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RETHINKING INFORMATION LITERACY
TEACHING AND LEARNINGTOOLS &TECHNIQUES ALONG
WITH ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES
Professor (Dr.) Ramesh C. Gaur,
Ph.D. Fulbright Scholar (VirginiaTech, USA)
Dean & Director (Lib&Inf.)/ Head - Kala Nidhi Division
Indira Gandhi NationalCentre for Arts
(IGNCA), Ministry of Culture, GOI
Emails: rcgaur66@gmail.com ; gaur@ignca.nic.in,
website: www.ignca.gov.in
Profile: http://ignca.gov.in/PDF_data/profile_of_dr_ramesh_c_gaur.pdf
INFORMATION LITERACY
Information literacy is the set of integrated
abilities encompassing the reflective discovery
of information, the understanding of how
information is produced and valued, and the
use of information in creating new knowledge
and participating ethically in communities of
learning.
 Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education.
Filed by the ACRL Board of Directors February 2, 2015.
UNESCO & UN
Information Literacy..empowers people in all walks of life to seek,
evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their
personal, social, occupational and educational goals. It is a basic
human right in a digital world and promotes social inclusion in all
nations.“ (UNESCO, 2005)
Empowerment of people through Media and Information Literacy
(MIL) is an important prerequisite for fostering equitable access to
information and knowledge and promoting free, independent and
pluralistic media and information systems.
UN SDGs-Ensure public access to information and protect
fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and
international agreements
PILLARS OF INFORMATION LITERACY MODEL
Identify
Plan
Gather
Access
Evaluate / Analysis
Manage / synthesis
Present / Disseminate
RETHINKINGACADEMIC LITERACIES
Disciplinary Literacies-Classroom / Learning Spaces
Argumentative Literacies- Ability to identify, evaluate, gather
and capture Social, cultural and other Literacy events
Collaborative Literacies- two or more persons engaged in
reading and/ or writing
Digital Literacies- through multiple digital tools and multiple
digital resources
Innovative Literacies – creative and innovative skills
E-Research Literacy
IoT Industry 4.0 Education 4.0 Library 4.0
 Known as ‘future of education’
 where man and machine align to enable new
possibilities
 harnesses the potential of digital
technologies, personalized data, open
sourced content, and the new humanity of
this globally-connected, technology-fueled
world
 establishes a blueprint for the future of
learning – lifelong learning – from childhood
schooling, to continuous learning in the
workplace, to learning to play a better role in
society.
EDUCATION 4.0
Reference: Fisk, P. "Education 4.0… the future of learning will be dramatically different, in school and throughout life." (2017).
 eLearning tools facilitate opportunities for remote, self-paced learning.
 Flipped Classrooms where theoretical part is learned outside the classroom
 Involves Personalized learning
 Blended learning, flipped classrooms and BYOD (BringYour Own Device) form important
terminology within this change.
 Project based learning and working
 Students to obtain real-world skills that are representative to their jobs.
 Courseware platforms which assess students capabilities at each step, measuring their
competencies
 Student ownership.
 Mentoring will become fundamental to student success.
EDUCATION 4.0 ENVIRONMENT
LIBRARIESAS LEARNING RESOURCE CENTRES
 Identification of print & non-print learning resources
 Identification of relevant digital learning resources
 Acquisition of learning resources
 E-books , E-journals and Online Databases
 Open educational resources
 Open courseware
 Open access resources
 Indexing
 Abstracting
 Location
 Searching
 Selection
 Evaluation
LIBRARIANS AS FACILITATORS OF LEARNING
AS WELL AS ATEACHER
 Acquisition of relevant Quality Learning Resources
 User Orientation / Education
 Provide access to information resources through efficient and well-guided systems for
organising, retrieving and circulating resources;
 Virtual referencing
 Information Literacy / Media Literacy / E-research Literacy
 Teaching and Learning
 Mutual Learning
 Group Learning
 Building an information literate research community
 provide additional assistance to students with particular learning needs or abilities, and to
students for whom social justice considerations apply
LEARNING COMMONS
The Collaborative Zone
The Social Learning Zone
The Individual Study Zone
SELF LEARNING
 According to Malcom Knowles, self-
learning is defined as: “a process by
which individuals take the initiative,
with or without the assistance of
others, in diagnosing
their learning needs,
formulating learning goals,
identifying human and material
resources for learning, and
evaluating learning outcomes”
 Libraries are the best place for self
Learning as it provide access to all
types of learning resources
MUTUAL LEARNING
 A mutual learning approach involves all
employees and partners asking questions
and being comfortable without all the
answers. It entails working together to
find answers to common concerns and
challenges, remaining curious, and not
making assumptions
Library is the ideal place to connect two or
more than two minds and initiate the
process of mutual learning. Moreover
individuals have learning resources to
verify or clear doubdts
GROUP LEARNING
A collection of persons who are
emotionally, intellectually, and
aesthetically engaged in solving
problems, creating products, and
making meaning—an assemblage in
which each person learns autonomously
and through the ways of learning of
others.
