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Open access update: with a spotlight on pharmacology


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presentation by Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath, given at the UQ School of Pharmacy, 1 March 2013

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Open access update: with a spotlight on pharmacology

  1. 1. Open Access recent developments:with a spotlight on pharmacology Lisa Kruesi, Helen Morgan and Andrew Heath Scholarly Publishing and Digitisation Service March 2013
  2. 2. Session Objectives• Introduction to Open Access (OA)• Setting the scene• Situation at UQ – eSpace & green OA – Spotlight on Pharmacology – Development of OA research data• Opportunities & pitfalls• Who to contact at UQ Library for helpOpen Access Logo: Art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, and JakobVoss
  3. 3. Open Access (OA) Definition• OA literature is digital, free of most copyright and licensing restrictions• Focus on peer-reviewed scholarly journal articles via Internet• There are two different ways of obtaining open accessibility to scientific research results: Green and Gold.• Open access is also increasingly being provided to data, books and book chapters, conference papers, theses, working papers and preprints.• Open content is similar to OA, but may include the right to modify the work• While open access relies on the consent of copyright holders to share their work, making material open access will not deprive copyright holders of any rights. Copyright laws still apply.1. "Open Access." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 3 September 2012. available: Suber, Peter. Open Access. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012
  4. 4. Open Access (OA) Definition• Green Self Archiving - • Gold authors publish in OA authors publish in a journal journals that provide free, and archive or link to a immediate access to the freely available version of articles via publisher web the manuscript in their sites that may or may not institutions repository, or carry author fees. The in a national repository (for Public Library of Science example, PubMed Central) (PLOS) is an example. or post them on other OA • There are hybrid OA sites. Green journal journals providing Gold OA publishers are those that for authors who pay an up- allow self-archiving. front-fee to publish on their journal’s web site.
  5. 5. World’s first Figure 1: Research Information Network.scientific journal Trends in the finances of UK higher education libraries: 1999-2009, 2010, p 17 (Chart 12: Indexed real terms expenditure per institution on electronic serials)
  6. 6. Scholarly Publishing Trends Australian Many Universities set GovernmentAccess shifts from up research Most libraries need to invests $26 millionpersonal subscriptions repositories to record & cancel journals to pay to establish digitaltowards library- store research outputs for new subscriptions repositories inprovided access. by University staff and UniversitiesTenopir, C. students 1970-1990s 1990s+ 2000+ 2001 2008-2009 2012 Sales of large portfolios of e- Open access emerges led by There is a patchy- journals content (‘big-deals’) scholars, to make publicly approach world-wide to to libraries via consortia deals funded research available establishing funding is the predominant way to all. The Budapest Open schemes to pay for OA research content is purchased Access Initiative occurs. author fees at Creative Commons universities founded.
  7. 7. New gold model Subscriber pays User pays – Gold model• Journals paid for by • Publication paid for by the author, readers, libraries and the author’s institution or institutions research grant• Payment by annual • Payment is via an Article subscription / consortia Processing Charge (APC) deal / page charges • Payments are transparent• One-off payments for specific issues or a fee for article delivery (pay per • No access restrictions, no logins, view) no passwords• Licensed content • Subject to Copyright Act / Creative Commons• Content is restricted Solomon, D. J., & Björk, B. C. (2012). A study of open access journals using article processing charges. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 63(8), 1485-1495
  8. 8. More exposure for your work Researchers in Practitioners can developing countries apply your findings can see your work Higher citation ratesTaxpayers get value for money Compliant with grant Your research can rules Influence policy The public can access ‘Benefits of open access’ your findings (Danny Kingsley and Sarah Brown, 2013)
  9. 9. How can the UQ Library help?• UQ eSpace – Research outputs including UQ research higher degree theses – Text Queensland – Digilib• Advice & updates (Copyright & Library Lawyer)• The Library’s web site for access• eScholarship: research data, publishing, impact blog• UQ Library Catalogue / Open Access Web page
