Open Access Scholarship
                and Teaching: Why
                 Should It Matter to
                    (You) U...
Open access is the free and unrestricted
world-wide electronic distribution of peer-
reviewed journal literature coupled w...
OA is compatible with copyright, peer review, revenue
(even profit), print, preservation, prestige, career-
advancement, i...
“The entire full-text refereed corpus online
On every researcher’s desktop, everywhere
24 hours a day
All papers citation-...
~ 20,000 peer-
reviewed journals
producing
~ 2.5 million
articles per year
How to get
from
Context
               • ICT and education
               • Changing landscape of scholarly
Open Access      communication...
http://www.psew.net/PSEWireless_2.aspx?id=204886
http://www.apple.com/hotnews/articles/2006/11/masai/
http://weblogs.jupiterresearch.com/analysts/ask/archives/007174.html
http://grownupdigital.com/
Mission of the
                                          university in the
                                          Netwo...
Commons
Convergence
Unbundling the Functions of
         Journals
Functions of
“Conventional”   •   Registration
   journals      •   Certification
                 •   Awareness
         ...
The Dysfunctional Economy of
    Scholarly Publishing
          • Gift economy
          • The cost of print and artificia...
“Commercial publishers now play a role in publishing over
60 percent of all peer–reviewed journals, owning 45
percent outr...
Future of the
monographs?
            •   University Presses
            •   Bloomsbury Academics
            •   “Self-pu...
Share
  Government and                  $                                                          Holders
               ...
Traditional Business Models

                    Subscription
                    Licensing
Libraries
                    ...
For
       Why is OA important?
Researchers:
          • Increased visibility and citation
          • Participation in re...
Why is OA important?
For Funders
and
Institutions: • Public transparency
             • Improved knowledge
               ...
“OISE is committed to the study of education and matters
related to education in a societal context in which learning
is a...
“The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate
students in science, technology, and other areas of
scholarship th...
Mission
The University of Toronto is committed to being an internationally significant
research university, with undergrad...
Why is OA important?
For
the public:
              • Right to know
              • Right to participate
              • Ri...
The Access Principle
“ … a commitment to the value and quality of research
carries with it a responsibility to extend the ...
But Price and Permission
Barriers restrict these benefits
http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read.shtml
Two primary ways to achieve OA

 • Publishing in Open Access Journals, e.g.

Theoretical economics


                     ...
http://www.scidev.net/en/features/open-access-archiving-the-fast-track-to-building-r.html
Open Access Journals
• Journal publishing
   Open Journal System (PKP), full online
    journal publishing system
   Over ...
http://www.doaj.org/
http://maps.repository66.org/
Who pays?
Government and
  other funding bodies                     $
                                                              ...
New Economic Models …
• Author pays
  – Page charges
  – Submission fee, e.g., Theoretical
    Economics
  – Membership fe...
…New Economic Models
• Funding agencies & government
   – Re-distribution of existing funds
   – Special grants and subsid...
The Canadian Institutes of Health
Research (CIHR) OA mandate took
effect on January 1, 2008, requiring
grantees to self-ar...
… New Economic Models
•   Academic & research institutions
    – Harvard Arts and Science faculty’s resolution on
      OA...
Government and
  other funding bodies
                                                                                    ...
New Business Models

                       Authority Trust Findability
Generative layer                                  ...
“Generatives” and changing markets

  The future is conversational: when there's
  more good stuff that you know about tha...
http://www.openanthropology.org/
http://www.googlizationofeverything.com/
Final thoughts
• Emergence of “social publishing”?
• Convergence with the other “open”
  movements?
• Role of Google and G...
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?
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Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?

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Presentation given 4th of November, 2008, at Ed Commons/OISE/University of Toronto. Video with slides here: http://142.150.98.64/OISE/20081105-130810-1/rnh.htm

After several centuries of relative stability, the ways in which knowledge is created, consumed, and shared today are rapidly changing. These changes are enabled in part by networking tools and new modes of social production, and in part by the growing movement towards open access to the scholarly literature and educational resources. While innovative pedagogical and scholarly practices are flourishing as a result of open sharing and social learning, there remains serious intellectual, social, institutional and policy barriers to participation.

What then are the key challenges to scholarship in the digital age? What happens when scholars share research openly through institutional repositories, open access journals, and other social platforms such as wikis and blogs? What are the rewards of scholarship and teaching in an open access knowledge ecology? What kind of institutional support and incentives need to be put in place?