Libraries No more silent zones. It
enhances group learning
LIFELONG LEARNING
 Lifelong learning is a form of self-initiated education that is
focused on personal development. While there is no
standardized definition of lifelong learning, it has generally
been taken to refer to the learning that occurs outside of a
formal educational institute, such as a school, university or
corporate training.
 the provision or use of both formal and informal learning
opportunities throughout people's lives in order to foster the
continuous development and improvement of the knowledge
and skills needed for employment and personal fulfilment
 Libraries are most important place for literacy, digital literacy,
professional learning, infotainment, and lifelong learning
READING AND LEARNING
 Reading is defined as a cognitive process that involves
decoding symbols to arrive at meaning. Reading is an
active process of constructing meanings of words.
Reading with a purpose helps the reader to direct
information towards a goal and focuses their attention.
Although the reasons for reading may vary, the primary
purpose of reading is to understand the text. Reading is
a thinking process.
 According to research, reading is a process that
negotiates the meaning between the text and its reader
 Sometimes known as the second visual modality
for learning, reading and writing is a learning
style where individuals are able to absorb and retain the
most information through reading and writing text,
versus imagery and symbolism
TEACHINGAND LEARNING
Teaching and learning is a process that
includes many variables.These variables
interact as learners work toward their goals and
incorporate new knowledge, behaviours, and
skills that add to their range
of learning experiences
While teachers cannot make students learn,
they can promote learning by helping students
become motivated to learn, handle information
and experience, develop knowledge, attitude,
and skills, and transfer their learning from the
classroom to the real world (McLagan 1978).
BLENDED LEARNING
Blended
learning combines classroom
learning with online learning, in
which students can, in part,
control the time, pace, and place
of their learning. I advocate a
teacher-designed blended
learning model, in which teachers
determine the combination that's
right for them and their students
E-LEARNING
 Understanding eLearning is simple. eLearning is learning
utilizing electronic technologies to access educational
curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. In most cases,
it refers to a course, program or degree delivered
completely online
 There are many terms used to describe learning that is
delivered online, via the internet, ranging from Distance
Education, to computerized electronic learning, online
learning, internet learning and many others.We define
eLearning as courses that are specifically delivered via the
internet to somewhere other than the classroom where the
professor is teaching.
http://www.elearningnc.gov/about_elearning/what_is_elearning/
WHAT IS DIGITAL LEARNING
Digital learning is any instructional practice
that effectively uses technology to strengthen
a student's learning experience. ...
Additionally, digital learning can be used for
professional learning opportunities for
teachers and to provide
personalized learning experiences for students
It is any type of learning using technology or
online instructional practices or Internet or
Intranet. It is also known as virtual learning.
 E-resources are Key for digital learning
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING
INTERNET & LEARNING
 Access to the Internet is fundamental to achieving
this vision for the future. It can improve the quality
of education in many ways. It opens doorways to a
wealth of information, knowledge and educational
resources, increasing opportunities for learning in
and beyond the classroom
 The Internet has become a unique platform for
learning. Its 24/7 availability and broad range of
information offers allows for the creation of brand-
new learning methods - not only for acquiring
domain-specific and general knowledge but also for
developing new learning skills.
https://www.internetsociety.org/resources/doc/2017/internet-access-and-
education/#:~:text=Access%20to%20the%20Internet%20is,in%20and%20beyond%20the%20classroom.