  10. 10. Independent of OA• Journals can be more open or less open. But there degree of openness is independent from their: *Impact, *Prestige, *Quality of Peer Review, *Peer Review Methodology *Sustainability, *Effect on Tenure & Promotion *Article QualityTaken from: HowOpenIsIt:
  11. 11. Where to publish Identifying publishing opportunities• Decide early (before drafting the paper). Look for a journal and then write the paper• Look for journals that have published in your discipline area• Consider journals that have published work you cite• Audience – who will read your article?• Prestige – does the journal appear on the ERA journal listings?• Predatory Publishers List• Checklist for evaluation• Access – will you publish in an open access journal?• Impact – refers to how often a journal’s content is cited by other authors, thereby giving an indication of the influence of a publication.• Likelihood of acceptance – top tier v’s less prestigious journals• Does it cost to publish in the journal?• More details: Fact Sheet 8 Where to Publish Your Journal Article and the Open Access Spectrum (OAS) HowOpenIsIt Guide
  12. 12. Open Access - Evolving• BioMed Central (BMC) Of the 265 journal titles listed within BMC, 192 (72%) appear on the ERA 2012 Journal List. (15% discount on publication fees) Processing fee 15% payable Amount by UQ payable by the authors AUS $1841 AUS $275 AUS $1566• PLOS Medicine is number five in the top Medicine, General & Internal – JCRWeb, 2011 – Impact Factor 16.3 (10% discount on publication fees)• Royal Society for Chemistry – Gold Vouchers Available• F1000 Research – offers discounts on APCs• eLife• PeerJ• More details: Open Access
  13. 13. Addendum• All OA journals and 70% non-OA journals allow authors to self archive their peer reviewed post prints - for the remaining journals an authors addendum can be used to vary the terms of a publication agreement• UQ Addendum on the UQ Library OA website• NHMRC Addendum
  14. 14. Mandates• UK Wellcome Trust and the Research Councils (2006)• US National Institute of Health (2007)• Australia National Health and Medical Research Council (2012)• ARC (2014)• European Union (2014)
  15. 15. NHMRC Mandate• Publications arising from an NHMRC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve month period from the date of publication.• Mandate applies to material accepted for publication after July 2012 (based on date publication agreement is signed or date author notified – whichever comes first). (slide attribution: )
  16. 16. NHMRC Mandate• If material cannot be included in a repository, then a justification must be provided in Final Report.• It can be the author’s accepted manuscript version or the publisher’s formatted/copy-edited version that is deposited.• If the material is publicly accessible via a publisher’s website or service such as PubMed Central, then it is sufficient to deposit just the metadata in the institutional repository and link to the OA fulltext.• NHMRC grant identification number must be included when the material (or metadata) is deposited in an IR. (Slide attribution:
  17. 17. NHMRC MandateIssues:• Local processes are being developed to help funded researchers comply with the mandate.• Some publishers want embargo periods longer than 12 months on ‘Green’ OA – especially if they offer a fee-based ‘Gold’ OA option. (Slide attribution: )
  18. 18. Australian Research Council• New policy as of 1 January 2013 – any publications arising from an ARC supported research project must be deposited into an open access institutional repository within a twelve (12) month period from the date of publication. – (slide attribution http://www.information- )18
  19. 19. Any publications?• Yes, all publications – including books Any grant? • No. The policy relates to Funding Rules and Agreements released after 1 January 2013. It will not be applied retrospectively to pre-existing Funding Rules and Agreements. (slide attribution )19
  20. 20. Policy transforming open access• UK Research Councils OA policy• Most of the OA Finch Report recommendations accepted UK government – Gold OA• Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE) plan to require OA research be submitted to the next Research Excellence Framework in 2014• new policy “Increasing Access to the Results of Federally Funded Scientific Research“ issued by the Obama Administration & FASTR
  21. 21. What is UQ eSpace?• A place to record and showcase UQ research publications, raising visibility and accessibility• An institutional repository for: – open access publications – other digitised materials such as photographs, audio, videos, manuscripts and other original works – UQ Research Higher Degree Theses + some others• The single authoritative source for the publication outputs of UQ systems internal systems such as Q-Index and UQ Researchers (and those currently under development)• Provides data for reporting requirements such as ERA and HERDC
  22. 22.
