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Information Literacy: the Defining Paradigm of Modern Education


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Information Literacy: the Defining Paradigm of Modern Education

  1. 1. National Forum on Information Literacy (1989) --- "Information literacy is defined as the ability to know when there is a need for information, and to be able to identify, locate, evaluate, and effectively use the information for the issue or problem at hand." NCLIS - National Commission on Libraries and Information Science UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) --- "Information Literacy encompasses knowledge of one's information concerns and needs, and the ability to identity, locate, evaluate, organize and effectively create, use and communicate information to address issues or problems at hand; it is a prerequisite for participating in the Information Society, and is part of the basic human right of lifelong learning."
  2. 2.  includes the skills of reading, writing, speaking, listening, counting, calculating, perceiving and drawing.
  3. 3.  Every student need to understand the difference between fiction and non-fiction.  Every student need to know how to effectively use reference books and periodicals.  Students need to understand the Dewey Decimal System as a useful, logical system of hierarchical organization and recognize its similarities to other such systems.  Students should use indexes and the library catalog so often that it becomes a subconscious skill.
  4. 4.  includes an understanding of the many different types of media and the purposes for which they can be used.  Students should be taught the difference between fact and opinion, and be able to distinguish between information, entertainment and persuasion.  They should learn that all information has a source and that knowing the source and its bases is an important part of understanding any information.
  5. 5.  basic computer operations: booting the computer, saving and retrieving files, loading a program, and perhaps some rudimentary word processing skills such as "cut and paste".  Like basic literacy, technology literacy is a continuum of skills that can always be improved, and, like library literacy, students receive technology experience and instruction in a hit or miss fashion depending on which teachers they may have over the years.  Every student should be thoroughly grounded in both the ethics and etiquette of technology use.  Most importantly, every student should have frequent opportunities to use technological tools to create his/her own information artifacts - in print, on the screen, and online.
  6. 6. “Visual Literacy means the skills and learning needed to view visual and audio/visual materials skeptically, critically and knowledgeably."
  7. 7. The information-literate student can:  recognize the need for information  identify and locate appropriate information sources  access information contained in those sources  evaluate the quality of information obtained
  8. 8. Most of the netizens surfing, hanging about, prowling the web for study and leisure presume that works uploaded in the internet are true and valid and usable as presented. BJ Fogg, a social scientist from Stanford University, found out that people do judge a Web site rather than what it contains.
  9. 9. On the internet, nobody knows you're a dog. So how can you tell if the information is reliable or not? Since people posting information in the internet are not required to pass through traditional editorial constraints or undergo any kind of fact-checking required in conventional published print media, there is no limit, check, or balance as to what is uploaded in the WWW. Thanks to cartoonist, Peter Steiner, whose cartoon became a constant reminder to all netizens to evaluate the validity of the information they use and check the credibility of the author using a set of criteria before they use the information they found.
  10. 10. We must be discriminating, judicious and smart users of information. That makes us information literate. Not only must we be discerning learners but we must be constantly learning. Several scholars like Breivik and Jones (1993) have found that the traditional literacies of reading, writing and mathematical reasoning are insufficient for lifelong learning. The increasing quantity of information from all sources and the pressure to remain in a constant state of conscious learning means that we must be dexterous in the use of information, too. The need to handle and use information is present in all stages of life and the acquisition of the competencies of information literacy must be intertwined with the acquisition of the other literacies.
  11. 11. This section of the special topic on Information Literacy provides some background on the changing views of education and explains the resulting changes in teaching practices that are required for information literacy instruction.
  12. 12.  is now perceived as a process, not a product "People do not quit learning when they leave school, but remain lifelong learners."
  13. 13.  Now objectives are flexible, taking individual and cultural differences into account. Current events, local resources and student's interests are also taken into account as curriculum objectives are adjusted to make learning more relevant.
  14. 14.  The classroom is viewed as an environment where active learning takes place. Overhead projectors, television monitors, VCRs and computers are standard equipment in the classroom. Classroom environment is conducive to learning and encourages students to become self-reliant and responsible for their own learning.
  15. 15.  Educators today realize that students need to be actively involved in seeking information and using it in some way as they create their own unique concepts of knowledge based on previous understandings and experiences.
  16. 16.  Students today are viewed as information seekers, information users, decision makers and problem solvers. What they learn depends on what they need to know to make a decision or to solve a problem.
  17. 17.  Now teachers are facilitators of the learning process and are constantly learning as they work collaboratively with other teachers, library media specialists, community members and even with overseas teachers via internet.
  18. 18.  Now projects of all sorts are the rule. Authentic assessments are intended to gauge what students learn by measuring how well they use the information such as portfolios, presentations and written reports.
  19. 19.  Library media centers are designed to provide not only efficient storage but also equal access to information and the convenient retrieval of it. Library media specialists now work cooperatively with teachers to plan units that integrate information literacy skills into subject-area curricula.
  20. 20.  The identification of information literacy skills needed for lifelong learning and thinking promotes a change in what is taught. Brain - based research that shows how students learn and the abundance of information in all formats dictates a change in how teachers teach.
  21. 21. Brian Ferguson in his e-book explains: Information Literacy skills are vital to fully participate in and contribute to the world we live in. The best hope for citizens to understand and function effectively in this data-intensive world is a comprehensive, hands-on, universal education in Information Literacy concepts and skills through schools. This course of study can and should be integrated with the traditional school subject areas, but it should also be considered as a separate core discipline especially for purposes of goal setting, curriculum design and evaluation.
  22. 22. Today's educators are responsible for preparing students to be effective users of information. The goal is to prepare students early on to "learn how to learn" and carry these skills into other areas of their lives so that they can be independent seekers and consumers of information throughout their lives (Humes, 1999). According to Lenox (1993), teachers must be prepared to "teach students to become critical thinkers, intellectually curious observers, creators and users of information".
  23. 23. The goal is to prepare students early on to "learn how to learn" and carry these skills into other areas of their lives so that they can be independent seekers and consumers of information throughout their lives. Teachers of all subjects must blend their traditional fact-based approach with an emphasis on learner-based inquiry and the scientific inquiry process. This means shifting some of the responsibility of gaining knowledge from the teacher to the student and allowing students to develop questions, strategies to search for answers and formulate conclusions.
  24. 24. In order to produce learners who are information-literate, schools will need to integrate information literacy skills across the curriculum in all subject areas beginning in the earliest grades. Educational institutions that wish to produce lifelong learners should be engaged in some fairly basic rethinking of how teaching faculty and information specialists such as librarians and media specialists can work together toward this end (Brittingham 1994).