1. Google or any standard search engine
providesAccess to just 15-20 % web
contents.What about rest 80=85 %?
2. Google or any standard search engine does
not certify the authenticity of the
information
3. While searching on Google or any standard
search engineYou may not get most relevant
results higher up in relevancy ranking
4. How to deal with InformationOverload or
explosion?
INTERNET IS NOT LIBRARY OR NOT EVEN A DIGITAL
LIBRARY
Google and Other Standard Search EnginesTrustworthiness?
WHAT IS A DEEPWEB ?
 DeepWeb is referred to the data which are not indexed by
any standard search engine such as Google orYahoo.The
'DeepWeb' refers to all web pages that search engines
cannot find, such as user databases, registration-required
web forums, webmail pages, and pages behind paywalls.
 The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of
the WorldWide Web whose contents are not indexed by
standard search engines for any reason. ...The opposite
term to the deep web is the surface web.
Deep web - Wikipedia
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_web
DEEP RESOURCES
• DynamicWeb Pages
– returned in response to a submitted query or
accessed only through a form
• Unlinked Contents
– Pages without any backlinks
• Private Web
– sites requiring registration and login (password-
protected resources)
• Limited Access web
– Sites with captchas, no-cache pragma http
headers
• Scripted Pages
– Page produced by javascrips, Flash, AJAX etc
• Non HTML contents
– Multimedia files e.g. images o videos
HOW BIG IS DEEPWEB
 The Deep Web contains 7500Terabytes of information.The Surface Web, in comparison,
contains 19 terabytes of content.
 – The Deep Web has between 400 and 550 times more public information than the Surface
Web.
 – More than 200,000 Deep Web sites currently exist.
 – Together, the 60 largest Deep Web sites contain around 750 terabytes of data, surpassing
the size of the entire Surface Web 40 times.
 – The total quality of the Deep Web is 1,000 to 2,000 times greater than the quality of the
Surface Web.
 – 550 billion individual documents can be found on the Deep Web compared to the Surface
Web’s 1 billion individual documents.
 – 95% of the Deep Web is publically accessible, meaning no fees or subscriptions.
https://hewilson.wordpress.com/what-is-the-deep-web/statistics/
PRESENT DEEPWEB SEARCH SCENARIO
Federated
Search
Google’s
surfacing
Meta Search or
Discovery
https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/MetaFusion%3A-An-efficient-metasearch-engine-using-Gupta-
Singh/81b4c2d70e75bdbefef3cb2499b62a1f24a1fad9
Semantic SearchTools and Databases
Meta-Search Engines like Academic Index.
General Search Engines and Databases OAIster
Academic Search Engines and Databases Google Scholar.
Scientific Search Engines and Databases GoPubMed
Collaborative Information and Databases Del.icio.us
Open access search engines CORE
SEARCH ENGINESTO SEARCH DEEPWEB
LEARNING DISABILITIES
 Learning Disability means a disorder in one or more of
the basic psychological processes involved in
understanding or in using language, spoken or written,
that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen,
think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical
calculations, including .
 Dyscalculia.A specific learning disability that affects a person's
ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.
 Dysgraphia. ...
 Dyslexia. ...
 Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities. ...
 Oral /Written Language Disorder and Specific Reading
Comprehension Deficit.
WHAT IS E-RESEARCH
 eResearch is the term applied to the use of advanced information and
communication technologies (ICT's) to the practice of research. Key areas include
collaboration, computation (including high performance computing), visualisation,
research data management and tools.
 eResearch
 https://my.cqu.edu.au/web/eresearch
 ARL is using the term e-research to encompass computationally intensive, large-
scale, networked and collaborative forms of research and scholarship across all
disciplines, including all of the natural and physical sciences, related applied and
technological disciplines, biomedicine, social science and the digital humanities
E‐RESEARCH LITERACY
Authority Is Constructed and
Contextual
Information Creation as a
Process
Information HasValue
Research as Inquiry
Scholarship as Conversation
Searching as Strategic
Exploration
STEPS IN E‐RESEARCH LITERACY
Computer
Searching
Reading
Analyzing And
synthesizing
Writing
STAKEHOLDERS IN E‐RESEARCH LITERACY
The Educator / researcher
TheTeacher-Librarian
/The information Expert
Curriculum Developer
E‐RESEARCH LITERACY SKILLS
Determine the nature and extent of the
information needed
Access the needed information effectively and
efficiently
Evaluate the information critically
Use the information to accomplish your
purpose
Understand the legal and ethical issues in
using information, and action accordance with
your understanding.
