Carrera beyond sdi

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  • Christopher Hood
  • Carrera beyond sdi

    1. 1. City Knowledge A Web-services Approach for the Emergence of Sustainable Municipal Spatial Infrastructures MIT/WPI Fabio Carrera Muenster, September 20, 2006 for the Beyond SDI Workshop @ GIScience
    2. 2. <ul><li>Born in Venice, Italy </li></ul><ul><li>BSEE and MSCS @ WPI </li></ul><ul><li>PhD @ MIT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Information Systems and Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teaching @ WPI and MIT </li></ul><ul><li>Director of Venice and Boston Project Centers </li></ul><ul><li>Founder and Director of City Lab (WPI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LOUIS (Local Online Urban Information System) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning Board in Spencer, MA </li></ul><ul><li>Consultant to municipalities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forma Urbis sas and City Knowledge LLC </li></ul></ul>Biographical Sketch Fabio Carrera
    3. 3. <ul><li>SDIs in 2016 (MSDIs) </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    4. 4. <ul><li>SDIs in 2016 (MSDIs) </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    5. 5. <ul><li>Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructures emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Towns have “ plan-ready ” information </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities stop hunting-and-gathering </li></ul><ul><li>Information is instead farmed </li></ul><ul><li>Change is captured at the source (for free) </li></ul><ul><li>Open-source web-GIS dominate </li></ul><ul><li>New business models emerge </li></ul><ul><li>Web services are the currency </li></ul><ul><li>Profits come from “ changers ” and “ users ” </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector contributes fine-grained data </li></ul>SDIs in 2016 A positive local scenario
    6. 6. <ul><li>SDI ’ s in 2016 </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    7. 7. Promotes the transformation of municipalities from hunter-gatherers of urban data to farmers of municipal information City Knowledge
    8. 8. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 6 tools for implementation and data collection </li></ul>The Premises of CK
    9. 9. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Like politics, “ all change is local ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most change is filtered by municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City departments implement information strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>City knowledge is accumulated at a fine grain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documentation becomes Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intra- and Inter-departmental sharing is commonplace </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional patterns (SDI) emerge upon municipal foundations </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>“ The Fundamental problem is to decide what the form of a human settlement consists of […] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[…] the chosen ground is the spatiotemporal distribution of human actions and the physical things which are the context of those actions […] ”. </li></ul></ul>Lynch, Good City Form , p. 48 <ul><ul><li>Structures are more permanent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structural change can be captured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are more dynamic and fickle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities can be frozen in time and space (snapshots) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information about structures is routinely updated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are “ spatialized ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities are periodically frozen </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>There is a lot of “ reality ” already out there… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But the amount of information is finite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016 the backlog is completely captured </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban change is rather slow so, by 2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all Structural change is captured at the source </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>snapshots of activities are creatively obtained </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipal information is “ farmed ” daily </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>by 2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space plays a key role in municipal information farming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses are no longer primary spatial identifiers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GIS means Geographic Indexing Systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Space indexes our datasets </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 5 (or so) tools for implementation </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Top-down is rigorous and structured… … but is received as an “ imposition ” and resisted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottom-up is passionate and self-interested… … but unstructured, unscalable and unsustainable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pure top-down and bottom-up approaches disappear </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Middle-out combines the positive traits of both </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Municipalities are the locus of change </li></ul><ul><li>Cities = Structures + Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Reality = Backlog + Future Change </li></ul><ul><li>Space Is the Glue </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-out = Top-down + Bottom-up </li></ul><ul><li>Government only has 6 tools for implementation (and information gathering) </li></ul>The Premises of CK <ul><ul><li>Ownership & Operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education & Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigation & Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities consciously & creatively combine the 6 tools for </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information Farming </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Policy/Plan Implementation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    15. 15. <ul><li>SDI ’ s in 2016 </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    16. 16. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming in 2016
    17. 17. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t <ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adopt internal mechanisms to farm THEIR OWN data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize Information in Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extract Informational Returns from all internal processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change “ job descriptions ” for personnel to include information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catch up with their own “ backlog ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intercept all future internal change as it happens </li></ul></ul></ul>applied to Data Farming in 2016
