Revistas científicas digitales: situación actual y
perspectivas de futuro
Digital Journals and Open Access
Dr Remedios Melero. Instituto de Agroquímica y Tecnología
de Alimentos, CSIC.
Digital journals and open access
First initiatives, 80’s background, OA declarations,
the “golden route”
OA jounals models and copyright issues
Open source software for e-journals
• First initiatives,
• 80’s background,
• OA declarations, the “golden route”
Online Open access journals before www
Surfaces. Editor: Jean Claude Guedon
Psycology. Editor: Stevan Harnad
The Public-Access Computer Systems Review
Editor: Charles W. Bailey Jr
+ Page 25 + The Public-Access Computer Systems Review
Harrison, Teresa M., Timothy Stephen, and James Winter. quot;OnlineJournals: Disciplinary Designs for
Electronic Scholarship.quot; The Public-Access Computer Systems Review 2, no. 1 (1991): 25-38.
The decade of the 80's has witnessed the advent of a revolution in scholarly communication. The explosive
growth of wide-area academic computer networking using BITNET/EARN, Internet, and an extensive array of
regional networks has brought us beyond the point of asking whether the networks will be used for scholarly
communication. The important questions now center around how computer-mediated scholarly
communication will take place. Increasingly, speculation has focused upon the ability of electronic media to
replace paper as the primary delivery medium for scholarly journals.
A prima facie case for the desirability of online or electronic scholarly journals seems already to exist.
Advocates have based their cases on the advantages of computer networking and electronic media over print
publication, such as the speed of dissemination, the relatively low costs of production and
dissemination, and the ability to make more scholarship available than before . Noting that publishers
receive the economic benefits of research produced at public expense, Okerson has suggested that an
electronic publishing component within the National Research and Education Network would enable
scholarship to remain financially accessible to the public .
Other arguments have been based upon the ways that electronic publication might improve the practice of
scholarship within academic disciplines. For example, advocates have described the superior possibilities for
information retrieval that may be achieved when scholarly articles are interconnected in flexible
databases [3, 4]. …..
• Journal prices (big deals) …. Serials crisis
• Fee-based subscription control by publishing houses + high
restrictions by copyright
• New tecnologies and internet
• Awareness of new forms of access and dissemination
• Social and institutional response to ‘publishers’ abuses’
• Emerging research/academic groups working on open source
tools to favour open access and interoperability and exchange of
The Global Journals Problem
Journals unit cost 364%
Faculty salaries +60%
Serials unit cost +474%
Serials expenditure +263%
Titles purchased - 37%
Lists Related to the Open Access Movement. Peter Suber.
Journal declarations of independence= Resignation of
editors from a journal in order to launch a comparable journal
with a friendlier publisher.
Open-access policy statements by learned societies and
Policy statements on how academic authors, journals, and
publishers should treat the opportunities created by the
internet for free online access to research literature.
University actions for open access or against high
Significant university actions to protest, resist, reverse, or
extricate themselves from high journal prices, inflexible
bundling arrangements, or oppressive licensing terms
Open letter. Public Library of Science
Budapest Open Acces Initiative (BOAI) de
By ‘open access’ to this literature, we mean its free availability
on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download,
copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these
articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to
software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without
financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those
inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself.
The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the
only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors
control over the integrity of their work and the right to be
properly acknowledged and cited”
Declaración de Berlín, 2003 (Berlin Declaration on
Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and
“Our mission of disseminating knowledge is only half complete if the
information is not made widely and readily available to society. New
possibilities of knowledge dissemination not only through the classical
form but also and increasingly through the open access paradigm via
the Internet have to be supported. We define open access as a
comprehensive source of human knowledge and cultural heritage that
has been approved by the scientific community.
In order to realize the vision of a global and accessible
representation of knowledge, the future Web has to be sustainable,
interactive, and transparent. Content and software tools must be
openly accessible and compatible”
Budapest Open Acces
Declaración de Bethesda BBB
Declaración de Berlín
The author(s) and right holder(s) of such contributions grant(s) to all
users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, right of access to, and a license to
copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to
make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any
responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship……..
Publishing related events espectrum
World wide web Hybrid OA
(www, http ) programs
publishers have e-
1990 1995 2004
Email 1999 2000 2002-3 2007
ftp First version
BMC GNu eprints
• OA jounals models and copyright issues
• Open source software for e-journals
• Researcher’s acceptance
OA journals models 1 Commercial
vs fees and copyright
$ per publication
Hybrid model Full author-side
Open free (for users
-1 and readers).
