Promoting economic development by research & innovation in tunisia


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Presentación del Prof. Zayani Khemaies (Director de programas y estructuras de valorización de la Investigación de Túnez) en la jornada CMN de Investigación en el Mediterráneo, celebrada en la UPCT el 26 de noviembre de 2012.

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Promoting economic development by research & innovation in tunisia

  1. 1. Promoting Economic Development by Research & Innovation Prof. Khemaies ZAYANIDirector of Programs and Structures of Research Valorization,Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research-Tunisia November  26,  2012  :  Murcia-­‐Spain  
  2. 2. “If a man empties his purse into his head, no one can take it fromhim. An investment in knowledge always pays the highest return”. Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) Natural resources can help economic development but are not sine a qua non condition for inducing technological breakthrough. The secret of the development lies in the momentum given to research and innovation. According to Schumpeter, economic development revolves around innovation, entrepreneurship and market.
  3. 3. Global Competitiviness Index (GCI): Source : World Economic Forum, 2012 Country Rank in 2012 Rank in 2011 TrendSwitzerland 1 1Singapour 2 2Finlande 3 4Sweeden 4 3Netherlands 5 7Germany 6 6USA 7 5United Kingdom 8 10Hong Kong SAR 9 11Japan 10 9France 21 18 32/109 in 2010Tunisia n/c 40/142 in 2011 High 5,51 < GCI < 7,0 Very High 5,51 < GCI < 7,0
  4. 4. 12 Pillars of Competitiviness (Source : World Economic Forum, 2012) Global Competitiveness Index Basic requirements Efficiency Innovation and subindex enhancers subindex sophistication Pillar 5. Higher education factors subindex and trainingPillar 1. Institutions Pillar 6. Goods marketPillar 2. Infrastructure efficiency Pillar 11. Business sophisticationPillar 3. Macroeconomic Pillar 7. Labor market environment efficiency Pillar 12. Innovation Pillar 8. Financial marketPillar 4. Health and primary development education Pillar 9. Technological readiness Pillar 10. Market size Key for Key for Key for Factor-driven efficiency-driven Innovation-driven economies economies economies
  5. 5. Tunisia at glance 1. General informationsArea = 163 610 km2 Population = 10 430 200 inhabitantsGDP = 4376 US$ per capita (2009 ) Life expectancy = 75.24 yearsBirth rate = 17.4 per 1000 persons (2011) Literacy = 74.3%2. Higher Education and Scientific Research HESR (2010-2011)193 public high institutes, faculties and 16486 faculty membersengineering school42 private high institutes 35 research centers346876 students enrolled in public 15054 students enrolled in privateinstitutions (61.2% female) institutions,Enrollment rate of students = 36.9%, 6.1% of GDP to HESR2032 foreign students from 61 83215 new students in university innationalities, 2010 versus 86035 graduates
  6. 6. National System of Research and Innovation (SNRI)1. Main challenges  Redirect the national economy to growth regime based on knowledge and expertise,  Improve the competitiveness of industry to alleviate harsh international competition resulting from globalization,  Accelerate the pace of start-ups’ creation to improve the growth of the national economy and provide enough jobs for youth, particularly higher education graduates,  Search of positioning in niche markets with high added value,  Increase the attractiveness of foreign direct investment (FDI). Policy of Modernisation and decentralization of industrial sector + innovation
  7. 7. National System of Research and Innovation (SNRI) 2.  Policy and outlines  Guiding scientific research towards national priorities,  Stimulate innovation and technological development,  Generate innovative projects resulting from valorization of research results,  Foster scientific and technological positioning of the country,  Set up a basic advanced infrastructure for the benefit of R&D sector,  Develop a high level scientific and technical expertise,  Increase investment for R&D activities.Researchers are encouraged to cluster within laboratories or units.To acquire critical weight and more competitiveness, researchstructures are encouraged to merge into consortia.
  8. 8. At the end of 2010: Number labs = 147 and Number ofresearch units = 609 The typology of these research structures was as following : Labs Research Units Law, Economy Law, Economy & Basic Science & Basic Science Management Humanities & 29% 10% Social Science Management 18% 10% 13% Humanities & Social Science 4% Engineering Engineering 10% 8% Life Science &Life Science & BiotechnologyBiotechnology 49% 49%
  9. 9. 0   500   1000   1500   2000   2500   3000   3500  1967   4000  1968  1969  1970  1971  1972  1973  1974  1975  1976  1977  1978  1979  1980  1981  1982  1983  1984  1985  1986  1987  1988  1989   19671990  1991  1992  1993  1994   19871995  1996  1997  1998  1999  2000   Basic outcomes of Tunisian Research2001  2002   20072003  2004  2005  2006  2007  2008  2009  2010   30515 Tunisian publications in the Web of Science (Ref: Thomson Reuters)2011  
  10. 10. Citations / article 0 5 10 15 20 25 Agronomy Biology and Biochemestry Chemistry Clinical medecine Computer ScienceEconomy and Busienss Engineering Environnement / Ecology Geoscience Immunology Particularly high impacts Materials science Mathematics MicrobiologyGenetic and Molecular biology 22+ Neuroscience and 12+ behavior Pharmacology and Toxicology Physical Sciences Animal and Plant sciences Psychiatry / Psychology Social Studies Impact of Tunisian Research (Ref: Thomson Reuters) Space science
  11. 11. Tunisian publications are cited in more than 110 000 indexedpublications in the Web of Science (Ref: Thomson Reuters) Which countries cite these publications? Spain 3.8% USA 13.3% France 13.1% Italy 4.3% Tunisia Japan 2.3% England 4.3% China 4.6% Turkey 2.2% International recognition of Tunisian Research
  12. 12.  Innovation: The concept of innovation is often defined in compliance with Oslo Manual (2005) :  “Innovation is the implementation of a product (good orservice), a new or a significantly improved process, a newmarketing method, a new organizational method in businesspractices, the organization workplace or external relations”.There is a certain amalgam in the public mind betweeninnovation and novelty or the assertion "for first time inTunisia". Even though this definition of novelty restricts theadded value to local market, it can be adopted temporarilyas it helps support the companies’ strengthening.
