Chapter 2 Mineral Identification
Mineral Identification Tests <ul><li>color </li></ul><ul><li>luster </li></ul><ul><li>streak </li></ul><ul><li>cleavage </...
Mineral Identification Tests <ul><li>fracture </li></ul><ul><li>hardness </li></ul><ul><li>specific gravity or heft </li><...
Color <ul><li>minerals can be found in various levels of purity so they may not always look the same. </li></ul><ul><li>ex...
Color <ul><li>Several minerals can have the same color </li></ul><ul><li>Impurities can change the color of a mineral </li...
Color <ul><li>Air causes minerals to change color. silver turns black and copper changes to green </li></ul>
Luster - how it shines <ul><li>metallic - shines like a metal </li></ul><ul><li>must be a metal </li></ul><ul><li>non - me...
Streak - true color <ul><li>done by marking mineral on porcelain plate </li></ul><ul><li>mark left is true color of minera...
Cleavage - breakage planes <ul><li>minerals that tend to break apart easily along a flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>mica - ...
Fracture <ul><li>minerals that break irregularly </li></ul><ul><li>conchoidal - inside of a shell - obsidian </li></ul><ul...
Scales of Hardness <ul><li>Mohs scale   </li></ul><ul><li>1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>1 - talc very soft </li></ul><ul><li>10 -...
Specific Gravity or Heft <ul><li>a comparison of a mineral that is weighted both in water and in the air </li></ul><ul><li...
Acid test <ul><li>Some minerals will fizzzzzzz when HCl is placed on it. </li></ul><ul><li>calcite - limestone - marble wi...
Special Properties <ul><li>Florescence - some minerals will glow when placed under ultra - violet light </li></ul><ul><li>...
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Ch2 Minerals Id

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Ch2 Minerals Id

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Mineral Identification
  2. 2. Mineral Identification Tests <ul><li>color </li></ul><ul><li>luster </li></ul><ul><li>streak </li></ul><ul><li>cleavage </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mineral Identification Tests <ul><li>fracture </li></ul><ul><li>hardness </li></ul><ul><li>specific gravity or heft </li></ul><ul><li>acid test </li></ul>
  4. 4. Color <ul><li>minerals can be found in various levels of purity so they may not always look the same. </li></ul><ul><li>ex: cinnabar, an ore of Mercury is red </li></ul><ul><li>malachite, an ore of Copper is green </li></ul><ul><li>What are the drawbacks of using color in identification? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Color <ul><li>Several minerals can have the same color </li></ul><ul><li>Impurities can change the color of a mineral </li></ul><ul><li>ex: iron causes quartz to turn from colorless to purple. </li></ul><ul><li>titanium causes quartz to turn pink </li></ul>
  6. 6. Color <ul><li>Air causes minerals to change color. silver turns black and copper changes to green </li></ul>
  7. 7. Luster - how it shines <ul><li>metallic - shines like a metal </li></ul><ul><li>must be a metal </li></ul><ul><li>non - metallic - different kinds of shine because it is not metallic </li></ul><ul><li>vitreous - glass </li></ul><ul><li>adamantine - like a diamond </li></ul><ul><li>pearly - soapy - waxy </li></ul>
  8. 8. Streak - true color <ul><li>done by marking mineral on porcelain plate </li></ul><ul><li>mark left is true color of mineral </li></ul><ul><li>some minerals will have a white streak , while other will have no streak </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cleavage - breakage planes <ul><li>minerals that tend to break apart easily along a flat surface </li></ul><ul><li>mica - thin flat sheets </li></ul><ul><li>graphite - flat surfaces in hexagons </li></ul><ul><li>halite - cubes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fracture <ul><li>minerals that break irregularly </li></ul><ul><li>conchoidal - inside of a shell - obsidian </li></ul><ul><li>fibrous - jagged edges - copper </li></ul><ul><li>splintery </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scales of Hardness <ul><li>Mohs scale </li></ul><ul><li>1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>1 - talc very soft </li></ul><ul><li>10 - diamond </li></ul><ul><li>Field scale - 1-10 </li></ul><ul><li>finger nail = 2 or less </li></ul><ul><li>copper penny = 3 </li></ul><ul><li>steel knife = 4 or 5 </li></ul><ul><li>scratch glass = 6 to 7 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Specific Gravity or Heft <ul><li>a comparison of a mineral that is weighted both in water and in the air </li></ul><ul><li>this is a ratio </li></ul><ul><li>it gives an idea of the number of atoms or molecules in a given space or size </li></ul>
  13. 13. Acid test <ul><li>Some minerals will fizzzzzzz when HCl is placed on it. </li></ul><ul><li>calcite - limestone - marble will </li></ul><ul><li>they are made of Ca CO 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>the fizz is CO 2 gas being released </li></ul>
  14. 14. Special Properties <ul><li>Florescence - some minerals will glow when placed under ultra - violet light </li></ul><ul><li>taste - halite tastes salty </li></ul><ul><li>radioactivity - some minerals give off energy of their own </li></ul><ul><li>double refraction - seeing double - calcite </li></ul>

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