HOWTO MEASURE E‐RESEARCH LITERACY NEEDS?
 What is the level of information literacy skill possessed by the
Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/ Institution
 What is the number of research output of your University/
Institution?
 What is the relationship between information literacy skills and the
research output of the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your
University/ Institution?
 What is the relationship between the ranks and information
literacy skills of the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your
University/ Institution
 What is the relationship between the ranks and research output of
the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/
Institution
COLLABORATION BETWEEN LIBRARIANS AND
FACULTYTO ENHANCE E‐RESEARCH LITERACY
 The Library User Education Program
 Advocating links to Library Web sites within online courses; and
 Developing course-specific resource Web pages.
 Recognize that librarians and faculty are in the same business;
 Give clear communication with librarians about what is going on in a course,
especially about assignments that might involve student research or use of
the library;
 Give research assignments that are possible for students to complete with
the campus’ library resources;
 Inform librarians about new courses or curricular initiatives, so that the
library collections can support the institution’s programs
E‐RESEARCH LITERACY FOR STUDENTS
 how to determine the information needed
 Instructs students about research methods
 Teaches students about scholarly communication
 Teaches students about information technology
 Instructs students broadly about how to evaluate print and electronic information sources
 Teaches students about economic, political, legal and cultural context of information
 Teaches students about how to evaluate information content
 Teaches students how to synthesize information
 Teaches critical thinking skills
 Teaches problem solving skills
 Teaches students about data manipulation and data management
RETHINKING PLAGIARISM IN DIGITAL AGE
 Explicitly teach students –how to search, what to search , what not to search and
where to search on Internet, Literature Review etc
 What is Research and Publication Ethics-Research Misconduct-Fabrication,
Falsification and Plagiarism(FFP)- make an explicit topic in instructions and engage
faculty and students in discussions
 Why do people plagiarize & Consequences of Act of Plagiarism
 How to detect it- exclusions, common knowledge, unavoidable, similarity reports
 How to avoid it-guidelines, citations- paraphrasing, summarizing and Quotations,
copyrights, Predatory publishing, How to choose quality Journals
 Other forms of Academic dishonesty-Post Publishing Scientific or Research
Misconduct
RETHINKING MEDIA LITERACYAND SOCIAL MEDIA IN
THE AGE OF FAKE NEWS
• Media Literacy is a 21st century approach to education.
• It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate and
create messages in a variety of forms - from print to video to
the Internet.
• Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in
society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression
necessary for citizens of a democracy.
Challenges of disinformation, misinformation, Fake news,
rumor, and other information pollution in social media and web
RETHINKING HEALTH LITERACY- IN STATE
OF PANDEMIC
Understand
Analysis
Plan
Organize
Monitor
Sustain
INFORMATION LITERACY AND LEGAL-ETHICAL
ISSUES
understands many of the economic, legal, and social
issues surrounding the use of information and accesses
and uses information ethically and legally
 Research and Publication Ethics-Scientific Misconduct-FFP,
Referencing, Citation Manangement
 Intellectual Property Rights
 Licensing, DRMs& Fair Use
 Creative Commons
 Institution Polices and guidelines
 National Policies and Regulations,
CONCLUSIONS
 Rename Library as “Learning Resource Centre”
 Libraries should develop plans and policies to enhance learning experiences
in Libraries
 Reading spaces to Learning Commons
 Special sections to deal with Information Literacy, Media Literacy and
eResearch Literacy
 Librarians should develop themselves as facilitators of Learning as well as aTeachers
to conduct various Information Literacy Courses
 Library and Information Science courses should be re-designated as Library,
Information and Learning Sciences accordingly course content may be re-
designed
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAND DECLARATION
BY PRESENTER
I would like express my sincere thanks to Authors of various
Internet sources used to prepare this presentation.
Wherever possible the links have been provided. However
any omission is duly regretted.