  13. 13. Instruments for funding innovation APII, BANKS & SICAR FOPRODI MESRS MIT VRR RICTIC MESRS BMN PIRD PRF SAGES - PMN BMN IN’Tech BMN ITP - MAN Ikdem BMN Management Seed FundsPHENICIA - ACP ITP - Creation Service APII checks APII Patents MESRS PNRI - MIT Rechearchers’ MIT Mobility MESRS (Source: Projet Assistance technique pour l’étude, l’évaluation et l’optimisation des instruments financiers d’incitation à l’innovation et la création d’entreprise, Projet No2010/256944, Programme ENPI)
  14. 14. Instruments for funding innovationA large panoply of instruments to fund innovation. One counts14 instruments operated by 5 institutions. They can be split into3 layers:  Individualized support (one to none): Directed to a single recipient.Their objectives and eligibility criteria go beyond the framework ofinnovation (PMN, ITP, FOPRODI, DRIC, Service checks).  Incentives for collaborative research: these instruments are intendedto encourage R&D and the reconciliation between Research andIndustry (VRR, PFR and PNRI).  Financial support of own funds: Oriented to support innovativeenterprises’ creation by funding certain stages of innovation process.Provision of own funds or consolidation of the financial structure of“young shoot” through bank credit.  
  15. 15. Research Valorisation Bridge between academia and industry Until now, 84 were funded by VRR projects with a total budget of 8.8 Millions of Dinars The research preceding valorization is collaborative and intended to promote technology transfer and patents’ licenses from labs to industry. It is also targeted to leveraging the available expertise to meet national needs as well as promoting the development of prototypes within research structures. Industrials are requested to contribute up to 10% of the project cost. The subsidy provided by the government is not capped. The funding agreement is subjected to the favorable opinion of a panel of experts who evaluate the submission.
  16. 16. Importance of the funded VRR projects according to the disciplines Water & Biotechnology Environment 10.70% 13.10% Humanities 1.20% TIC 13.10% Agriculture & Fisheries 25% Health & Pharmacy 16.70% Industry & Energy 20.20%The relatively small number of submitted VRR projectsmay be ascribed to the following reasons:
  17. 17.  Absence of valorization cells within research structures Scarcity of valorization experts within research structures (engineers, lawyers, etc.)    Weakness of partnership between research and small and medium companies    Lack of valorization culture amongst researchers    Reluctance of researchers to leverage their own research results,
  18. 18. Intellectuel propertyThe current legislation is not stimulating as it providesauthors with 25-50% of the patents dividends, afterdeduction of all costs.
  19. 19. The disproportionality between publications and patentnumbers is attributable to: Scientific articles are recognized in the career evolution of researchers but patents, particularly those filed in Tunisia, are less so Net patents revenues are small: Researchers perceive only 25-50% of the patent income after deduction of all gross outlays   Absence of specialized intellectual property office close to the major research poles, to help patenting and marketing operations Culture of intellectual property is not widespread and only few researchers are abreast of relevant mechanisms and regulations
  20. 20. To alleviate these cons, the following measures are undertaken :Training on Intellectual Repeal of bindingProperty with WIPO & regulation & proposal of INNORPI a more incentive one Link and interface structures: BUTT, CRT (within technopoles) & 42 Business incubators Ph.D Fellowship in companies =MOBIDOC, etc.
  21. 21. Technopoles as a lever of developmentThe main objectives of technopoles are: Strengthen the synergy between the triptych research, training and industry, promoting thereby generation of new projects Encourage the establishment of firms engaged in high technology and services and polarize economic projects based on research and development Provide the region with a conducive environment for carrying R&D activities oriented towards advanced industrial fields that are attractive of foreign direct investment   Improve the competitive capacity of Tunisian companies    Promote the entrepreneurial spirit and encourage the establishment and incubation of start-ups
  22. 22.  Stimulate job creation, particularly for higher education graduates Foster scientific research in fields related to national priorities and economic needs   Develop highly qualified human resources capable to manage innovative projects Promote partnership between public and private sectors   Right now, there is one functional technopopole (El Ghazala) and six ongoing (Sidi Thabet, Borj Cedria, Bizerte, Sousse & Monastir, Sfax). These projects are burdensome and request huge investments into the intangible. Their usufruct is not immediate as they require long time for implementation.
  23. 23. Mobility of researchers Researchers eager to valorize their findings can take advantage of full-time mobility to create their own companies. They may also request part-time mobility to contribute to the implementation of innovative projects either in public or in private companies.  Mobility is intended to upgrade the productive sector by leveraging highly qualified human resources. Nevertheless, the regulation in force is rather binding since it requires researchers to fulfill all their teaching and research duties without any incitation in return. Need to repeal the ongoing decree and propose a more challenging regulation
  24. 24. Things are moving now ! Because of the current transitional phase, things are moving and some strategies may be adjusted according to new policies.  A national consultation will be organized by the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research to draw new priorities and foster R&D to serve as a lever for economic and social development of the country.