Ch2 Minerals


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Ch2 Minerals

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Minerals
  2. 2. What is Matter <ul><li>Matter is anything that has mass and volume . </li></ul><ul><li>OR: you could say </li></ul><ul><li>anything that has weight and takes up space . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Matter <ul><li>Mass: </li></ul><ul><li>is the amount of material is a substance or object. </li></ul><ul><li>Volume: </li></ul><ul><li>is the amount of space taken up by a substance or object. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Matter <ul><li>Weight: is the force of gravity on an object or substance. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Elements and Atoms <ul><li>Elements are: </li></ul><ul><li>substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: nitrogen, gold, iron, and etc. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Each Element has a <ul><li>Symbol </li></ul><ul><li>each symbol is based on the Greek or Latin alphabet. WHY? </li></ul><ul><li>EX: gold - Au, oxygen - O, helium - He, Potassium - K, hydrogen - H </li></ul>
  7. 7. John Dalton <ul><li>Atomic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that each element was made of tiny particles called atoms . </li></ul>
  8. 8. Atoms are made of: <ul><li>protons </li></ul><ul><li>neutrons </li></ul><ul><li>electrons </li></ul><ul><li>+ </li></ul><ul><li>0 or no charge </li></ul><ul><li>- </li></ul>
  9. 9. Parts of an Atom <ul><li>Each electron is in an orbital or shell . Each orbital can contain only a certain number of electrons. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>nucleus </li></ul>Orbital or shell
  11. 11. Parts of an Atom <ul><li>99.9% of an atom is the nucleus </li></ul>
  12. 12. Most atoms <ul><li>tend to have a neutral charge. This usually means that they have the same number of protons and electrons </li></ul><ul><li>(6) protons - (6) electrons = </li></ul><ul><li>neutral charge </li></ul>
  13. 13. Atomic Number <ul><li>the number of protons in an atom </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mass Number <ul><li>Gives the average number of protons and neutrons in an atom. </li></ul><ul><li>Atomic # - mass # = # of neutrons </li></ul>
  15. 15. Isotopes <ul><li>are atoms of the same chemical element that have different mass numbers ( different number of neutrons). </li></ul>
  16. 17. Compound <ul><li>2 or more elements chemically combined. </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest part of a compound is a molecule </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 0 is the formula for 1 molecule of water. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Compounds <ul><li>H 2 SO 4 is the formula for 1 molecule of sulfuric acid. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>HCl </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul>
  18. 19. What is a Mineral? <ul><li>1. Occur naturally </li></ul><ul><li>2. Is a solid </li></ul><ul><li>3. Has a definite chemical composition </li></ul><ul><li>4. Has its atoms arranged in an orderly pattern </li></ul><ul><li>5. Is inorganic </li></ul>
  19. 20. Minerals <ul><li>May be elements or compounds </li></ul>
  20. 21. Most common elements in the crust are……... <ul><li>1. Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>2. Silicon </li></ul><ul><li>3. Aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>4. Iron </li></ul><ul><li>5. Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sodium </li></ul>
  21. 22. Bonding <ul><li>Most minerals are composed of 2 or more elements or bonded together. </li></ul><ul><li>Ion - is a charged atom. </li></ul><ul><li>1 more electron then total of protons gives a negative charge to the atom. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Types of Bonding <ul><li>Ionic bonding - forms when electrons are gained or lost </li></ul><ul><li>metals - make good positive ions ( loose electrons) </li></ul><ul><li>non-metals - make good negative ions (gain electrons) </li></ul>
  23. 25. Types of Bonding <ul><li>Covalent bonding - forms when electrons are shared </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen and silicon share electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic bonding – forms when electrons are shared by metal ions </li></ul>
  24. 27. Noble Gases <ul><li>These gases do not share electrons readily. Therefore they generally do not form bonds. </li></ul>
  25. 28. How minerals form <ul><li>1. Volcanism - magma heating and cooling. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Precipitation - when water evaporates some of the dissolved substances in the water crystallize. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Pressure and Temperature – form when existing minerals are subjected to changes in pressure and temperature. The atoms rearrange. </li></ul>
  26. 29. 4. Hydrothermal Solutions – Chemical reactions take place when warm hydrothermal solutions come in contact with existing minerals. Also, when these solutions cool they can crystallize into new minerals.
  27. 30. Mineral Groups <ul><li>These groups are classified in groups according to their composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Silicates – Silicon and oxygen form a silicon-oxygen tetrahedron. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of all the minerals in the crust are: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>silicates </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Carbonates – are minerals that contain the elements carbon, oxygen, and one other metallic element. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxides – are minerals that contain oxygen and one or more other elements, which are usually metals. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>Sulfates and Sulfides – minerals that contain the element sulfur. </li></ul><ul><li>Halides – minerals that contain a halogen ion plus one or more other elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Native Elements – a group of minerals that exist in relatively pure form. Gold, silver, copper, sulfur, graphite </li></ul>
  30. 33. Crystals <ul><li>Crystals are solids with a regular geometric shape. Each side is called a face . </li></ul><ul><li>Crystal size depends on how slowly or quickly they form. Slower cooling produces larger crystals. </li></ul>
  31. 34. Crystals <ul><li>The crystalline structure of a mineral is dependent upon the bonding of the various atoms and ions. </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds determine crystal shape or better the molecular shape. </li></ul>
  32. 35. Crystalline Shapes CUBIC ORTHORHOMBIC
  33. 36. Cubic
  34. 37. Halite
  35. 38. Graphite vs. Diamond
  36. 39. Graphite
  37. 40. Crustal Minerals <ul><li>90% of all the minerals in the crust are: </li></ul><ul><li>silicates </li></ul><ul><li>These form silica tetrahedron </li></ul>