0 Author retains 1 “platinum route”
Examples of delayed free access/embargoed free access
after 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 months or more hosted by Highwire
Directory of open access journals
Free Software for e-journals development
Open Journal System (OJS). Created within the Public
Knowledge Project (http://www.pkp.ubc.ca/) Univ.British
Hyperjournal. Developed by a group of Univ. Pisa
DPubs (http://dpubs.org/). Cornell University
SOPS (http://www.scix.net/sops.htm). University of Ljubljana,
From 2004-2006 main
hybrid OA journals programs
•“Better join OA than make a battle….”
• Option nearly risk-free:
Journal Income= subscriptions (1) + author-side fees(2)
If (1) is reduced by increase of (2), revenue keeps
constant but if (1) is not reduced and (2) increases means
publishers are charging twice for the same product
Nine questions for hybrid journal programs (P. Suber, 2006)
9. Is the fee high or low?
7. For participating authors, do the OA 8. If the journal previously allowed autor
publication fees cover page color charges self-archiving without embargo, does it
or are the latter laid on top of the former? still allow if authors who do not choose
the new OA option?
5. Does the journal promise to reduce the 6. Does the journal automatically deposit
subscription price in proportion to author participating articles in an OA repository
uptake? independient of the publisher? Does it
allow to do so?
3. Does the journal waive fees in cases of 4. Does de journal use OA-friendly
economic hardship? licence, like CC? Does it let authors to do
2. If authors have a prior obligation to their funding
agency to provide OA to their peer reviewed manuscript,
does the journal let them comply without choosing the
new OA option and paying the associate fee?
1. Does the journal let participating authors
Publisher OA hybrid program Fees
American Chemical Society ACS Author Choice $1000-3000* Author
American Physical Society Free to read $975-1300 Publisher
Blackwell Publishing Online Open $2600 Author
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd BMJ Unlocked
• $3145 Publisher
Cambridge University Press Cambridge Open Option
• $2700 Publisher
Elsevier Sponsored article
• $3000 Publisher
Author-side payment $500-3500
John Wiley & Sons
Funded access $3000 Publisher
Oxford University Press Oxford Open $1500-2800* CC
Royal Society (UK) EXIS Open Choice $370-550 page Author
Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) RSC Open Science £1000-2500* Publisher
Springer Open Choice $3000 CC
Taylor & Francis iOpen Access $3100 CC
US National Academy of Sciences Open Access fee $1100*
*Depending on institutional relationship/membership
Full OA publisher Fee Journals
Biomed Central $505-2425 Author, + Titles= 180
BMC (depends on the commercial re- Covered ISI aprox
journal) use, CC licence 27, (26 soon)
Public Library of $1250-2750 Author, CC Titles= 7
Science (PLos) licence Covered ISI 5*
Oxford University $1500-2800 Author, CC •Nucleic Acids
Press (3 titles) (depending on licence Research
subscription Complementary and
basis) Alternative Medicine
CC= Creative Commons licence
* PLoS Biology and PLoS Computational Biology ranked at the highest
cited in their category
Advances in Engineering Education
New OA journal from the American Society for
Only 75 $ for publication fee!!!!!!!!!!
Other OA journals models published by commercial
1. Hindawi (www.hindawi.com) pay by print subscription free online
2. OA journals without any charge either for readers or
New emerging models……..
Reed Elsevier has a web portal in
oncology called ww.OncologySTAT.com
The site provides free access to current
journals from Elsevier's expensive journal
titles, paying for it using ads.
While Web adverts are nothing new,
this combination of open access and
ads is new.
Hess, T.; Wigand, R.; Mann, F.; von Walter, B. (2007). Open
Access & Science Publishing. Results of a study on researchers’
acceptance and use of open access publishing.
July/August 2006 Ludwig-Maximilans-University Munich + Univ.
of Arkansas at Little Rock.
Sample: 1433 researchesr from 49 countries. Answers: 688
1. Habits of publication. 3. Attitudes towards open access. 2.
Expectations of use of open access publications.