    18. 18. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming in 2016 <ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make informational Returns part of their regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Force outside entities to provide information (for free) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change submission requirements (permits, plans…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modify maintenance and management contracts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Institute yearly renewals for data updates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply regulations to capture backlog as well </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invent creative ways to acquire datasets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Become “ validators ” instead of “ collectors ” </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming <ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Routinely entice outside entities into providing information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change submission fee structures (permits, plans…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make “ old ways ” costly (disincentives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make it cheaper to do the right thing (incentives) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide benefits for data updates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invent bonuses for data backlog </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reward and enforce collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Validate incoming data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming in 2016 <ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constantly educate citizens about the use of data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are always transparent about motives for data collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Explore potential for volunteer citizen input </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incite “ peer-production ” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make educational institutions partners in the process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acknowledge and Reward collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Include this aspect in ALL their initiatives </li></ul></ul></ul>
    21. 21. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming by 2016 <ul><ul><li>Requires “ real ” creativity but is very powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More useful for implementation, to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trade-up “ as-of ” rights in exchange for desired outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>include informational returns any time rights are renegotiated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase “ as-of ” rights in exchange for data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Ownership and Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Incentives/Disincentives </li></ul><ul><li>Education and Information </li></ul><ul><li>Right swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigation and Compensation </li></ul>6 Tools of Gov. ’ t applied to Data Farming in 2016 <ul><ul><li>More useful for implementation, to… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mitigate negative consequences of initiatives </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove final obstacles to implementation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by 2016, municipalities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>accumulate complaints and suggestions from affected parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide online tools for quantifying and logging problems </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 23. <ul><li>SDI ’ s in 2016 </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    24. 24. Birth Certificates <ul><ul><li>Municipalities treat their assets as newborn babies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities identify “ parent ” dept ’ s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dept ’ s produce a “ birth certificate ” for each asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parent dept. assigns “ name ” (and code) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death and Adoption certificates are treated similarly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other dept ’ s refer to assets by their given name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A municipal spatial data infrastructure emerges </li></ul></ul>by 2016…
    25. 25. <ul><li>SDI ’ s in 2016 </li></ul><ul><li>City Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 Tools </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Certificates </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services and the “ Long Tail ” </li></ul>Presentation Outline Beyond SDI
    26. 26. Web-services <ul><ul><li>Open-source web-GIS will dominate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light clients or AJAX apps replace standalone apps </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Systems are upgraded regularly on server </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipalities get data and applications for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web services are source of “ real ” profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dept ’ s mash-up web-services to suit needs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metadata is reliably available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 techniques are commonplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folksonomies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation Management, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban Information Systems exploit the Long Tail </li></ul></ul>by 2016…
    27. 27. The Long Tail in Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructures Size of Cities Large Cities Small Cities The total population that lives in small and medium cities is at least as big as that in megacities. Small towns ( “ tail ” ) represent a huge market opportunity. ANY TOWN
    28. 28. The Long Tail Change managed by various Departments Planning, Buildings, DPW Other Departments The Long Tail is Fractal. within a Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructure Target main departments ANY DEPARTMENT The Long Tail is Fractal. Starting with the “ head ” makes sense here, though all departments will eventually adopt the CK approach leading to MSDI.
    29. 29. The Long Tail Amount of Change by different “ agents ” specific developers, contractors, staff Other agents Again, the “ head ” will yield instant benefits, although the change generated by agents in the tail may be quantitatively just as large. Target all agents eventually major agents within a Department in the MSDI ANY AGENT
    30. 30. The Long Tail Change produced via various processes subdivision approvals, construction permits, contracts Other Processes Processes in the head are major vehicles of change. Minor processes in the tail still add up to major change. Eventually all processes will be addressed. produced by agents of change in an MSDI Low-hanging fruits ANY PROCESS
    31. 31. The Long Tail Change produced over time BACKLOG Future Change The backlog may be huge but it is finite and worth catching up with. Focusing on the long tail of future piecemeal change will close the loop forever. of processes within an MSDI
    32. 32. The Long Tail Although much urban change may be created by few (frequent) actors – red part of tail – many additional actors may infrequently contribute piecemeal change down the long tail – represented here by the yellow portion of the graph. Often, the large number of small actors can cumulatively outweigh the big actors, such that in aggregate they comprise the majority of urban change. Another way to look at the “ Long Tail ” is to consider the red part of the tail to represent the “ Backlog ” and the yellow portion to represent “ future change ” . In fact the long tail is fractal in nature, so the yellow part will itself be composed of a red part and a yellow part… ad infinitum. Yet another way to look at the Long Tail is to consider the two colors to represent not the creation of urban change, but the collection/farming of the data associated with it. Under a CK regime, the red part might represent the bulk of the municipal farming of data obtained through a variety of mechanisms that leverage the 6 tools. The yellow part may represent mechanisms that yield less data or data that are produced by other agencies or by citizens. in 2016
    33. 33. <ul><li>Municipal Spatial Data Infrastructures flourish </li></ul><ul><li>Departments farm their “ data plots ” </li></ul><ul><li>The 6 tools make data farming perpetual/free </li></ul><ul><li>Fine-grain is achieved routinely </li></ul><ul><li>Backlog is completely captured </li></ul><ul><li>Change is intercepted as it happens </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies automate/facilitate data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Web-services enable intra-/inter-dept. sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Information is treated like an infrastructure </li></ul>Beyond MSDI -> SDI … and it ’ s really going to happen! by 2016…
    34. 34. Fabio Carrera <ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.wpi.edu/~carrera </li></ul></ul>

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