Mineral Identification Lab

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  • Emerald, ruby, amethyst, watermelon tourmaline
  • Mineral Identification Lab

    1. 1. Warm Up – Page 26 <ul><li>What are the 5 characteristics of a mineral? </li></ul><ul><li>Copy down today’s EQ and date on page 27. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn in your syllabus (only the bottom portion) </li></ul><ul><li>Have your notebook open to your vocab homework </li></ul>
    2. 2. How do we identify minerals? Mineral Identification Lab
    3. 3. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Hardness – a mineral can scratch any mineral softer than itself but will be scratched by a mineral harder than itself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mohs Hardness Scale – ranks minerals from softest to hardest on a scale of one to ten. Talc is the softest known mineral, and diamond is the hardest known mineral. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Hardness
    5. 5. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Color – some minerals are always the same color (sulfur is always yellow, malachite is always green and azurite is always blue ); most minerals come in a variety of colors </li></ul>
    6. 6. Color http://www.minresco.com http://www.gems-afghan.com http://www.globalcrystals.com http://www.prettyrock.com
    7. 7. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Streak – the color of a mineral’s powder; the color of a mineral’s streak does not change like the color of the mineral may </li></ul>
    8. 8. Streak test http://www.uky.edu/KGS Streak is the color of a mineral powder. Many minerals appear a different color when powdered than they do as a big piece. The color may be entirely different, or it may be a different shade. http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu http://cmsc.minotstateu.edu
    9. 9. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Luster – how a mineral reflects light from its surface ; some ways to describe luster are shiny, earthy, metallic, waxy, and pearly </li></ul>
    10. 10. What is luster? Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch How do these look different? Courtesy United States Geological Survey Courtesy United States Geological Survey Each reflects light differently – that is luster! Which of these words would you use to describe these minerals? Glassy, metallic, dull, silky, waxy, pearly
    11. 11. Luster Waxy luster Glassy luster dull luster metallic luster metallic luster Glassy luster
    12. 12. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Density – all minerals have a characteristic density; no matter the size of the sample, its density will remain the same </li></ul>
    13. 13. Density How tightly packed the atoms are will make something heavy. Every mineral has its own density. These two items may have the same size – but do not weigh the same. Why?? Because the brick has atoms that are more tightly packed together than the styrofoam.
    14. 14. Minerals also have different densities. This means for equal size, they have their own special weight. http://www.palagems.com Which one is worth more? How could you tell? The first one is topaz (worth a lot) and the second is citrine quartz (not worth a lot). A scientist would measure their densities and they would be different!
    15. 15. Minerals also have different cystal patterns Copyright © Dr. Richard Busch http://www.wired-artist-jewelry.com http://webphysics.davidson.edu http://www.fabreminerals.com http://www.fabreminerals.com Crystal video clip
    16. 16. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Crystal System – the crystal structures are divided into six groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cubic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hexagonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tetragonal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orthorhombic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monoclinic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triclinic </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Another property is the way a mineral breaks. Cleavage means it breaks the same way every time. Fracture means it breaks in a random pattern that cannot be predicted. www.mrsciguy.com Calcite and halite break a special way. donsmaps.com www.visionlearning.com Quartz and chert break in a random pattern. There is not way to predict how they break.
    18. 18. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Cleavage and fracture – the way a mineral breaks apart helps us identify it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cleavage – splits apart along flat surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fracture – breaks apart in an irregular way </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Minerals are identified by their <ul><li>Special Properties – some minerals are identified by their special properties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorescence – minerals that glow under ultraviolet light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Magnetism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemically Reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical Properties </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Special Properties Magnetism Radioactivity Chemical Reaction Fluorescence Salty Taste But NEVER taste things in the lab! Double Image
    21. 21. Warm Up – Page 26 <ul><li>What are the 8 ways we can identify minerals? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Is Your Sample . . .? Metallic Non-Metallic
    23. 23. Streak Red/Red Brown Green/Brownish/Black Black
    24. 24. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Hematite – 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Hematite is a compound – Fe 2 O 3 (iron and oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    25. 25. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Pyrite – 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrite is a compound – FeS 2 (iron and sulfur) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    26. 26. Hardness 6+ Penny (1-2)
    27. 27. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Magnetite – 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetite is a compound – Fe +2 Fe 2 +3 O 4 (iron and oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    28. 28. Luster Bright Metallic Dull Metallic
    29. 29. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Galena (7) </li></ul><ul><li>Galena is a compound – PbS (lead and sulfur) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    30. 30. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Graphite – 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Graphite is an element – C (carbon) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    31. 31. Color <ul><li>Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Other </li></ul>
    32. 32. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Sulfur – 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur is an element - S </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    33. 33. Hardness <ul><li>Fingernail </li></ul><ul><li>Penny </li></ul><ul><li>6+ </li></ul>
    34. 34. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Calcite – 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Calcite is a compound – CaCO 3 (calcium, carbon, and oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    35. 35. Luster <ul><li>Glassy </li></ul><ul><li>Pearly </li></ul>
    36. 36. Color <ul><li>Colorless/White </li></ul><ul><li>Brownish </li></ul>
    37. 37. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Halite – 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Halite is a compound – NaCl (Sodium and Chloride – salt) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    38. 38. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Muscavite Mica – 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Muscavite Mica is a compound – KAl 2 (Si 3 AlO 10 )(OH,F) 2 (Potassium, Aluminum, Silicon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, and Fluorine) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    39. 39. Color <ul><li>Pale Green/Gray/White </li></ul><ul><li>Colorless/White </li></ul>
    40. 40. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Talc – 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Talc is a compound – Mg 9 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 4 (magnesium, silicon, oxygen, hydrogen) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    41. 41. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Gypsum – 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Gypsum is a compound – CaSO 4 *2H 2 O (Calcium, Sulfur, Oxygen, Hydride) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    42. 42. Luster <ul><li>Glassy </li></ul><ul><li>Pearly </li></ul>
    43. 43. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Microcline Feldspar </li></ul><ul><li>Microcline Feldspar is a compound – KAlSi 3 O 8 (Potassium, Aluminum, Silicon, and Oxygen) </li></ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul>
    44. 44. Your Sample Is <ul><li>Quartz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color – Clear/colorless – Rock Quartz – 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Color – Pink – Rose Quartz – 6 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quartz is a compound – SiO 2 (Silicon and Oxygen) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start Over </li></ul></ul>
    45. 45. Conclusion – Page 26 Out activity <ul><li>What was the easiest mineral property to identify? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the hardest mineral property to identify? </li></ul><ul><li>What did you learn from this lab? </li></ul><ul><li>Write a haiku about minerals. A haiku is a three line poem with 7 syllables in the first line, 5 in the second, and 7 in the third. It does not rhyme. </li></ul>

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