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Introduction to Metadata


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Bengkel Metadata, RDA & Hyperlink PUiTM 2010
Anjuran : BPBPT PTAR
Tarikh : 5 April 2010
Tempat : Bilik Seminar PTAR 1
Penceramah : Pn.Hamidah Abdul Rahman
Jawatan: Senior Lecturer

Introduction to Metadata

  1. 1. METADATA: AN INTRODUCTION<br />Presented by:<br />Hamidahbt. HJ. A. Rahman<br />Senior Lecturer<br />Faculty of Information Management<br />UiTMPuncakPerdana Campus<br />40150 Shah Alam<br />SELANGOR DARUL EHSAN<br />4/5/2010<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Metadata is structured data which describes the characteristics of a resource. <br />It shares many similar characteristics to the cataloguing that takes place in libraries, museums and archives. <br />The term "meta" derives from the Greek word denoting a nature of a higher order or more fundamental kind. <br />A metadata record consists of a number of pre-defined elements representing specific attributes of a resource, and each element can have one or more values.<br />4/5/2010<br />2<br />What is metadata?<br />
  3. 3. What is metadata?<br />Structured data about resources<br />Library catalogues<br />Abstracting and indexing services<br />Archival finding aids<br />Museum documentation<br />Community information<br />Carriers: MARC, HTML, SGML, XML<br />4/5/2010<br />3<br />
  4. 4. Types of metadata<br />Descriptive Metadata<br />Administrative Metadata<br />Structural Metadata<br />4/5/2010<br />4<br />
  5. 5. Types of metadata<br />Descriptive Metadata<br />Administrative Metadata<br />Structural Metadata<br />4/5/2010<br />5<br />
  6. 6. Types of metadata<br />Descriptive Metadata: <br />to serve the purposes of discovery (how one finds a resource), identification (how a resource can be distinguished from other, similar resources), and selection (how to determine that a resource fills a particular need, for example, for the DVD version of a video recording)<br />4/5/2010<br />6<br />
  7. 7. Types of metadata<br />Administrative Metadata:<br />is information intended to facilitate the management of resources. It can include such information as when and how an object was created,who is responsible for controlling access to or archiving the content, what control or processing activities have been performed in relation to it, and what restrictions on access or use apply.<br />4/5/2010<br />7<br />
  8. 8. Types of metadata<br />Structural Metadata (SM):<br />can be thought of as the glue that holds compound digital objects together. A book, for example, may have many chapters, each consisting of a set of pages, each page represented by a separate digital file. Structural metadata (SM) is required to record the relationships between physical files and pages, between pages and chapters, and between chapters and the book as a whole. Presentation software uses SM to display Tables of contents and to deliver such functions as going directly to a requested chapter, or to turn pages forward or backward in order.<br />4/5/2010<br />8<br />
  9. 9. Why use metadata?<br />Metadata provides the essential link between the information creator and the information user.<br />4/5/2010<br />9<br />
  10. 10. Aim of metadata<br />While the primary aim of metadata is to improve resource discovery, metadata sets are also being developed for other reasons, including:<br /><ul><li>administrative control
  11. 11. security
  12. 12. personal information
  13. 13. management information
  14. 14. content rating
  15. 15. rights management
  16. 16. preservation</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />10<br />
  17. 17. Metadata may be deployed in a number of ways:<br />Embedding the metadata in the Web page by the creator or their agent using META tags in the HTML coding of the page <br />As a separate HTML document linked to the resource it describes <br />In a database linked to the resource. The records may either have been directly created within the database or extracted from another source, such as Web pages.<br />4/5/2010<br />11<br />
  18. 18. Some of the most popular metadata schemas include:<br /><ul><li>Dublin Core
  19. 19. AACR2 (Anglo-American Cataloging Rules)