The presentation is mainly prepared to create an awareness
amongst students and researchers about the Information
Literacy and related issues.
These slides have been/being used in my various talks and
presentations both online and offline
For Any further
information / question
Please feel free
To write to me
rcgaur66@gmail.com
gaur@ignca.nic.in

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Rethinking Information Literacy Teaching Tools

  • 1. RETHINKING INFORMATION LITERACY TEACHING AND LEARNINGTOOLS &TECHNIQUES ALONG WITH ETHICAL AND LEGAL ISSUES Professor (Dr.) Ramesh C. Gaur, Ph.D. Fulbright Scholar (VirginiaTech, USA) Dean & Director (Lib&Inf.)/ Head - Kala Nidhi Division Indira Gandhi NationalCentre for Arts (IGNCA), Ministry of Culture, GOI Emails: rcgaur66@gmail.com ; gaur@ignca.nic.in, website: www.ignca.gov.in Profile: http://ignca.gov.in/PDF_data/profile_of_dr_ramesh_c_gaur.pdf
  • 2. INFORMATION LITERACY Information literacy is the set of integrated abilities encompassing the reflective discovery of information, the understanding of how information is produced and valued, and the use of information in creating new knowledge and participating ethically in communities of learning.  Framework for Information Literacy for Higher Education. Filed by the ACRL Board of Directors February 2, 2015.
  • 3. UNESCO & UN Information Literacy..empowers people in all walks of life to seek, evaluate, use and create information effectively to achieve their personal, social, occupational and educational goals. It is a basic human right in a digital world and promotes social inclusion in all nations.“ (UNESCO, 2005) Empowerment of people through Media and Information Literacy (MIL) is an important prerequisite for fostering equitable access to information and knowledge and promoting free, independent and pluralistic media and information systems. UN SDGs-Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements
  • 4. PILLARS OF INFORMATION LITERACY MODEL Identify Plan Gather Access Evaluate / Analysis Manage / synthesis Present / Disseminate
  • 5. RETHINKINGACADEMIC LITERACIES Disciplinary Literacies-Classroom / Learning Spaces Argumentative Literacies- Ability to identify, evaluate, gather and capture Social, cultural and other Literacy events Collaborative Literacies- two or more persons engaged in reading and/ or writing Digital Literacies- through multiple digital tools and multiple digital resources Innovative Literacies – creative and innovative skills E-Research Literacy
  • 6. IoT Industry 4.0 Education 4.0 Library 4.0
  • 7.  Known as ‘future of education’  where man and machine align to enable new possibilities  harnesses the potential of digital technologies, personalized data, open sourced content, and the new humanity of this globally-connected, technology-fueled world  establishes a blueprint for the future of learning – lifelong learning – from childhood schooling, to continuous learning in the workplace, to learning to play a better role in society. EDUCATION 4.0 Reference: Fisk, P. "Education 4.0… the future of learning will be dramatically different, in school and throughout life." (2017).
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  • 9.  eLearning tools facilitate opportunities for remote, self-paced learning.  Flipped Classrooms where theoretical part is learned outside the classroom  Involves Personalized learning  Blended learning, flipped classrooms and BYOD (BringYour Own Device) form important terminology within this change.  Project based learning and working  Students to obtain real-world skills that are representative to their jobs.  Courseware platforms which assess students capabilities at each step, measuring their competencies  Student ownership.  Mentoring will become fundamental to student success. EDUCATION 4.0 ENVIRONMENT
  • 10. LIBRARIESAS LEARNING RESOURCE CENTRES  Identification of print & non-print learning resources  Identification of relevant digital learning resources  Acquisition of learning resources  E-books , E-journals and Online Databases  Open educational resources  Open courseware  Open access resources  Indexing  Abstracting  Location  Searching  Selection  Evaluation
  • 11. LIBRARIANS AS FACILITATORS OF LEARNING AS WELL AS ATEACHER  Acquisition of relevant Quality Learning Resources  User Orientation / Education  Provide access to information resources through efficient and well-guided systems for organising, retrieving and circulating resources;  Virtual referencing  Information Literacy / Media Literacy / E-research Literacy  Teaching and Learning  Mutual Learning  Group Learning  Building an information literate research community  provide additional assistance to students with particular learning needs or abilities, and to students for whom social justice considerations apply
  • 12. LEARNING COMMONS The Collaborative Zone The Social Learning Zone The Individual Study Zone
  • 13. SELF LEARNING  According to Malcom Knowles, self- learning is defined as: “a process by which individuals take the initiative, with or without the assistance of others, in diagnosing their learning needs, formulating learning goals, identifying human and material resources for learning, and evaluating learning outcomes”  Libraries are the best place for self Learning as it provide access to all types of learning resources