Actitud hacia OA por áreas
Experiencia en acceso
a recursos OA vs
publicaciones OA vs
Familiaridad con el
significado OA vs
Difusión, promoción open access
Apoyo y reconocimiento institucional
Cambios de hábitos. Nuevas
formas de medir el impacto
Apoyo y reconocimiento institucional
OA Publications Trends
2. New forms of electronic
1. Collaboration between publications (online open 3. Changes in customs of
Publishers and repositories review, blogs and RSS research publishing and
or data bases managers to services conected with scholarly communication
deposit archives (like the articles) system)
case of PubMed Central).
4. New commercial 5. Centralized national 6. Crosslinking among
publishing business based on deposits of publications archives
services not exclusively on (eDepot is already an
8. New services based on
resources on the web, not only
7. Consortia for funding open articles but datasets, grey 9. New evaluation metrics based
access journals (like SCOAP3, in literature, audiovisual files (data on open access
Physics) mining, abstracting, indexing,
Opinions about Trends
Paul Ginsparg. Next-Generation Implications of Open Access.
CTWatch Quarterly August 2007.
What will Open Access Mean? (services based on open/free
access digital objects)
Interoperability, common standards.....
...”For most disciplines, the key to progress will be development of
common web service protocols, common languages (e.g., for
manipulating and visualizing data), and common data interchange
standards, to facilitate distributed forms of the above resources...”
“Machine learning techniques familiar from artificial intelligence
research will assist in the extraction of metadata and
classification information, assisting authors and improving
services based on the cleaned metadata. Semantic analysis of the
document bodies will facilitate the automated interlinking to
external resources described above and lead to improved
navigation and discovery services for readers...”
Trends from Ithaca report. University Publishing in a
II. What the World Looks Like Today and Where it is Headed: A.
The future of scholarly communications
• Scholars (collaborative environments)
• Institutions (support and recognition)
• Economic models
These environments will
provide them with the tools Continuous publishing will enable
and resources for conducting scholars to continually update or
research, collaborating with correct “published” works, requiring
peers, sharing working new ways of thinking about and
papers, publishing documenting versions and
conference proceedings, editions.
manipulating data sets, etc.
It seems likely that much of
this activity will be organized
Scholars will increasingly seek to work in
electronic research and publishing
portals/ subject matter
Need to think about how best to
Strong desire for greater support in
provide these services
• validating and publishing
New forms of scholarship should
their digital research output be recognized and rewarded
Scholarship published online
will be enhanced with Building the infrastructure to support
embedded graphics, audio multimedia content – the storage
and video materials, all capacity and connectivity, tools for
linked with datasets and creating and accessing content,
applications needed to archiving multimedia assets, etc. –
manipulate data, etc. requires substantial capital
A new generation of devices for
consuming information will require that
content be organized and presented in
Traditional economic models
of publishing are being Information technology provides an
disrupted by the Web, and opportunity for universities to
new ones are emerging. restructure the scholarly
communications system in ways
that better reflect the community’s
values than the current system. This
means having more influence over
Economic models what gets published and how it is
accessed and priced.
Universities must revisit traditional views
about how publishing is supported.
Creating and disseminating dynamic
content imposes some new costs on the
system (software tools, storage,
bandwidth) and reduces others (printing,
physical storage, distribution).
‘Flipping Model’ or ‘Inverted Hybrid Model’ (Peter Suber,
SPARC Open access Newsletter, October 2007)
from reader-sponsors to author-sponsors
Mark Rowse was the CEO of Ingenta when Paula Hane interviewed
him for Information Today in December 2003
“Imagine a publisher that has already licensed content to all the library
consortia in the U.S. The publisher could, at a stroke, say that the
license will now confer rights for the academics in those
institutions to submit content rather than to access content. The
publisher would have successfully flipped its business model
completely, to being an open access business. So I think it's possible
to see a transition from where we are now to a completely open
access world without fundamentally destroying the existing scholarly
Flipping the business model is a simple act because, under our
assumptions, it changes almost nothing.
It's like changing the way we interpret an optical illusion.
Suddenly the drawing that looked concave looks convex.
Nothing has changed but our interpretation of what's going on.
For real-world TA journals that don't already reach all
researchers, flipping will remove fee barriers for all readers
and add fee barriers for some authors.
Whether it's a net gain for researchers qua authors will depend
on at least five variables:
(1) the number of authors not affiliated with paying institutions
(2) the size of the publication fee facing those authors
(3) the willingness of funding agencies to pay those fees for
(4) the willingness of universities not paying institution-wide fees
to pay fees for individual faculty on a case-by-case basis, and
(5) the willingness of flipped journals to waive their fees in
cases of economic hardship.