  20. 20. GILS (Government Information Locator Service)
  21. 21. EAD (Encoded Archives Description) </li></ul>IMS (IMS Global Learning Consortium) <br />AGLS (Australian Government Locator Service) <br />4/5/2010<br />12<br />
  22. 22. The data will be unusable, unless the encoding scheme understands the semantics of the metadata schema. The encoding allows the metadata to be processed by a computer program. <br />Important schemes include:<br />HTML(Hyper-Text Markup Language) <br />SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language) <br />XML (eXtensible Markup Language) <br />RDF (Resource Description Framework) <br />MARC (MAchine Readable Cataloging) <br />MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) <br />4/5/2010<br />13<br />
  23. 23. Markup languages<br />SGML- Standard Generalised Markup Language<br /> - controls document formatting for publication<br />XML- Extensible Markup Language<br /> - “next generation” SGML<br />HTML- Hyper Text Markup Language<br /> - SGML subset, controls display of web pages<br />Tags (usually paired) structure text into elements<br />e.g. headings, paragraphs, lists, etc.<br /><title> </title> <p> </p> <li> </li><br />4/5/2010<br />14<br />
  24. 24. MARC - structure<br /><ul><li> Structured format
  25. 25. Numeric and alpha tags
  26. 26. Fixed fields
  27. 27. Leader, 001-008, 010-099
  28. 28. Variable fields</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />15<br />
  29. 29. MARC – elements<br />1XX Main entry<br />2XX Title, SR, edition, publication<br />3XX Physical description<br />4XX Series<br />5XX Notes<br />6XX Subject access<br />7XX Added entries<br />8XX Added entries for series<br />9XX References and local fields<br />4/5/2010<br />16<br />
  30. 30. ONIX - structure<br /><ul><li>Carrier - XML
  31. 31. Primary use
  32. 32. publishers to Internet booksellers
  33. 33. rich product information</li></ul> In use <br /><ul><li>first version 1999
  34. 34. current version Release 2.0 (2001)
  35. 35. Elements – XML reference name and tag</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />17<br />
  36. 36. ONIX - elements<br /><ul><li> Message header
  37. 37. Product record</li></ul>identifiers, author, title, edition, language, subject, audience, descriptions, publisher, dates<br />territorial rights, dimensions, suppliers, availability, promotions<br /><ul><li> Main series and sub series records</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />18<br />
  38. 38. ONIX record<br /><ISBN> 0123456789 </ISBN><br /><DistinctiveTitle> Alice in Wonderland </Distinctive Title><br /><Contributor><br /><ContributorRole> Author </ContributorRole> <PersonNameInverted> Carroll, Lewis </PersonNameInverted><br /> </Contributor><br /><PublisherName> Collins </PublisherName><br /><PublicationDate> 2000 </Publication Date><br />4/5/2010<br />19<br />
  39. 39. Dublin Core - structure<br /> Simple resource discovery<br /> DCMES – Dublin Core Metadata Element Set<br /> HTML the most common ‘carrier’<br /> Comprises 15 elements with <br /> element qualifiers<br /> element encoding schemes<br /> optional/mandatory elements<br /> Application profiles<br />4/5/2010<br />20<br />
  40. 40. Dublin Core - elements<br />Title<br />Creator<br />Subject<br />Description<br />Publisher<br />Contributor<br />Date<br />Resource Type<br />Format<br />Resource Identifier<br />Source<br />Language<br />Relation<br />Coverage<br />Rights<br />4/5/2010<br />21<br />
  41. 41. Dublin Core - record<br /><Title> Alice in Wonderland </Title><br /><Creator> Lewis Carroll </Creator><br /><Subject> <LCSH> Fiction </LCSH> </Subject><br /><Publisher> Project Gutenberg </Publisher><br /><Date> 2000 </Date><br /><Format> ASCII file via FTP </Format><br /><Identifier>….. </Identifier> <br />4/5/2010<br />22<br />
  42. 42. Encoded Archival Description <br /><ul><li> EAD</li></ul>1993 project to develop standard for machine-readable finding aids,Version 1 1998 <br /><ul><li>SGML (and XML compliant)
  43. 43. Hierarchical structure of archives</li></ul>repository, management group, fonds, series, file, item<br /><ul><li> Possible to embed MARC elements</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />23<br />