  • 14. MUTUAL LEARNING  A mutual learning approach involves all employees and partners asking questions and being comfortable without all the answers. It entails working together to find answers to common concerns and challenges, remaining curious, and not making assumptions Library is the ideal place to connect two or more than two minds and initiate the process of mutual learning. Moreover individuals have learning resources to verify or clear doubdts
  • 15. GROUP LEARNING A collection of persons who are emotionally, intellectually, and aesthetically engaged in solving problems, creating products, and making meaning—an assemblage in which each person learns autonomously and through the ways of learning of others. Libraries No more silent zones. It enhances group learning
  • 16. LIFELONG LEARNING  Lifelong learning is a form of self-initiated education that is focused on personal development. While there is no standardized definition of lifelong learning, it has generally been taken to refer to the learning that occurs outside of a formal educational institute, such as a school, university or corporate training.  the provision or use of both formal and informal learning opportunities throughout people's lives in order to foster the continuous development and improvement of the knowledge and skills needed for employment and personal fulfilment  Libraries are most important place for literacy, digital literacy, professional learning, infotainment, and lifelong learning
  • 17. READING AND LEARNING  Reading is defined as a cognitive process that involves decoding symbols to arrive at meaning. Reading is an active process of constructing meanings of words. Reading with a purpose helps the reader to direct information towards a goal and focuses their attention. Although the reasons for reading may vary, the primary purpose of reading is to understand the text. Reading is a thinking process.  According to research, reading is a process that negotiates the meaning between the text and its reader  Sometimes known as the second visual modality for learning, reading and writing is a learning style where individuals are able to absorb and retain the most information through reading and writing text, versus imagery and symbolism
  • 18. TEACHINGAND LEARNING Teaching and learning is a process that includes many variables.These variables interact as learners work toward their goals and incorporate new knowledge, behaviours, and skills that add to their range of learning experiences While teachers cannot make students learn, they can promote learning by helping students become motivated to learn, handle information and experience, develop knowledge, attitude, and skills, and transfer their learning from the classroom to the real world (McLagan 1978).
  • 19. BLENDED LEARNING Blended learning combines classroom learning with online learning, in which students can, in part, control the time, pace, and place of their learning. I advocate a teacher-designed blended learning model, in which teachers determine the combination that's right for them and their students
  • 20. E-LEARNING  Understanding eLearning is simple. eLearning is learning utilizing electronic technologies to access educational curriculum outside of a traditional classroom. In most cases, it refers to a course, program or degree delivered completely online  There are many terms used to describe learning that is delivered online, via the internet, ranging from Distance Education, to computerized electronic learning, online learning, internet learning and many others.We define eLearning as courses that are specifically delivered via the internet to somewhere other than the classroom where the professor is teaching. http://www.elearningnc.gov/about_elearning/what_is_elearning/
  • 21. WHAT IS DIGITAL LEARNING Digital learning is any instructional practice that effectively uses technology to strengthen a student's learning experience. ... Additionally, digital learning can be used for professional learning opportunities for teachers and to provide personalized learning experiences for students It is any type of learning using technology or online instructional practices or Internet or Intranet. It is also known as virtual learning.  E-resources are Key for digital learning
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  • 24. INTERNET & LEARNING  Access to the Internet is fundamental to achieving this vision for the future. It can improve the quality of education in many ways. It opens doorways to a wealth of information, knowledge and educational resources, increasing opportunities for learning in and beyond the classroom  The Internet has become a unique platform for learning. Its 24/7 availability and broad range of information offers allows for the creation of brand- new learning methods - not only for acquiring domain-specific and general knowledge but also for developing new learning skills. https://www.internetsociety.org/resources/doc/2017/internet-access-and- education/#:~:text=Access%20to%20the%20Internet%20is,in%20and%20beyond%20the%20classroom.