  23. 23. What is in eSpace?Document type Total records OA recordsJournal Article 94965 4245 (4%)ConferencePapers 36486 2608Book Chapters 10127 431Theses * 9681 550Images 5515 5515Books 5343 575* 7484 theses - UQ staff and students onlyOther documents types include: Research Reports, Preprints, WorkingPapers, Creative Works, Designs, Audio and Videos
  24. 24. How do records get into eSpace? • Weekly downloads from Web of Science – publications with UQ as the nominated institution • Automatic downloads from Researcher ID accounts • Manual entry via the My UQ eSpace page (by staff and Unit Public • RHD Theses – electronic upload is compulsory
  25. 25. Flow of records to other systems• Q – Index – updated daily from eSpace (this includes records not yet published in eSpace)• UQ reSEARCHers – updated daily; only includes published records• Used in HERDC and ERA submissions as required
  26. 26. Benefits of UQ eSpace• UQ eSpace Data is harvested by major search engines• Page views and Download statistics recorded• Access Scopus and WOS citation counts• Supported and ongoing access to your research publications• Researcher homepage (• ResearcherID integration (updates and links)• Unique Author ID• Accurate data for reporting and individual research reporting (e.g. Q-Index)
  27. 27. UQ eSpace – future developments• OA support – Sherpa/Romeo integration – UQDI project (800 items to be added) – NHMRC OA mandate• Automated Scopus downloads• Author ID linking (ORCID, Scorcid, ResearcherID)• Development of UQ OA policy and considerations for OA theses
  28. 28. Green Repositories 23 million recordsPubMedCentral 2.4 millionarXiv (physics) 766,772 (230 records added daily)RePEC (Research Papers in Economics) 1 million documents (333 addeddaily)Social Sciences Research Network (350,000 fulltext docs)doab (directory of open access books) are more: Registry of Open Access RepositoriesVideo – Green versus Gold + Benefits of OA
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  30. 30. Satisfying NHMRC & ARC Grant Requirements: ERA 2012 top ten pharmacology & pharmaceutical sciences 5 YearERA Impact ImpactRank Journal Outputs Factor Factor OA Archiving Status Gold OA fee Delayed OA Publisher Possible action 1 British Journal of Clinical author can archive pre-print (ie pre- $3,000 12 month embargo Wiley satisfies NHMRC via link Pharmacology 21.0 (3%) 2.958 3.227 refereeing); author cannot archive publishers version/PDF 2 Journal of Biological Chemistry 19.3 (3%) 4.773 5.117 author cannot archive pre-print (ie pre- $1,500 for 12 month embargo American Society for satisfies NHMRC via link refereeing); author cannot archive ASBMB Biochemistry and publishers version/PDF members; Molecular Biology $2,000 for nonmembers 3 Toxicon 17.0 (3%) 2.508 2.479 author can archive pre-print (ie pre- $3,000 Elsevier satisfies NHMRC using post print refereeing); author can archive post-print (ie final draft post-refereeing); author cannot archive publishers version/PDF 4 Molecular Pharmacology 16.0 (3%) 4.883 4.58 author cannot archive pre-print (ie pre- 12 month embargo American Society for satisfies NHMRC via link refereeing); author cannot archive post- Pharmacology and print (ie final draft post-refereeing); Experimental Therapeutics Authors can link to freely available authors version on publishers website 5 15.8 (2%) 4.841 4.911 author cannot archive pre-print (ie pre- $3,000 6 month embargo American Society for satisfies NHMRC via link Antimicrobial Agents and refereeing); author can archive post-print Microbiology Chemotherapy (ie final draft post-refereeing) 6 Journal of Pharmacy Practice and 14.0 (2%) Not in Not in not in Sherpa/Romeo Society of Hospital Research JCR JCR Pharmacists of Australia 7 Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 14.0 (2%) 2.491 2.605 author can archive pre-print (ie pre- 12 month embargo Lippincott, Williams & satisfies NHMRC via link refereeing) Wilkins 8 Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 13.0 (2%) 3.055 3.324 $3,000 0-24 months Wiley UNLESS they are funded with a funding author can archive pre-print (ie pre- organisation that has a specific agreement refereeing); author cannot archive with Wiley Blackwell publishers version/PDF 9 Clinical and Experimental 12.1 (2%) 1.851 2.001   author can archive pre-print (ie pre- $3,000 0-24 months Wiley Online Open retain copyright in their Pharmacology and Physiology refereeing); author can archive post-print articles and will be offered a choice of (ie final draft post-refereeing); author creative commons licenses. As above. cannot archive publishers version/PDF 10 Pharmaceutical Research 12.0 (2%) 4.093 4.668 author can archive pre-print (ie pre- $3,000 American Association of satisfies NHMRC using post print refereeing); author can archive post-print Pharmaceutical (ie final draft post-refereeing); author Scientists/Springer cannot archive publishers version/PDF