The goal of the presentation is not to prescribe answers, but to prompt debates and dialogues on how best to take full advantage of what the open access knowledge environment has to offer.

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Presentation by Leslie Chan at OISE: Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to You?

  1. 1. Open Access Scholarship and Teaching: Why Should It Matter to (You) Us? Leslie Chan UTSC, KMDI,Bioline International OISE Education Commons, University of Toronto Nov. 5, 2008
  2. 2. Open access is the free and unrestricted world-wide electronic distribution of peer- reviewed journal literature coupled with free and unrestricted access to that literature by scientists, scholars, teachers, students and others.
  3. 3. OA is compatible with copyright, peer review, revenue (even profit), print, preservation, prestige, career- advancement, indexing, and other features and supportive services associated with conventional scholarly literature. Peter Suber, Open Access Overview http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm
  4. 4. “The entire full-text refereed corpus online On every researcher’s desktop, everywhere 24 hours a day All papers citation-interlinked Fully searchable, navigable, retrievable For free, for all, forever” Stevan Harnad
  5. 5. ~ 20,000 peer- reviewed journals producing ~ 2.5 million articles per year
  6. 6. How to get from
  7. 7. Context • ICT and education • Changing landscape of scholarly Open Access communication - autonomous and extraneous factors - why, what, • Commons Convergence and how? • Role of the university and funding bodies • Actions to be taken • Collaboration…
  8. 8. http://www.psew.net/PSEWireless_2.aspx?id=204886
  9. 9. http://www.apple.com/hotnews/articles/2006/11/masai/
  10. 10. http://weblogs.jupiterresearch.com/analysts/ask/archives/007174.html
  11. 11. http://grownupdigital.com/
  12. 12. Mission of the university in the Network Information Economy? Dissemination and Stewardship of Scholarship? http://www.educause.edu/thetowerandthecloud/133998
  13. 13. Commons Convergence
  14. 14. Unbundling the Functions of Journals
  15. 15. Functions of “Conventional” • Registration journals • Certification • Awareness • Recognition • Archiving
  16. 16. The Dysfunctional Economy of Scholarly Publishing • Gift economy • The cost of print and artificial scarcity • Users do not bear the primary cost for access • Commodification of public knowledge • Oligopoly • Reputation management
  17. 17. “Commercial publishers now play a role in publishing over 60 percent of all peer–reviewed journals, owning 45 percent outright and publishing another 17 percent on behalf of non–profit organizations.” Raym Crow, 2006 http://www.uic.edu/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1396/1314
  18. 18. Future of the monographs? • University Presses • Bloomsbury Academics • “Self-publishing” • “Open Monograph Press”
  19. 19. Share Government and $ Holders it s other funding bodies $$Prof And CEOs Publishers $$ y Co ntent Primar ” Con tent e -added “Valu r ie s Universities $$ L ib r a and Researchers Traditional model A closed loop…
  20. 20. Traditional Business Models Subscription Licensing Libraries Pay-per-view $$ Price Permission Closed Content Publishers Value-added Services Capital BRANDING Development
  21. 21. For Why is OA important? Researchers: • Increased visibility and citation • Participation in research (particularly from developing countries) • Speed up knowledge discovery • Enable new modes of inquires • Increase computational potential • Blurring disciplinary boundaries • New metrics and “language” for impact and authority
  22. 22. Why is OA important? For Funders and Institutions: • Public transparency • Improved knowledge management • Expanded ROI • Enhanced profile and reputation • Public mission
  23. 23. “OISE is committed to the study of education and matters related to education in a societal context in which learning is a life-long activity. Its mission emphasizes equity and access and the improvement of the educational experiences of people of all age levels and backgrounds. It includes partnerships with others to address a wide array of problems, drawing upon the insights of academic disciplines and professional perspectives” http://www.oise.utoronto.ca/admissions/c.Intro2.html
  24. 24. “The mission of MIT is to advance knowledge and educate students in science, technology, and other areas of scholarship that will best serve the nation and the world in the 21st century. The Institute is committed to generating, disseminating, and preserving knowledge, and to working with others to bring this knowledge to bear on the world's great challenges. MIT is dedicated to providing its students with an education that combines rigorous academic study and the excitement of discovery with the support and intellectual stimulation of a diverse campus community. We seek to develop in each member of the MIT community the ability and passion to work wisely, creatively, and effectively for the betterment of humankind.” http://web.mit.edu/facts/mission.html