  • 25. 1. Google or any standard search engine providesAccess to just 15-20 % web contents.What about rest 80=85 %? 2. Google or any standard search engine does not certify the authenticity of the information 3. While searching on Google or any standard search engineYou may not get most relevant results higher up in relevancy ranking 4. How to deal with InformationOverload or explosion? INTERNET IS NOT LIBRARY OR NOT EVEN A DIGITAL LIBRARY Google and Other Standard Search EnginesTrustworthiness?
  • 26. WHAT IS A DEEPWEB ?  DeepWeb is referred to the data which are not indexed by any standard search engine such as Google orYahoo.The 'DeepWeb' refers to all web pages that search engines cannot find, such as user databases, registration-required web forums, webmail pages, and pages behind paywalls.  The deep web, invisible web, or hidden web are parts of the WorldWide Web whose contents are not indexed by standard search engines for any reason. ...The opposite term to the deep web is the surface web. Deep web - Wikipedia https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deep_web
  • 27. DEEP RESOURCES • DynamicWeb Pages – returned in response to a submitted query or accessed only through a form • Unlinked Contents – Pages without any backlinks • Private Web – sites requiring registration and login (password- protected resources) • Limited Access web – Sites with captchas, no-cache pragma http headers • Scripted Pages – Page produced by javascrips, Flash, AJAX etc • Non HTML contents – Multimedia files e.g. images o videos
  • 28. HOW BIG IS DEEPWEB  The Deep Web contains 7500Terabytes of information.The Surface Web, in comparison, contains 19 terabytes of content.  – The Deep Web has between 400 and 550 times more public information than the Surface Web.  – More than 200,000 Deep Web sites currently exist.  – Together, the 60 largest Deep Web sites contain around 750 terabytes of data, surpassing the size of the entire Surface Web 40 times.  – The total quality of the Deep Web is 1,000 to 2,000 times greater than the quality of the Surface Web.  – 550 billion individual documents can be found on the Deep Web compared to the Surface Web’s 1 billion individual documents.  – 95% of the Deep Web is publically accessible, meaning no fees or subscriptions. https://hewilson.wordpress.com/what-is-the-deep-web/statistics/
  • 29. PRESENT DEEPWEB SEARCH SCENARIO Federated Search Google’s surfacing Meta Search or Discovery https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/MetaFusion%3A-An-efficient-metasearch-engine-using-Gupta- Singh/81b4c2d70e75bdbefef3cb2499b62a1f24a1fad9
  • 30. Semantic SearchTools and Databases Meta-Search Engines like Academic Index. General Search Engines and Databases OAIster Academic Search Engines and Databases Google Scholar. Scientific Search Engines and Databases GoPubMed Collaborative Information and Databases Del.icio.us Open access search engines CORE SEARCH ENGINESTO SEARCH DEEPWEB
  • 31. LEARNING DISABILITIES  Learning Disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell or do mathematical calculations, including .  Dyscalculia.A specific learning disability that affects a person's ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.  Dysgraphia. ...  Dyslexia. ...  Non-Verbal Learning Disabilities. ...  Oral /Written Language Disorder and Specific Reading Comprehension Deficit.
  • 32. WHAT IS E-RESEARCH  eResearch is the term applied to the use of advanced information and communication technologies (ICT's) to the practice of research. Key areas include collaboration, computation (including high performance computing), visualisation, research data management and tools.  eResearch  https://my.cqu.edu.au/web/eresearch  ARL is using the term e-research to encompass computationally intensive, large- scale, networked and collaborative forms of research and scholarship across all disciplines, including all of the natural and physical sciences, related applied and technological disciplines, biomedicine, social science and the digital humanities
  • 33. E‐RESEARCH LITERACY Authority Is Constructed and Contextual Information Creation as a Process Information HasValue Research as Inquiry Scholarship as Conversation Searching as Strategic Exploration
  • 34. STEPS IN E‐RESEARCH LITERACY Computer Searching Reading Analyzing And synthesizing Writing
  • 35. STAKEHOLDERS IN E‐RESEARCH LITERACY The Educator / researcher TheTeacher-Librarian /The information Expert Curriculum Developer
  • 36. E‐RESEARCH LITERACY SKILLS Determine the nature and extent of the information needed Access the needed information effectively and efficiently Evaluate the information critically Use the information to accomplish your purpose Understand the legal and ethical issues in using information, and action accordance with your understanding.