  44. 44. EAD - structure<br /><ead><br /> <eadheader><br /> </eadheader> <br /> <frontmatter> [optional]<br /> </frontmatter><br /> <archdesc><br /> <did><br /> </did><br /> </archdesc><br /></ead><br />4/5/2010<br />24<br />
  45. 45. EAD - elements<br /><eadheader> [id + bibliographic inf. for finding aid]<br /><archdesc> [data on a body of archival materials]<br /><did> [container, physical description, physical location, repository, date and title of unit]<br /><admininfo> [biography, scope, access, arrangement]<br /><controlaccess> [name, place, genre, subject, title]<br /></archdesc><br />4/5/2010<br />25<br />
  46. 46. EAD record - <header><br /><ead><br /><eadheader><br /><eadid> LKX-3042 </eadid<br /><filedesc><br /><titlestmt> <titleproper> Pitman Shorthand Collection Catalogue </titleproper> <author> Ann Chapman </author> </titlestmt><br /><publicationstmt> <date> 1990 </date> <publisher> Bath University Library </publisher> </publicationstmt><br /> </filedesc> </eadheader> <br />4/5/2010<br />26<br />
  47. 47. EAD record - <archdesc><br /><archdesc> collection<br /><did> <abstract> A collection of materials in and about<br />shorthand collected by Sir Isaac Pitman and James<br />Pitman</abstract> </did><br /><controlaccess><br /><subject encodinganalog=“MARC650”> Shorthand </subject><br /></controlaccess> <br /></archdesc><br /></ead><br />4/5/2010<br />27<br />
  48. 48. Collection Description<br />Schema developed May 2000<br />Access version for RSLP – summer 2001<br />Web version for Reveal – spring 2002<br />General attributes<br />Subject<br />Dates<br />Associated agents<br />External relationships<br />4/5/2010<br />28<br />
  49. 49. Coll.Desc. - elements<br />General: title, identifier, description, strength, physical characteristics, language, type, access control, accrual status, legal status, custodial history, note, location<br />Subject: concept, object, name, place, time<br />Dates: accumulation, contents<br />Agents: creator, owner<br />Relationships: sub/super collections, catalogues and descriptions, associated collections and publications<br />4/5/2010<br />29<br />
  50. 50. Coll. Desc. - record<br />Title: Pitman Collection<br />Strength: Shorthand – national collection<br />Phys. Desc: Printed texts and manuscripts<br />Lang: English, Spanish, Esperanto, ……<br />Access: Written request to the Librarian, Bath Univ.<br />Accrual: passive, deposit <br />Location: The Library, Bath University, Bath<br />Subject: Shorthand, Sir Isaac Pitman<br />Owner: Pitman Publishing Co.<br />Catalogue: Bath University OPAC<br />4/5/2010<br />30<br />
  51. 51. M21 Community Information<br />Same principles as MARC Bibliographic<br />Leader <br />individual/organization/program/event/other<br />Fixed fields<br />001-008, 010-099 fixed fields<br />007 disability facilities<br />008 special aspects<br />Variable fields<br />4/5/2010<br />31<br />
  52. 52. M21 Comm. Inf. - elements<br />1XX Name <br />2XX Title and Address<br />3XX Physical description<br />4XX Series (for events)<br />5XX Notes<br />6XX Subject access<br />7XX Added entries8XX Other variable fields<br />4/5/2010<br />32<br />
  53. 53. M21 Comm. Inf. - record<br />110 $a CILIP<br />245 $a CILIP HQ<br />247 $a LA HQ $f 19?? - 2002<br />270 $a 7 Ridgmount St, London, WC1E 7AE <br />$k 020 7255 0505 $m<br />$r 9am to 6pm<br />311 $a Ewart Room $d seats 50 $g £100 per day<br />312 $a Overhead projector $f £10 per day<br />581 $a Library + Information Update<br />856 $a<br />4/5/2010<br />33<br />
  54. 54. Metadata – fit for purpose<br /><ul><li> MARC Bibliographic
  55. 55. ONIX
  56. 56. Dublin Core
  57. 57. EAD
  58. 58. Collection description
  59. 59. M21 Community Information</li></ul>4/5/2010<br />34<br />
  60. 60. How does one create metadata?<br />DC-dot - This service will retrieve a Web page and automatically generate Dublin Core metadata, either as HTML tags or as RDF/XML, suitable for embedding in the section of the page. <br />DCmeta - Developed by Tasmania Online. It is based on SuperNoteTab text-editor and can be customised. <br />HotMeta - A package of software, including metadata editor, repository and search engine. <br />4/5/2010<br />35<br />
  61. 61. ANY QUESTIONS<br />THANK YOU<br />4/5/2010<br />36<br />