  25. 25. Mission The University of Toronto is committed to being an internationally significant research university, with undergraduate, graduate and professional programs of excellent quality. Purpose of the University The University of Toronto is dedicated to fostering an academic community in which the learning and scholarship of every member may flourish, with vigilant protection for individual human rights, and a resolute commitment to the principles of equal opportunity, equity and justice. Within the unique university context, the most crucial of all human rights are the rights of freedom of speech, academic freedom, and freedom of research. And we affirm that these rights are meaningless unless they entail the right to raise deeply disturbing questions and provocative challenges to the cherished beliefs of society at large and of the university itself. It is this human right to radical, critical teaching and research with which the University has a duty above all to be concerned; for there is no one else, no other institution and no other office, in our modern liberal democracy, which is the custodian of this most precious and vulnerable right of the liberated human spirit. http://www.utoronto.ca/aboutuoft/missionandpurpose.htm
  26. 26. Why is OA important? For the public: • Right to know • Right to participate • Right to public benefits
  27. 27. The Access Principle “ … a commitment to the value and quality of research carries with it a responsibility to extend the circulation of this work as far as possible, and ideally to all who are interested in it and all who might profit by it (John Willinsky, 2006,5)
  28. 28. But Price and Permission Barriers restrict these benefits
  29. 29. http://www.soros.org/openaccess/read.shtml
  30. 30. Two primary ways to achieve OA • Publishing in Open Access Journals, e.g. Theoretical economics Public Library of Science • Self-archiving - depositing published articles or pre-prints in institutional or subject repositories arXiv.org
  31. 31. http://www.scidev.net/en/features/open-access-archiving-the-fast-track-to-building-r.html
  32. 32. Open Access Journals • Journal publishing Open Journal System (PKP), full online journal publishing system Over two thousands journal worldwide
  33. 33. http://www.doaj.org/
  34. 34. http://maps.repository66.org/
  35. 35. Who pays?
  36. 36. Government and other funding bodies $ Publishers $ t y Conten Primar ontent ed” C “Value-add $$ r ie s Universities and L ib r a Researchers Transitional stage Open Access Open Access Archives Journals Who pays? Value-added services And contents
  37. 37. New Economic Models … • Author pays – Page charges – Submission fee, e.g., Theoretical Economics – Membership fees , e.g., scholarly societies, Can. J of Sociology – Processing fees - institutional membership
  38. 38. …New Economic Models • Funding agencies & government – Re-distribution of existing funds – Special grants and subsidies – New policies and programs • SSHRC’s Aid to Scholarly Publishing Program • CIHR has a mandate that requires grantees to self-archive • Wellcome Trust (UK); NIH Mandate(US)
  39. 39. The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) OA mandate took effect on January 1, 2008, requiring grantees to self-archive their articles within six months of publication.
  40. 40. … New Economic Models • Academic & research institutions – Harvard Arts and Science faculty’s resolution on OA – SCOAP3: Consortium for OA Publishing in Particle Physics, headed by CERN • New goods and services – Reputation management – Re-packaging content – Provision of complementary services, e.g., information visualisation, video and other discourse channels
  41. 41. Government and other funding bodies From a closed Commercial $ $ Publishers loop…to a “big t Conten Primar y nt & Servic es tent”? Conte e-a dded” “Valu Universities $ and Researchers Libraries $ and $ Scholarly Societies Open Access Open Access Archives Journals Value-added services and Contents
  42. 42. New Business Models Authority Trust Findability Generative layer Coherent and Personalization Immediacy structured Overlay services Open Source Fragmented Content layer Open Access and scattered Research Capital Development
  43. 43. “Generatives” and changing markets The future is conversational: when there's more good stuff that you know about that's one click away or closer than you will ever click on, it's not enough to know that some book is good. The least substitutable good in the Internet era is the personal relationship. Conversation, not content, is king. “ Cory Doctorow 2006 http://www.locusmag.com/2006/Issues/07DoctorowCommentary.html
  44. 44. http://www.openanthropology.org/
  45. 45. http://www.googlizationofeverything.com/
  46. 46. Final thoughts • Emergence of “social publishing”? • Convergence with the other “open” movements? • Role of Google and Google Scholar? • Will commercial publishers win out again? • Will the academic community be able to design its own future?

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