  • 37. HOWTO MEASURE E‐RESEARCH LITERACY NEEDS?  What is the level of information literacy skill possessed by the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/ Institution  What is the number of research output of your University/ Institution?  What is the relationship between information literacy skills and the research output of the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/ Institution?  What is the relationship between the ranks and information literacy skills of the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/ Institution  What is the relationship between the ranks and research output of the Researchers and Faculty / Scientists in your University/ Institution
  • 38. COLLABORATION BETWEEN LIBRARIANS AND FACULTYTO ENHANCE E‐RESEARCH LITERACY  The Library User Education Program  Advocating links to Library Web sites within online courses; and  Developing course-specific resource Web pages.  Recognize that librarians and faculty are in the same business;  Give clear communication with librarians about what is going on in a course, especially about assignments that might involve student research or use of the library;  Give research assignments that are possible for students to complete with the campus’ library resources;  Inform librarians about new courses or curricular initiatives, so that the library collections can support the institution’s programs
  • 39. E‐RESEARCH LITERACY FOR STUDENTS  how to determine the information needed  Instructs students about research methods  Teaches students about scholarly communication  Teaches students about information technology  Instructs students broadly about how to evaluate print and electronic information sources  Teaches students about economic, political, legal and cultural context of information  Teaches students about how to evaluate information content  Teaches students how to synthesize information  Teaches critical thinking skills  Teaches problem solving skills  Teaches students about data manipulation and data management
  • 40. RETHINKING PLAGIARISM IN DIGITAL AGE  Explicitly teach students –how to search, what to search , what not to search and where to search on Internet, Literature Review etc  What is Research and Publication Ethics-Research Misconduct-Fabrication, Falsification and Plagiarism(FFP)- make an explicit topic in instructions and engage faculty and students in discussions  Why do people plagiarize & Consequences of Act of Plagiarism  How to detect it- exclusions, common knowledge, unavoidable, similarity reports  How to avoid it-guidelines, citations- paraphrasing, summarizing and Quotations, copyrights, Predatory publishing, How to choose quality Journals  Other forms of Academic dishonesty-Post Publishing Scientific or Research Misconduct
  • 41. RETHINKING MEDIA LITERACYAND SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE AGE OF FAKE NEWS • Media Literacy is a 21st century approach to education. • It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate and create messages in a variety of forms - from print to video to the Internet. • Media literacy builds an understanding of the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy. Challenges of disinformation, misinformation, Fake news, rumor, and other information pollution in social media and web
  • 42. RETHINKING HEALTH LITERACY- IN STATE OF PANDEMIC Understand Analysis Plan Organize Monitor Sustain
  • 43. INFORMATION LITERACY AND LEGAL-ETHICAL ISSUES understands many of the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information and accesses and uses information ethically and legally  Research and Publication Ethics-Scientific Misconduct-FFP, Referencing, Citation Manangement  Intellectual Property Rights  Licensing, DRMs& Fair Use  Creative Commons  Institution Polices and guidelines  National Policies and Regulations,
  • 44. CONCLUSIONS  Rename Library as “Learning Resource Centre”  Libraries should develop plans and policies to enhance learning experiences in Libraries  Reading spaces to Learning Commons  Special sections to deal with Information Literacy, Media Literacy and eResearch Literacy  Librarians should develop themselves as facilitators of Learning as well as aTeachers to conduct various Information Literacy Courses  Library and Information Science courses should be re-designated as Library, Information and Learning Sciences accordingly course content may be re- designed
  • 45. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSAND DECLARATION BY PRESENTER I would like express my sincere thanks to Authors of various Internet sources used to prepare this presentation. Wherever possible the links have been provided. However any omission is duly regretted. The presentation is mainly prepared to create an awareness amongst students and researchers about the Information Literacy and related issues. These slides have been/being used in my various talks and presentations both online and offline
  • 46. For Any further information / question Please feel free To write to me rcgaur66@gmail.com gaur@ignca.nic.in