War, both the French and the Spanish sought revenge on the British. In 1779, Spain declared war on Great Britain due to their alliance with France and, therefore, forced the British into another military struggle on a second front and created a large strain on the British military. The Spanish wanted to reclaim Gibraltar and secure its borders in North America. The Spanish also provided weapons, ammunition and money to the colonists but were hesitant to acknowledge the colonies as independent, thus encouraging other similar colonial secessions.
  • 17. Disease in the Colonies Malaria was endemic in the marshlands of eastern Virginia during the time, and Cornwallis's army suffered greatly from the disease; he estimated during the surrender that half of his army was unable to fight as a result. The Continental Army enjoyed an advantage, in that most of their members had grown up with malaria, and had acquired resistance to the disease. As malaria has a month-long incubation period, most of the French soldiers had not begun to exhibit symptoms before the surrender.
  • 18. George Washington resigned his commission as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. The action was significant for establishing civilian authority over the military, a fundamental principle of American democracy
  • 19. U.S. Constitution and the Influence of the Enlightenment* The United States was having trouble as a new nation in the world of 1787, and so it was decided that a more organized central government with a constitution was necessary. The constitution was adopted on September 17, 1787. It was heavily influenced by Enlightenment philosophers Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Montesquieu and Edward Cooke: • Separation of powers:John Locke, Montesquieu • Separate and Sovereign:Thomas Hobbes and Rousseau • Civil Liberties: Edward Cooke
  • 20. George Washington in London In 1921, the “Commonwealth of Virginia” gave a statue of George Washington as a gift to Great Britain. It can be found in London. George Washington famously proclaimed “I will never set foot in London again!” so dirt was brought from Virginia to surround the statue to ensure Washington’s wishes were carried out.