  31. 31. Top ranked pharmacology journals by impact factor 5 Year Impact ImpactRank * Journal Factor Factor OA Archiving Status Gold OA fee Delayed OA Publisher Possible action 1 Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery 29.008 32.123 Pe-print immediately Nature Publishing Group satisfies NHMRC using post print Post-print after 6 months embargo 2 Annual review of pharmacology and 21.639 22.33 Author pre-print immediately Annual Reviews suggest emailing NHMRC addendum to toxicology publisher 3 Pharmacological reviews 20.225 23.667 No archiving policy 12 months embargo Highwire   satisfies NHMRC via DOI link via Highwire 4 Advanced drug delivery reviews 11.502 14.608 Pre-print or post-print immediately US$3,000 Elsevier Science satisfies NHMRC using post print 5 Trends in pharmacological 10.927 10.322 Post-print immediately Cell Press / Elsevier satisfies NHMRC using post print sciences  6 Medicinal research reviews 10.7 10.03 Pre-print immediately US$3,000 Wiley No to placing an Accepted Version into a repository UNLESS they are funded with a funding organisation that has a specific agreement with Wiley Blackwell 7 Drug resistance updates 9.559 10.048 Pre-print or post-print immediately Harcourt / Elsevier satisfies NHMRC using post print 8 Pharmacology & therapeutics 8.562 9.35 Pre-print or post-print immediately US$3,000 Elsevier satisfies NHMRC using post print 9 Neuropsychopharmacology 7.991 7.223 Pe-print immediately 12 month embargo Nature Publishing Group satisfies NHMRC via DOI link Post-print after 6 months embargo via NPG 10 Current opinion in pharmacology 6.856 6.924 Pre-print or post-print immediately Elsevier Science satisfies NHMRC using post print 11 Drug discovery today 6.828 7.155 Pre-print or post-print immediately Elsevier Science satisfies NHMRC using post print 12 Journal of controlled release 6.499 7.529 Pre-print or post-print immediately US$3,000 Elsevier Science satisfies NHMRC using post print 13 Drug metabolism reviews 6.4 6.188 Pre-print immediately Marcel Dekker satisfies NHMRC using post print Post-print after 12 months embargo 14 Clinical pharmacology and 6.043 6.231 Pre-print immediately US$3,000 Nature Publishing satisfies NHMRC using post print therapeutics Post-print after 6 months embargo 15 Neurotherapeutics 6.008 Pre-print or post-print immediately US$3,000 Elsevier Science satisfies NHMRC using post print 16 Clinical pharmacokinetics 5.398 4.984 Post print immediately ADIS Press International satisfies NHMRC using post print 17 Expert opinion on investigational 5.274 3.813 Pre-print immediately Informa Healthcare satisfies NHMRC using post print drugs Post-print after 12 months embargo 18 Current drug metabolism 5.113 4.879 Pre-print immediately Yes Bentham Science satisfies NHMRC using post print Post-print after 12 months embargo Publishers 19 The AAPS journal  5.086 5.705 Pre-print or post-print immediately US$3000 12 month embargo American Association of satisfies NHMRC via DOI link via Pubmed Central Pharmaceutical Scientists 20 Journal of antimicrobial 5.068 4.792 Pre-print immediately 12 months embargo Oxford University Press satisfies NHMRC via DOI link chemotherapy Post-print after 12 months embargo via Highwire* Source: Journal Citation Reports 2011 indicates deposit of author version to eSpace is allowable within the terms of open access mandate requirements indicates delayed open access to publisher version will comply with mandate requirements
  32. 32. Development of OA Research DataOpen Data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyoneto use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patentsor other mechanisms of control.The concept of open access to scientific data was institutionally establishedwith the formation of the World Data Centre system in 1957-1958.World Data Centres were established by the International Council for Science tominimize the risk of data loss and to maximize data accessibility.While the open-science-data movement long predates the Internet, theavailability of fast, ubiquitous networking has significantly changed the context,since publishing and obtaining data has become much less expensive andtime-consuming."Open Data." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 18 June 2012. Web 28 August 2012. available:
  33. 33. Why make research data OA?The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto• Open access to research data is critical for advancing science, scholarship, and society.• Research data, when repurposed, has an accretive value.• Publicly funded research should be publicly available for public good.• Transparency in research is essential to sustain the public trust.• The validation of research data by the peer community is an essential function of the responsible conduct of research.• Managing research data is the responsibility of a broad community of stakeholders including researchers, funders, institutions, libraries, archivists, and the public.The Denton Declaration, An Open Data Manifesto, The University of North Texas. Web 23 Oct 2012. available
  34. 34. Why make research data OA?Benefits to researchers - • Increase how visible your research is • Preserve your data • Meet funding requirements • Stop duplication of effort • Further the advance of science • Support Open Access• Data sharing has the potential to increase citations of your work. The authors of one study1 established that publicly available data was associated with a 69% increase in citations, independent of journal impact factor, date of publication, and author country of origin.1. Piwowar HA, Day RS, Fridsma DB, 2007 ‘Sharing Detailed Research Data is Associated with Increased Citation Rate’. PLoS ONE 2(3): e308. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308
  35. 35. OA research data Australian Code for the Responsible Conduct of Research “Policies are required that address the ownership of research materials and data, their storage, their retention beyond the end of the project, and appropriate access to them by the research community.” Journal requirements Publishing in a Nature journal?“… authors are required to make materials, data and associated protocols promptly available to readers.” Nature Publishing GroupBMC Pharmacology and Toxicology also supports initiatives to promoteopen data sharing ; BioMedCentral, offers an annual Open Data Award to recognize researchers who have published in BioMed Central journals and have demonstrated leadership in the sharing, standardization, publication, or re-use of biomedical research data .
  36. 36. What is novel about Open PHACTS?Repetition of the pharmacological data extraction, transformation and loading stages at eachpharmaceutical company greatly hinders the drug discovery process.Open PHACTS integrates multiple publicly-available databases, creating links between the datapresent, allowing access to a vast data resource in a stable and rigorous infrastructure. Theprovenance of all data is easily assessed, and traceable back to the parent database, allowing thedata quality to be evaluated.In addition to reducing barriers to drug discovery within the pharmaceutical industry, the OpenPHACTS Discovery Platform allows scientists in academia and smaller companies unprecedentedaccess to an integrated database of pharmacological information.The Open PHACTS Discovery Platform draws together and generates links between variably-sourced data so that industry, academia and small businesses can concentrate on drug discovery.
  37. 37. Open Data - The Future © ANDS 2011
  38. 38. Open DataFrom a Nature News special on Data Sharing: “Research cannot flourish if data are not preserved and made accessible. All concerned must act accordingly.” “Data management should be woven into every course in science, as one of the foundations of knowledge.”Editorial: Datas Shameful Neglect" (10 September 2009). Nature 461, 145 doi:10.1038/461145a; Published online 9 September 2009; Corrected 23September 2009
  39. 39. Opportunities, Pitfalls & Way Forward• Prof Matthew Brown’s videos: Part 1: Importance of Open Access to Discovery• Series of Scholarly Publishing Videos including Open Access• Vanity Publishing & Predatory Publishers List – OMICS case example• Summed up: Whither Science Publishing http://the-• Open Access Week October 2013• Academic Paper
  40. 40. Take home conclusions• Can avoid paying for gold by depositing manuscript in eSpace• Processes to deposit in UQ eSpace are under development• Sherpa Romeo & Library Catalogue details on the embargo period for details• We wish to learn from your open access publishing experience• Contact us for advice & assistance
  41. 41. The FutureIt is predicted that Gold OA will account for50 percent of the scholarly journal articlessometime between 2017 and 2021, and 90percent of articles as soon as 2020 andmore conservatively by 2025.Lewis, D. W. (2012) The Inevitability of Open Access, College & Research Libraries, 73(5), 493-506It wont be easy, and it wont be inexpensive, butit is only a matter of time.For the Sake of Inquiry and Knowledge — The Inevitability of Open Access Ann J. Wolpert, M.L.S.N Engl J Med 2013; 368:785-787February 28, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1211410
  42. 42. Who to contact• Copyright questions• eSpace questions• General enquiries• Lisa Kruesi, Andrew Heath & Helen Morgan